Washington State Department of Corrections
WA - DOC.png
Washington State Department of Corrections (logo).svg
Badge patch of the Washington State Department of Corrections
Badge patch of the Washington State Department of Corrections
MottoWorking together for safe communities.
Agency overview
FormedJuly 1, 1981
Preceding agency
Employees8,300 (2016)[1]
Annual budget$1.8 billion USD (2009)
Jurisdictional structure
Operations jurisdictionWashington, United States
Map of USA WA.svg
Map of Washington State Department of Corrections's jurisdiction
Size71,300 square miles (185,000 km2)
Population6,724,540 (2010 est.)
General nature
Operational structure
HeadquartersTumwater, Washington
Agency executive
  • Cheryl Strange, Secretary of Corrections[2]
Work releases16[3]
Washington State Department of Corrections website

The Washington State Department of Corrections (WADOC) is a department of the government of the state of Washington. WADOC is responsible for administering adult corrections programs operated by the State of Washington. This includes state correctional institutions and programs for people supervised in the community.[4] Its headquarters are in Tumwater, Washington.[5]


The modern Washington Department of Corrections is a relatively young state agency. Agency oversight of correctional institutions in Washington State went through several transitions during the 20th century before the WADOC's creation in 1981.

Prior to the 1970s, state correctional facilities were managed by the Washington Department of Institutions.[6] Governor Daniel J. Evans consolidated the Department of Institutions, Department of Public Assistance & Vocational Rehabilitation, and other related departments into the Washington State Department of Social and Health Services (DSHS) in the 1970s.[7][8]

On July 1, 1981, the Washington State Legislature transferred the administration of adult correctional institutions from the Washington State Department of Social and Health Services, Division of Adult Corrections (DSHS) to the newly created Washington State Department of Corrections as part of the 1981 Corrections Reform Act.[9]

Organizational structure

The Washington Department of Corrections organizational structure includes five major divisions:

Each division has an Assistant Secretary who oversees the division's operations.[4]

The Secretary of Corrections is the executive head of the Department. The Secretary is appointed by the Governor with the consent of the state Senate.[4]

Department facilities


See also: List of Washington state prisons

The Department currently operates 12 adult prisons, of which 10 are male institutions and two are female institutions.[10] The Department confines over 16,000 people in these facilities, with each varying in size and mission across the state.[11]

Work releases

See also: List of Washington state work releases

The Department currently has 16 work release facilities. All but two of these facilities are operated by contractors, who manage the daily safety and security and have oversight of the facilities full-time (24 hours a day, 7 days per week). Department staff are located on site to assist in supervision, monitoring, and case management of those under supervision, as well as monitoring of the contracts.[12]

Formerly incarcerated people housed in work release facilities have progressed from full confinement to partial confinement, and are required to seek, secure, and maintain employment in the community, as well as pay for their room and board. This model is designed to provide some foundation for employment and housing when the formerly incarcerated are released to communities.[8] However, a 2015 Washington Supreme Court Minority and Justice Commission symposium revealed that reentry resources for formerly incarcerated people in Washington State are still severely underfunded and disconnected.[13]

Field offices

Community Supervision occurs at varied locations in the community to include: field offices, community justice centers, Community Oriented Policing (COP) Shops and outstations. Activities of supervised people in the community are monitored, which includes home visits, by a Community Corrections Officer to ensure compliance with court, or known as the Indeterminate Sentence Review Board, which was the Washington State Board of Prison Terms and Paroles (ISRB), only those individuals who have been deemed rehabilitated by the ISRB are placed on Parole and Department conditions of supervision, such as Community Supervision and/or Community Custody.[8]

Death row

See also: Capital punishment in Washington

In 2014, Governor Jay Inslee announced a moratorium on carrying out the death penalty in Washington State.[14] According to Inslee, "Equal justice under the law is the state's primary responsibility. And in death penalty cases, I'm not convinced equal justice is being served. The use of the death penalty in this state is unequally applied, sometimes dependent on the budget of the county where the crime occurred."[14] The moratorium means that if a death penalty case comes to the governor's desk for action, he will issue a reprieve.[14] However, this action does not commute the sentences of those on death row or issue any pardons.[14] The majority of Washington's death penalty sentences are overturned and those convicted of capital offenses are rarely executed, indicating questionable sentencing in many cases.[14] Since 1981, the year Washington State's current capital laws were put in place, 32 defendants have been sentenced to die. Of those, 18 have had their sentences converted to life in prison and one was set free.[14]

Prior to Inslee's moratorium, Washington's capital punishment law required that capital punishment imposed by the state's courts be carried out at the Washington State Penitentiary in Walla Walla. Procedures for conducting executions are supervised by the Penitentiary Superintendent.[15] Washington utilizes two methods of execution: lethal injection and hanging. Lethal injection is used unless the inmate under sentence of death chooses hanging as the preferred execution method.[15]

Within 10 days of a trial court entering a judgment and sentence imposing the death penalty, male defendants under sentence of death are transferred to the Penitentiary, where they remain in a segregation unit [Intensive Management Unit North (IMU-N) at the prison] pending appeals and until a death warrant is issued setting the date for the execution. Female defendants under sentence of death are housed at the Washington Corrections Center for Women in Gig Harbor before being transferred to the Penitentiary no later than 72 hours prior to a scheduled execution, also housed in IMU North, although the execution chamber is located in Unit 6.[15]

78 persons have been executed in Washington since 1904, the most recent being Cal Coburn Brown, in 2010.[16][15]

Correctional Industries

The Washington Department of Corrections revenue-generating, industry job training, and factory food production branch is Washington State Correctional Industries.[17] It is a member of the National Correctional Industries Association.[18]

Correctional Industries began centralizing food production at the Airway Heights Correctional Center in 1995.[19] In the years since, freshly cooked food for incarcerated people in Washington prisons has gradually and in large part been replaced by factory processed, prepackaged food.

Private contracts

Private prisons

On May 21, 2015, The GEO Group announced the signing of a contract with the Washington Department of Corrections for the out-of-state housing of up to 1,000 prisoners at the company-owned North Lake Correctional Facility in Baldwin, Michigan, with a contract term of five years inclusive of renewal option periods.[20]

Food vendors

Under the Washington state Food Umbrella Contract, WA DOC's Correctional Industries procures products from Food Services of America, Liberty Distributing, Medosweet Farms, Spokane Produce, Terry Dairy's, Triple "B" Corporations, and Unisource.[21] WA DOC also contracts with Evergreen Vending, Coca-Cola, and other private food vendors for its facility vending machines.


WA DOC contracts with JPay, a private company that charges the incarcerated and their families for electronic mail, photo-sharing, money transfer, and video visiting services.[22] Phone services for the incarcerated and their families are through WA DOC's contract with Global Tel Link.[23]

Secretary of Corrections

The Secretary of Corrections in Washington State is a cabinet level position appointed by the state governor. This position differs from the historical Director of the Washington Department of Institutions in its educational requirements. In the 1950s and 1960s, Washington law mandated that Directors of the Department of Institutions were required to hold graduate degrees.[6] The modern Washington Department of Corrections has no such requirements for its Secretary of Corrections.

Amos Reed

Amos Reed, appointed by Governor John Spellman, served as the first Washington State Secretary of Corrections from 1981 to 1986.[24]

Prior to his position as Secretary, Reed served as an administrator in the Oregon Department of Corrections from 1969 to 1975.[25]

Chase Riveland

Chase Riveland was appointed Secretary of Corrections by Governor Booth Gardner in 1986.[26] He retired in 1997.[26] Riveland drew criticism from Republican lawmakers who felt he was not harsh enough on incarcerated people.[26] However, his cautions against politically-driven policies have proven prescient in the mass incarceration decades that followed his time as secretary.[27] By 2008, the number of people incarcerated in Washington had more than tripled since the time Riveland first came to WADOC.[27]

Joseph D. Lehman

Joe Lehman was a graduate of St. Martin's College and Pacific Lutheran University. He spent 21 years as a probation and parole officer and deputy secretary in Washington's prison system. Lehman was appointed Secretary of Corrections by Governor Gary Locke in 1997, and served until 2005.[26] Prior to serving as WADOC Secretary, Lehman oversaw Pennsylvania's largest prison expansion in state history and then worked for the Maine correctional system.[26] In 1994, Lehman won the Association of State Correctional Administrators Francke Award.[28] Lehman's starting salary as WADOC Secretary was $93,659[26] He oversaw WADOC at a time when the Department had a budget of $765 million, with 12,825 incarcerated people and 6,300 employees][26]

Harold Clarke

Harold Clarke, appointed by Governor Christine Gregoire, served as Secretary of Corrections from 2005 until his resignation in late 2007.[29][30] Prior to his appointment, he directed the Nebraska Department of Corrections, where he had climbed through the ranks for over twenty years. He resigned as WADOC Secretary amid controversy over probation supervision to take a position as commissioner of the Massachusetts Department of Corrections.[29]

Eldon Vail

Eldon Vail returned from retirement after 31 years with WADOC to serve as Acting Secretary of Corrections until his formal appointment as Secretary by Governor Christine Gregoire in 2008.[30] Vail resigned amid controversy over an affair with a subordinate in 2011.[31]

Bernard Warner

Bernard Warner was appointed by Governor Christine Gregoire as Secretary of Corrections in 2011.[32] Warner resigned in 2015 to take a position at a private Salt Lake City corrections industry.[33]

Dan Pacholke

Governor Jay Inslee appointed Dan Pacholke Secretary of Corrections in 2015.[34] Pacholke began his career in WADOC in 1982 as a correctional officer at McNeil Island Corrections Center.[34] He worked his way through the ranks until he was appointed secretary. Pacholke resigned after a short tenure amid controversy over a WADOC computer glitch that caused the somewhat early release of approximately 3,000 incarcerated people over more than a decade.[35][36] Some formerly incarcerated people who had established new lives upon early release were reincarcerated in response to public and political outcry over the early releases.[36] The early release scandal became an expression of more complex political relationships in anticipation of the 2016 Washington State election season. In a resignation email to Senator Mike Padden—one of the most conservative members of the Washington State Senate's Law and Justice Committee—Pacholke wrote, "I notify you now of my resignation. I hope it helps meet your need for blood. I hope it gives you fodder for the press and fulfills your political needs so you can let this agency, our agency, heal."[37] Former Secretary of Corrections Bernie Warner told the media he did not know about the computer glitch until notified by Governor Jay Inslee's general counsel.[38] However, Pacholke told the media that Warner's assistant secretary knew of the mistaken early release of prisoners as early as 2012.[38] At least two people were killed in homicides linked to prisoners who had mistakenly been released early,[39] and families of the deceased in each of those cases went on to file wrongful death lawsuits against the agency.[40][41] One of those lawsuits resulted in a $3.25 million settlement paid out by the DOC.[42]

Since leaving WADOC, Pacholke has become the co-director at Segregation Solutions.[43] He co-authored a report with Sandy Felkey Mullins on segregation practices for the U.S. Department of Justice Bureau of Justice Assistance titled "More Than Emptying Beds: A Systems Approach to Segregation Reform".[44]

Richard Morgan

Richard "Dick" Morgan returned from retirement after more than three decades of employment with WA DOC to be appointed by Governor Jay Inslee as acting secretary, effective March 14, 2016.[45] He served in the role of secretary until January 12, 2017. Morgan had previously served as a member of the Indeterminate Sentence Review Board and of the Washington Coalition to Abolish the Death Penalty.[45]

Jody Becker-Green

Former Washington State Department of Social and Health Services employee Jody Becker-Green was appointed by Governor Jay Inslee as acting secretary from January 10, 2017 to April 25, 2017, becoming the first woman to serve in this role.[46]

Stephen Sinclair

Stephen Sinclair was appointed WA DOC Secretary by Governor Jay Inslee on April 25, 2017.[47] He began his career at the agency as a correctional officer and gained progressively greater responsibilities as investigator, sergeant, associate superintendent, superintendent and assistant secretary.

As superintendent of the Washington State Penitentiary, Sinclair created the Sustainable Practices Lab. In addition to his role as secretary, he was the DOC co-director of the Sustainability in Prisons Project at The Evergreen State College.

Cheryl Strange

On April 29, 2021, Washington State Governor Jay Inslee appointed Cheryl Strange as the Washington DOC's first permanent female secretary.[48] Prior to her appointment, Strange was Secretary of the Washington State Department of Social and Health Services.[48] She had previously served as the CEO of Western State Hospital.[48]


Paramilitary culture

WADOC is a paramilitary organization and values respect for chain of command and seniority. The Department recruits much of its correctional staff from Joint Base Lewis–McChord career fairs.[49]

Labor union

Non-management positions in the Washington Department of Corrections are negotiated by the Teamsters Local 117 labor union.[50]

Honor guard

WADOC Honor Guard protocols are governed by WADOC Policy 870.440.[51] Individual WADOC correctional facilities are not required to maintain an Honor Guard.[51] As of 2013, only five of WADOC's 12 facilities maintained an active Honor Guard.[51] Facility superintendents and Chiefs of Emergency Operation are responsible for selecting Honor Guard members and approving Honor Guard participation in local events.[51]

Line of duty deaths

According to the Officer Down Memorial Page Web site, since the inception of what is currently the Washington State Department of Corrections, six employees have been killed in the line of duty.[52]

The most well-known line of duty death in recent WADOC history was that of Jayme Biendl in 2011.[53] This incident has been called "the Washington Department of Corrections 9-11", as it resulted in dramatic changes to WADOC security protocols and programs for incarcerated people. An annual Behind the Badge memorial run is held in honor of Biendl's service.[54]

Key issues

In 2012, WADOC correctional officers advocated for improved uniforms in keeping with the standards of uniforms of other Washington law enforcement agencies.[55] Prior to 2012, correctional officer uniforms were made by incarcerated people in industry job positions.[55] This provided 100 jobs for incarcerated people, as well as eight supervisory correctional officer positions.[55] Officer Carl Beatty was a public spokesman for a shift to professional uniforms made by outside manufacturers with significant savings to the State of Washington in cost, with the result that House Bill 2346 passed during the 2012 Washington State Regular Legislative Session.[56] This bill removed the requirement that correctional officer uniforms come from Correctional Industries.[56] WA DOC Policy 870.400 lists detailed requirements for staff uniforms.[57]


In 2007, the Washington Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) spearheaded legislative efforts to create an independent ombudsman position that would provide an alternative avenue of mediation between WADOC, WADOC staff, incarcerated people, and family members of the incarcerated.[58] The resulting bill, SB 5295—sponsored by state Senators Jim Kastama, Dan Swecker, Karen Fraser, Jeanne Kohl-Welles, Chris Marr, Debbie Regala, Marilyn Rasmussen, and Rosemary McAuliffe[58]—was not successful. In the years since, many other community groups have added their support for these legislative efforts. Annual attempts to pass an independent ombudsman bill began in 2013 with SB 5177, sponsored by Senators Mike Carrell and Steve Conway.[59] In 2014, Senators Conway, Jeannie Darneille, Steve O'Ban, Jeanne Kohl-Welles, and Annette Cleveland sponsored SB 6399.[60] In 2015, Senators Jeannie Darneille, Rosemary McAuliffe, Jeanne Kohl-Welles, Steve O'Ban, Maralyn Chase, Bob Hasegawa, Karen Keiser, Kirk Pearson, Steve Conway, and David Frockt sponsored SB 5505, with Representatives Luis Moscoso, Roger Goodman, Eric Pettigrew, Sherry Appleton, Tina Orwall, Timm Ormsby, and Laurie Jinkins sponsoring companion bill HB 2005.[61][62]

In the 2016 legislative session, Senators Mark Miloscia, Christine Rolfes, Kirk Pearson, Steve O'Ban, Steve Conway, and Rosemary McAuliffe sponsored unsuccessful SB 6154, with Representatives Luis Moscoso, Eric Pettigrew, Sherry Appleton, Tina Orwall, David Sawyer, Cindy Ryu, Derek Stanford, Gerry Pollet, Teri Hickel, Steve Bergquist, and Sharon Tomiko Santos sponsoring companion HB 2817.[63][64]

In the 2017-2018 legislative session an ombudsman bill, HB 1889, passed both chambers of the legislature.[65]

WADOC opposed these legislative efforts. In 2016, WADOC created its own internal ombudsman position. Carlos Lugo, who had previously worked on a special WADOC project concerning visitation access for Latino incarcerated people, was hired as the first WADOC ombudsman.[66]


The WADOC Intelligence and Investigations Unit asked the FBI to become involved in the investigation of employee contraband smuggling at WADOC's Monroe Correctional Complex smuggling in December 2015.[67] A correctional officer was arrested on September 29, 2016.[67] FBI agents determined the officer was accepting bribes of up to $1,000 to smuggle contraband into the prison.[67]

In August 2016 a 23-year-old incarcerated man at Monroe Correctional Complex died from a drug overdose, causing renewed concerns statewide about contraband entering WADOC prisons.[68]

Sustainability in Prisons Project

At Cedar Creek Corrections Center in 2003, the Washington State Department of Corrections and The Evergreen State College founded the Sustainability in Prisons Project (SPP).[69] Dan Pacholke was Cedar Creek Correctional Center's superintendent at the time, and started composting and water catchment programs to save money and create meaningful work for the men incarcerated at the minimum security facility.[69] Dr. Nalini Nadkarni, a member of the faculty at Evergreen, asked for incarcerated people to join her in a study to grow native mosses, and Cedar Creek welcomed her proposal.[69] From here, the partnership between Evergreen and WADOC strengthened and expanded. In the decade plus since, SPP has expanded to several other WADOC prisons. Incarcerated people raise endangered species and carry out impressive composting operations using recycled construction materials.[69]

Timeline of key events

See also


  1. ^ "Acitizen's guide to the Washington State budget February 9, 2017." Retrieved on February 9, 2017.
  2. ^ "Inslee names Cheryl Strange new Department of Corrections secretary" Retrieved on June 12, 2021.
  3. ^ a b "DOC Fact Card December 31, 2016." Retrieved on February 9, 2017.
  4. ^ a b c "About DOC." Washington State Department of Corrections. Retrieved on March 3, 2011.
  5. ^ "Contact Us." Washington State Department of Corrections. Retrieved on September 25, 2012. "Physical Address: 7345 Linderson Way SW Tumwater, WA 98501-6504"
  6. ^ a b "Conte, William R. Is Prison Reform Possible?: The Washington State Experience in the Sixties. Unique Press, 1990."
  7. ^ "The Arc: WA State" Retrieved on September 25, 2016.
  8. ^ a b c "Agency - WA State Department of Corrections".
  9. ^ "Corrections Reform Act of 1981 c 136 § 3., RCW 72.09.030" Retrieved on September 25, 2016.
  10. ^ "Prisons - Locations." Washington State Department of Corrections. Retrieved on March 3, 2011.
  11. ^ "Learn More About Prisons." Washington State Department of Corrections. Retrieved on March 3, 2011.
  12. ^ "Work Release - Locations." Washington State Department of Corrections. Retrieved on March 3, 2011.
  13. ^ "REENTRY: DO WE REALLY CARE ABOUT PEOPLE SUCCEEDING AFTER PRISON? May 28, 2015." Retrieved on September 25, 2016.
  14. ^ a b c d e f "Gov. Jay Inslee announces capital punishment moratorium" Retrieved on September 25, 2016.
  15. ^ a b c d "Capital Punishment in Washington State." Washington State Department of Corrections. Retrieved on December 19, 2016.
  16. ^ "Persons Executed Since 1904 in Washington State" (PDF). Washington State Department of Corrections. Retrieved January 5, 2017.
  17. ^ "Home -- Washington State Correctional Industries". www.washingtonci.com. Retrieved September 19, 2016.
  18. ^ "National Correctional Industries Association". National Correctional Industries Association. Retrieved September 19, 2016.
  19. ^ a b "Washington Prison Food Factory Cooks Up Controversy." Prison Legal News. Retrieved on September 23, 2016.
  20. ^ "The GEO Group Announces Contract to House Washington Inmates at North Lake Correctional Facility in Michigan". www.businesswire.com. Retrieved April 27, 2017.
  21. ^ "Food Umbrella Contract - State Contracts - Customer Care -- Washington State Correctional Industries". www.washingtonci.com. Retrieved April 27, 2017.
  22. ^ "Washington State Department of Corrections". www.jpay.com. Retrieved April 27, 2017.
  23. ^ "ConnectNetwork Phone Service - Washington State Department of Corrections". www.doc.wa.gov.
  24. ^ Colson, Charles W. Kingdoms in conflict. Zondervan, 1987. Available on Google Books as of September 20, 2016.
  25. ^ "Former Directors" (PDF). Retrieved September 20, 2016.
  26. ^ a b c d e f g "Locke Picks New Prisons Chief." Kitsap Sun 27 Feb. 1997: n. pag. Print.
  27. ^ a b c "Conversation with Chase Riveland, Head of Washington Corrections when the tough-on-crime wave hit. Washblog" Retrieved on September 24, 2016.
  28. ^ "Retrieved September 20, 2106".
  29. ^ a b "Gregoire says prisons chief resigned, wasn't forced out". 3 November 2007. Retrieved September 20, 2016.
  30. ^ a b "Gregoire names new head of prison system - HeraldNet.com". 9 January 2008. Retrieved September 20, 2016.
  31. ^ "Ex-prisons chief Eldon Vail says he resigned because of an affair with subordinate". 5 July 2011. Retrieved September 20, 2016.
  32. ^ "Retrieved September 20, 2016" (PDF).
  33. ^ "State prisons chief leaving for private corrections job". 22 September 2015. Retrieved September 20, 2016.
  34. ^ a b "Veteran prisons chief named state Corrections secretary - HeraldNet.com". 15 October 2015. Retrieved September 20, 2016.
  35. ^ "Early-release probe turns to former Corrections leader - HeraldNet.com". 29 February 2016. Retrieved September 20, 2016.
  36. ^ a b Ryan, John. "Washington State Scrambles To Re-Arrest Prematurely Freed Inmates". Retrieved September 20, 2016.
  37. ^ "Email from Dan Pacholke to Senator Mike Padden 2016". Retrieved September 25, 2016.
  38. ^ a b "Sullivan, Joseph. "Former Corrections boss says he didn’t know of early prisoner releases". Seattle Times. January 15, 2016" Retrieved on September 25, 2016.
  39. ^ "Second homicide tied to Washington inmates released by mistake". Retrieved October 26, 2017.
  40. ^ "Parents of Bellevue woman killed by inmate mistakenly released early are suing state". Retrieved October 26, 2017.
  41. ^ "Mom of son allegedly killed by released inmate to sue state". Retrieved October 26, 2017.
  42. ^ "$3.25 Million Settlement For Family Of Boy Killed By Inmate Released Early". Retrieved October 27, 2017.
  43. ^ "Segregation Solutions" Retrieved on September 25, 2016.
  44. ^ ""More Than Emptying Beds: A Systems Approach to Segregation Reform".." Retrieved on September 24, 2016.
  45. ^ a b "Page Not Found - Washington State Department of Corrections" (PDF). www.doc.wa.gov. Retrieved September 20, 2016. ((cite web)): Cite uses generic title (help)
  46. ^ "PRESS RELEASE: Dr. Jody Becker-Green Named Acting Secretary of Corrections - Washington State Department of Corrections". www.doc.wa.gov. Retrieved April 27, 2017.
  47. ^ "PRESS RELEASE: Governor Inslee Names Stephen Sinclair Secretary of the Department of Corrections - Washington State Department of Corrections". www.doc.wa.gov. Retrieved April 27, 2017.
  48. ^ a b c Inslee names Cheryl Strange new Department of Corrections secretary April 29, 2021. Accessed April 21, 2022.
  49. ^ "2015 Washington State Transition Fair." Retrieved on September 24, 2016.
  50. ^ "Corrections & Law Enforcement". Teamsters 117. Retrieved September 19, 2016.
  51. ^ a b c d "Dress Uniform and Honor Guard.." Retrieved on September 24, 2016.
  52. ^ "Washington State Department of Corrections, WA". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP).
  53. ^ "Jayme Biendl: Prison Guard Strangled At Washington State Prison Chapel". Retrieved September 19, 2016.
  54. ^ "Retrieved September 19, 2016".
  55. ^ a b c ""Corrections officers push lawmakers for better uniforms" Everett Herald. February 13, 2012.." Retrieved on September 24, 2016.
  56. ^ a b "HB 2346." Retrieved on September 24, 2016.
  57. ^ "DOC 870.400." Retrieved on September 24, 2016.
  58. ^ a b "SB 5295. SB 5295." Retrieved on September 24, 2016.
  59. ^ "SB 5177." Retrieved on September 24, 2016.
  60. ^ "SB 6399." Retrieved on September 24, 2016.
  61. ^ "SB 5505." Retrieved on September 24, 2016.
  62. ^ "HB 2005." Retrieved on September 25, 2016.
  63. ^ "SB 6154.." Retrieved on September 24, 2016.
  64. ^ "HB 2817.." Retrieved on September 24, 2016.
  65. ^ "Washington State Legislature". apps2.leg.wa.gov. Retrieved 2018-03-08.
  66. ^ a b "PRESS RELEASE: Corrections Appoints Carlos Lugo as Department Ombuds.." Retrieved on September 24, 2016.
  67. ^ a b c ""Monroe Prison Guard Charged with Extortion and Attempted Drug Trafficking"." Department of Justice. Retrieved on October 2, 2016.
  68. ^ ""Police investigating death of inmate at Monroe prison"." Everett Herald. August 2, 2016. Retrieved on October 2, 2016.
  69. ^ a b c d "Sustainability in Prisons Project History.." Retrieved on September 27, 2016.
  70. ^ "2011 DOC Employees." Retrieved on September 23, 2016.
  71. ^ "SB 5650." Retrieved on September 23, 2016.
  72. ^ ""Not wanting to offend, Washington state scraps 'offender' label for inmates". Seattle Times. Retrieved April 27, 2017.