A user's email inbox at Roundcube

Webmail (or web-based email) is an email service that can be accessed using a standard web browser. It contrasts with email service accessible through a specialised email client software. Additionally, many internet service providers (ISP) provide webmail as part of their internet service package. Similarly, some web hosting providers also provide webmail as a part of their hosting package.

As with any web application, webmail's main advantage over the use of a desktop email client is the ability to send and receive email anywhere from a web browser.


Early implementations

The first Web Mail implementation was developed at CERN in 1993 by Phillip Hallam-Baker[1] as a test of the HTTP protocol stack, but was not developed further. In the next two years, however, several people produced working webmail applications.

In Europe, there were three implementations, Søren Vejrum's "WWW Mail",[2] Luca Manunza's "WebMail",[3][4] and Remy Wetzels' "WebMail".[5] Søren Vejrum's "WWW Mail" was written when he was studying and working at the Copenhagen Business School in Denmark, and was released on February 28, 1995.[6] Luca Manunza's "WebMail" was written while he was working at CRS4 in Sardinia, from an idea of Gianluigi Zanetti, with the first source release on March 30, 1995.[7] Remy Wetzels' "WebMail" was written while he was studying at the Eindhoven University of Technology in the Netherlands for the DSE[8][9] and was released early January 1995.

In the United States, Matt Mankins wrote "Webex",[10][Note 1] and Bill Fitler, while at Lotus cc:Mail, began working on an implementation which he demonstrated publicly at Lotusphere on January 24, 1995.[11][12][13] Matt Mankins, under the supervision of Dr. Burt Rosenberg at the University of Miami,[14] released his "Webex" application source code in a post to comp.mail.misc on August 8, 1995,[10] although it had been in use as the primary email application at the School of Architecture where Mankins worked for some months prior.

Bill Fitler's webmail implementation was further developed as a commercial product, which Lotus announced and released in the fall of 1995 as cc:Mail for the World Wide Web 1.0; thereby providing an alternative means of accessing a cc:Mail message store (the usual means being a cc:Mail desktop application that operated either via dialup or within the confines of a local area network).[15][16][17]

Early commercialization of webmail was also achieved when "Webex" began to be sold by Mankins' company, DotShop, Inc., at the end of 1995. Within DotShop, "Webex" changed its name to "EMUmail"; which would be sold to companies like UPS and Rackspace until its sale to Accurev in 2001.[18] EMUmail was one of the first applications to feature a free version that included embedded advertising, as well as a licensed version that did not.

Hotmail and Four11's RocketMail both launched in 1996 as free services and immediately became very popular.[19]

Widespread deployment

As the 1990s progressed, and into the 2000s, it became more common for the general public to have access to webmail because:

In some cases, webmail application software is developed in-house by the organizations running and managing the application, and in some cases it is obtained from software companies that develop and sell such applications, usually as part of an integrated mail server package (an early example being Netscape Messaging Server[20][21]). The market for webmail application software has continued into the 2010s.

Rendering and compatibility

Email users may find the use of both a webmail client and a desktop client using the POP3 protocol presents some difficulties. For example, email messages that are downloaded by the desktop client and are removed from the server will no longer be available on the webmail client. The user is limited to previewing messages using the web client before they are downloaded by the desktop email client. However, one may choose to leave the emails on the server, in which case this problem does not occur. The use of both a webmail client and a desktop client using the IMAP4 protocol allows the contents of the mailbox to be consistently displayed in both the webmail and desktop clients and any action the user performs on messages in one interface will be reflected when the email is accessed via the other interface. There are significant differences in rendering capabilities for many popular webmail services such as Gmail, Outlook.com and Yahoo! Mail. Due to the varying treatment of HTML tags, such as <style> and <head>, as well as CSS rendering inconsistencies, email marketing companies rely on older web development techniques to send cross-platform mail. This usually means a greater reliance on tables and inline stylesheets.

Microsoft Windows applications by default create email messages via MAPI. Several vendors produce tools to provide a MAPI interface to webmail.[22][23]

Privacy concerns

Main article: Email privacy

Although emails stored unencrypted on any service provider's servers can be read by that service provider, specific concerns have been raised regarding webmail services that automatically analyze the contents of users' emails for the purpose of targeted advertising.[24][25][26] At least two such services, Gmail and Yahoo! Mail, give users the option to opt out of targeted advertising.[27]

Webmail that is accessed over unsecured HTTP may be readable by a third party who has access to the data transmission, such as over an unsecured Wi-Fi connection. This may be avoided by connecting to the webmail service via HTTPS, which encrypts the connection.[28] Gmail has supported HTTPS since launch[28] and in 2014 began requiring it for all webmail connections.[29] Yahoo! Mail added the option to connect over HTTPS in 2013[30] and made HTTPS required in 2014.[31][32]

See also


  1. ^ No relation to Cisco Webex.


  1. ^ Hallam-Baker, Phillip (March 9, 1994). "Announcing alpha test of PTG MAIL-DAEMON server". Google Groups. Newsgroupcomp.archives. Retrieved 2022-03-22.
  2. ^ "www-mail page frame-placeholder for www_mail.htm".
  3. ^ Pinna, Alberto, "Soru: un incontro con Rubbia, così nacque il web in Sardegna", Corriere della Sera, December 28, 1999 (in Italian).
  4. ^ Ferrucci, Luca, "The ICT in Sardinia: Startup and evolution" Archived October 29, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ Internet Archive, "DSE Webmail"
  6. ^ comp.internet.net-happenings, "ANNOUNCE: WWW Mail Client 1.00", February 28, 1995.
  7. ^ comp.internet.net-happenings, WebMail – Source code release, March 30, 1995.
  8. ^ Digitale Stad Eindhoven "Digitale Stad Eindhoven"
  9. ^ De Digitale Stad on Wikipedia De Digitale Stad (in Dutch)
  10. ^ a b comp.mail.misc, Webex Announcement, August 8, 1995.
  11. ^ Lotusphere 95 Presentation, "cc:Mail Mobile's Next Generation", January 24, 1995.
  12. ^ Barney, Doug (February 6, 1995). "Lotus cc:Mail to get better server, mobile access". InfoWorld. Vol. 17, no. 6. p. 8. ISSN 0199-6649. Retrieved April 20, 2024.
  13. ^ "InformationWeek, serving the information needs of the Business Technology Community". InformationWeek. Retrieved August 12, 2022.
  14. ^ Miami.edu, CV, Dr. Burton Rosenberg Archived June 15, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ Network World, "Lotus readies cc:Mail-Web hooks", (part 2), September 4, 1995, pp. 1, 55.
  16. ^ Davis, Jessica (October 2, 1995). "cc:Mail users will get E-mail through Web". InfoWorld. Vol. 17, no. 40. p. 12. ISSN 0199-6649. Retrieved April 20, 2024.
  17. ^ Network World. IDG Network World Inc. October 2, 1995.
  18. ^ "EMUmail website". Archived from the original on September 24, 2009. Retrieved June 29, 2010.
  19. ^ "Sabeer Bhatiya : The founder of "Hotmail.com"". 4to40.com. Archived from the original on February 10, 2007. Retrieved November 19, 2009.
  20. ^ Oracle, Cnet Archive - Release Notes: Netscape Messaging Server 4.15
  21. ^ "Netscape Messaging Server Corporate Edition ( v. 4.15 ) - media and documentation set Overview".
  22. ^ "MAPI Extension for Webmail accounts - joonis.de". Archived from the original on August 26, 2021. Retrieved January 1, 2012.
  23. ^ Affixa (Creating messages directly from Windows applications via MAPI)
  24. ^ "Google's Gmail sparks privacy row". BBC News. April 5, 2004. Retrieved July 6, 2011.
  25. ^ "Hotmail Advertising". Microsoft. Archived from the original on October 2, 2011. Retrieved July 6, 2011.
  26. ^ "How Gmail Ads work". Google. Retrieved July 6, 2011.
  27. ^ "Yahoo forces mail update (but you can opt out of ad targeting) - NBC News". NBC News. Retrieved January 4, 2017.
  28. ^ a b "Making security easier". Official Gmail Blog. Retrieved January 4, 2017.
  29. ^ "Staying at the forefront of email security and reliability: HTTPS-only and 99.978 percent availability". Official Google Blog. March 20, 2014. Retrieved January 4, 2017.
  30. ^ "Using Yahoo Mail? You should turn on this privacy option as soon as possible". Naked Security. January 8, 2013. Retrieved January 4, 2017.
  31. ^ "Yahoo enables default HTTPS encryption for Yahoo Mail". CNET. Retrieved January 4, 2017.
  32. ^ "HTTPS Now Default in Yahoo Mail". Yahoo Mail. Retrieved January 4, 2017.

Media related to Webmail at Wikimedia Commons