Wenshan Prefecture
文山州  (Chinese)
Vwnzsanh Couh  (Zhuang)
Wenx Shangb Zheub  (Hmong)
Wenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture
文山壮族苗族自治州
Vwnzsanh Bouxcuengh Myauzcuz Swcicouh
Location of Wenshan Prefecture in Yunnan
Location of Wenshan Prefecture in Yunnan
Coordinates (Wenshan Prefecture government): 23°24′N 104°13′E / 23.40°N 104.22°E / 23.40; 104.22Coordinates: 23°24′N 104°13′E / 23.40°N 104.22°E / 23.40; 104.22
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceYunnan
GB/T 2260 CODE[1]532600
Admin HQWenshan
Admin units
Area
 • Total31,409.12 km2 (12,127.13 sq mi)
Elevation
1,263 m (4,144 ft)
Population
 (2010)
 • Total3,517,941
 • Density110/km2 (290/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
663000[2]
Area code(s)0876[2]
ISO 3166 codeCN-YN-26
Licence plate prefixes云H
Websitewww.ynws.gov.cn
1Yunnan Statistics Bureau [1]
2Yunnan Portal [2]
Wenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese文山壮族苗族自治州
Traditional Chinese文山壯族苗族自治州
Zhuang name
ZhuangVwnzsanh Bouxcuengh Myauzcuz Swcicouh
West Hmongic name
West HmongicWenx Shangb Langs Hmongb Zif Zhif Zheub

Wenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture is an autonomous prefecture in southeastern Yunnan Province, People's Republic of China and the easternmost prefecture-level division of the province. It borders Baise, Guangxi to the east, Vietnam's Hà Giang Province to the south for 438 kilometres (272 mi), Honghe Hani and Yi Autonomous Prefecture to the west and Qujing to the north.

Subdivisions

Map including Wenshan (labeled as WEN-SHAN (KAIHWA) (Walled) 文山) (AMS, 1954)
Map including Wenshan (labeled as WEN-SHAN (KAIHWA) (Walled) 文山) (AMS, 1954)
Map
Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population
(2010)
Area (km2) Density(/km2)
Wenshan City 文山市 Wénshān Shì 481,504 3,064 157
Yanshan County 砚山县 Yànshān Xiàn 463,264 3,888 119
Xichou County 西畴县 Xīchóu Xiàn 255,286 1,545 165
Malipo County 麻栗坡县 Málìpō Xiàn 277,960 2,395 116
Maguan County 马关县 Mǎguān Xiàn 367,507 2,755 133
Qiubei County 丘北县 Qiūběi Xiàn 477,441 5,150 93
Guangnan County 广南县 Guǎngnán Xiàn 787,449 7,983 99
Funing County 富宁县 Fùníng Xiàn 407,530 5,459 75

Ethnic groups

Wenshan is highly diverse. According to a local saying, "Han and Hui live by the market, Zhuang and Dai live by the water, Miao and Yi live on the mountains, and Yao live among the bamboos." (汉族、回族住街头,壮族、傣族住水头,苗族、彝族住山头,瑶族住箐头。)

Some of Wenshan's ethnic groups include:

Yunnan (1979)[6] lists Jiazhou 甲州 (pop. 475), Longjiang 龙降 (pop. 54), Tusi 土司 (pop. 134), and Bendi 本地 (pop. 7) as Zhuang subgroups of unknown linguistic affiliation.

Yi

The Wenshan Prefecture Gazetteer (文山壮族苗族自治州志) (2000) and the Wenshan Prefecture Ethnic Gazetteer (文山壮族苗族自治州志) (2005) list the following Yi ethnic subdivisions in Wenshan Prefecture.

Yao

The Wenshan Prefecture Gazetteer (文山壮族苗族自治州志) (2000) lists the following Yao ethnic subdivisions in Wenshan Prefecture.

Gelao

The Wenshan Prefecture Gazetteer 文山壮族苗族自治州志 (2000) lists the following Gelao ethnic subdivisions in Wenshan Prefecture. The Gelao of Wenshan are also locally known as the Laobazi 老巴子 or Bazi 巴子.

History

Neolithic painting at the 'Great King' painting site above Malipo.
Neolithic painting at the 'Great King' painting site above Malipo.

The prefecture has been inhabited for at least 4000 years, as evidenced by surviving neolithic rock art in Malipo County. The seat of Guangnan, known today as Liancheng (莲城镇), was the heart of the Gouding Kingdom (句町) that lasted approximately 400 years, from 111 BC to 316 AD.

Transportation

References

  1. ^ 中华人民共和国国家统计局 >> 行政区划代码. National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China. Archived from the original on 2009-02-21. Retrieved 2009-01-29.
  2. ^ a b Area Code and Postal Code in Yunnan Province
  3. ^ Kaup, Katherine Palmer. Creating the Zhuang: Ethnic Politics in China. Boulder, CO: L. Rienner, 2000.
  4. ^ a b c d Johnson, Eric C. 2011. "A Lexical and Phonological Comparison of the Central Taic Languages of Wenshan Prefecture, China: Getting More Out of Language Survey Wordlists Than Just Lexical Similarity Percentages." SIL Electronic Working Papers 2011-005: 170.
  5. ^ Castro, Andy & Gu Chawen. 2010. "Phonological innovation among Hmong dialects of Wenshan." Journal of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society (JSEALS) 3.1:1-39.
  6. ^ 云南民族识别综合调查组编 [Yunnan Minority Recognition Comprehensive Group] (1979). 云南民族识别综合调查报告(1960年). Kunming: 云南民族学研究所印 [Yunnan Nationalities Research Institute Press].
  7. ^ a b c d Wenshan Prefecture Ethnic Gazetteer (文山壮族苗族自治州志) (2005)