State of Western Zhou

西周
440 BCE–256 BCE
StatusDuchy
CapitalHenan Wangcheng
Common languagesOld Chinese
GovernmentMonarchy
History 
• Established
440 BCE
• Annexed by Qin
256 BCE

Western Zhou (Chinese: 西周) was an ancient Chinese state during the Warring States period. Its capital was Henan (河南), located just west of present-day Luoyang, a prefecture-level city in Henan Province.[1]

Duchy of Western Zhou was established by Prince Jie (王子揭) in 440 BC. After the King Kao of Zhou successfully ascended the throne, Prince Jie (aka Duke Huan of Western Zhou), a younger brother of King Kao was given a fief centred on Henan.[1][2]

Since 367 BC, Duchy of Eastern Zhou won independence from Western Zhou. The two tiny duchies attacked on each other.[3] The kings of Zhou had lost almost all political and military power, even their remaining crown land was occupied by the two tiny duchies.

Western Zhou was attacked by Qin in 256 BC, just after King Nan of Zhou plotted with the states of Chu and Yan for a failed joint expedition against Qin.[4] Duke Wu of Western Zhou surrendered, but was released by king of Qin. In the same year, both Duke Wu and King Nan died. Qin deposed the last duke of Western Zhou and exiled him to Zhonghu (忠狐, located just northwest of present-day Ruzhou), the duchy was annexed by Qin.[5]

List of Duke of Western Zhou

Name Given name Reign Notes
Duke Huan of Western Zhou (西周桓公) Jie (揭) 440–415 BC son of King Zhending of Zhou
Duke Wei of Western Zhou (西周威公) Zao (竈) 414–367 BC son of Duke Huan
Duke Hui of Western Zhou (西周惠公) Chao (朝) or Zai (宰) 366 BC–? son of Duke Wei
Duke Wu of Western Zhou (西周武公) unknown ?–256 BC son of Duke Hui
Duke Wen of Western Zhou (西周文公) Jiu (咎) 256 BC son of Duke Wu
last duke of Western Zhou

References

  1. ^ a b Cihai (small print edition) (5th ed.). Shanghai Lexicographical Publishing House. p. 2211. ISBN 7-5326-0630-9.
  2. ^ 河南通史 (in Chinese). he nan ren min chu ban she. 2005. p. 376. ISBN 9787215049857.
  3. ^ Cihai (small print edition) (5th ed.). Shanghai Lexicographical Publishing House. p. 56. ISBN 7-5326-0630-9.
  4. ^ Zhongguo jun shi tong shi (in Chinese). 3. Jun shi ke xue chu ban she. 1998. p. 289. ISBN 9787801371034.
  5. ^ 河南通史 (in Chinese). he nan ren min chu ban she. 2005. p. 380. ISBN 9787215049857.