Whitbread plc
FormerlyWhitbread Holdings (2000–2001)[1]
Company typePublic limited company
LSEWTB
FTSE 100 Component
Industry
Founded1742; 282 years ago (1742) in London, England
FounderSamuel Whitbread
HeadquartersHoughton Regis, England, UK
Area served
  • United Kingdom
  • United Arab Emirates
  • Ireland
  • India
  • Germany
Key people
RevenueIncrease £2,625.2 million (2023)[2]
Increase £543.5 million (2023)[2]
Increase £278.8 million (2023)[2]
Number of employees
40,000 (2024)[3]
Divisions
Websitewww.whitbread.co.uk

Whitbread is a British multinational hotel and restaurant company headquartered in Houghton Regis, England.

The business was founded as a brewery in 1742, and had become the largest brewery in the world by the 1780s.[4]

Its largest division is currently Premier Inn, which is the largest hotel brand in the UK with over 785 hotels and 72,000 rooms. Until January 2019 it owned Costa Coffee but sold it to The Coca-Cola Company. Whitbread's brands include the restaurant chains Beefeater, Brewers Fayre and Table Table.[5]

Whitbread is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index.

History

Chiswell Street brewery in 1792

Origins

The business was formed in 1742 when Samuel Whitbread formed a partnership with Godfrey and Thomas Shewell and acquired a small brewery at the junction of Old Street and Upper Whitecross Street and another brewhouse for pale and amber beers in Brick Lane, Spitalfields.[6] Godfrey Shewell withdrew from the partnership as Thomas Shewell and Samuel Whitbread bought the large site of the derelict King's Head brewery in Chiswell Street in 1750.[6][7] The new brewery was for the specific production of porter, and was renamed the Hind Brewery after the Whitbread family coat of arms.[6][8]

While not the first to discover Porter production, Whitbread was the first to exploit it commercially on a large scale.[8] This coincided with an increase in beer consumption in the UK, following regulations to limit the sale of gin owing to the excesses of the Gin Craze.[8] By 1758 production at Chiswell street was 65,000 barrels and the firm had become the largest firm of Porter brewers in the UK.[8] From the outset, Whitbread was the leading financial partner, and solely responsible for management, and in 1761, Whitbread acquired Shewell's share of the business for £30,000.[6]

By the 1780s Whitbread had become the largest brewery in the world.[9][4] In 1796 the company produced 202,000 barrels of porter.[6] The firm struggled after the death of Samuel Whitbread Sr, and saw ownership transfer to his son, also called Samuel Whitbread.[9] The company adopted the name Whitbread & Co Ltd in 1799.[10]

By the 1810s, Samuel Whitbread Jnr had brought in several new investment partners including his cousin Jacob Whitbread and the Master Brewer John Martineau (four of his descendants would later sit on the board of Whitbread, including John Edmund Martineau).[11] In 1812, the company merged with the Martineau Brewery holdings and by 1816, leadership was shared between William Henry Whitbread (Samuel Whitbread Jnrs son) and John Martineau, who died in an industrial accident in a yeast vat in the brewery in 1834.[12] By 1870, the company had begun producing bottled beers for sale and continued to expand production. On 24th July 1889, the company become a registered limited liability company.[13]

20th century

The 1985–86 Whitbread Round the World Race
The 1985–86 Whitbread Round the World Race

By 1905, the Chiswell Street brewery reached its largest extent and annual production throughout the company breweries had reached nearly 700,000 barrels.[14] Production decreased during the First World War with Whitbread brewing over 575,000 barrels in 1917.[15]

In the 1920s and 1930s, the company bought out several other brewers, including the Forest Hill Brewery and its pubs, and later the Kent Brewery Frederick Leney & Sons, with 130 of its pubs.[14] The company was also reorganised under the leadership of Sir Sydney Neville and introduced new ales, including Double Brown ale.[16] Whitbread ended regular production of porter in 1940 due to its declining popularity and a need to rationalise its product range following Second World War damage to its brewery sites.[17] 565 Whitbread pubs were also extensively damaged in the war, primarily during the Blitz.[18]

The company was first listed on the London Stock Exchange in 1948 following a decision by the principal owners to take the company public under the direction of WH (Bill) Whitbread.[9][19] The next three decades saw Whitbreads merged with over a dozen other regional breweries, including Tennant Brothers of Sheffield in 1961 and Brickwoods in 1971.[20] Between 1961 and 1971, Whitbread's output increased from 46 to 160 million imperial gallons (2.1 to 7.4 million hectolitres) and it became Britain's third-largest brewer by output.[21]

In 1971, Whitbread inaugurated the Whitbread Book Awards.[22] The next year, Whitbread became the initiating sponsor of the Whitbread Round the World Race, a sailing yacht race around the world held every three years. Whitbread sponsored the race until 2001.[23] In 1973, the company purchased Long John International, a Scottish distiller whose brands included Laphroaig whisky and Plymouth gin.[24] Later spirit acquisitions, also included the distiller James Burrough and the brand Beefeater Gin which was later sold.[25]

Whitbread acquired a 20% stake in TVS for £6.5M from European ferries in April 1984.[26] By 1982, the company turnover exceeded £1 billion for the first time.[24] In 1984, Samuel Charles Whitbread became chairman and a reorganisation of the company took place into separate divisions; the spirits arm, including Laphroaig was sold to Allied Distillers in 1989.[27][28]

The company diversified into other hospitality holdings and invested in new ventures in the 1980s and 1990s, including Beefeater, Pizza Hut, Berni Inns, Heineken Steak Bars and TGI Fridays.[29] In the early 1990s, Whitbread was required to sell almost 2,500 pubs, as a result of the 1992 Supply of Beer (Tied Estate) orders.[30]

In July 1996, Whitbread purchased the Pelican Group (comprising 110 restaurants under the Dôme, Mamma Amalfi and, primarily, Café Rouge brands) for £133m,[31] and in November 1996, Whitbread acquired the restaurant group BrightReasons (owner of brands including Bella Pasta and Pizzaland) for £46m.[32]

21st century

The former stables of the Chiswell Street Whitbread Brewery in London (erected 1897)

In 2001, Whitbread decided to sell all its breweries and brewing interests (Whitbread Beer Company) to Interbrew, now known as InBev.[10] Whitbread-branded alcoholic beverages are still available in the UK, such as canned Whitbread bitter, but these are not produced by InBev, but rather under licence by other producers. InBev controls the use of the Whitbread brand and the hind's head logo for use on beverages. In 2002 Whitbread sold its pub estate, known as the Laurel Pub Company, to Enterprise Inns,[33] and sold its Pelican and BrightReasons restaurant groups for £25m to Tragus Holdings[34] (later renamed Casual Dining Group). The Whitbread & Co brewery building at 52 Chiswell Street in London still survives, although beer ceased to be brewed there in 1976[9] and it is now a conference and events venue. Still named "The Brewery", it was part of the Earls Court and Olympia Group from 2005 to 2012, when it was subsequently sold to a private investor.[35]

In 2005, it moved its core operations from CityPoint in central London, to Oakley House in Luton,[36] and then, in 2006, to larger offices at Whitbread Court in Dunstable.[37] In 2006, it went on to sell 239 of its 271 Beefeater and Brewers Fayre sites to Mitchells & Butlers, who rebranded them into Harvester, Toby Carvery and a selection of other brands.[38]

In 2013, as part of the 2013 horse meat scandal, DNA tests ordered by Whitbread revealed that horsemeat was present in some meat products sold in outlets owned by the company, at the time Britain's biggest hotel group.[39][40] On 26 February 2013 Whitbread vowed to remedy the unacceptable situation.[41]

In 2018, Whitbread faced pressure from two of its largest shareholders, hedge fund Sachem Head and activist group Elliott Advisers, to break itself up by splitting off the Costa Coffee chain, the theory being the individual businesses would be worth up to 40% more than the current market capital value.[42] On 25 April 2018, Whitbread announced its intention to demerge Costa.[43] On 31 August 2018, it announced that The Coca-Cola Company had agreed to buy Costa Coffee for £3.9bn.[44]

In September 2020, the company announced that they would be cutting jobs, warning that 6,000 staff could lose employment. The company blamed the cuts on a slump in hotel guest numbers since the beginning of the UK's lockdown in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.[45]

Current operations

Whitbread's principal current operations are:

A Premier Inn in Crawley

Premier Inn

Main article: Premier Inn

Premier Inn is the UK's largest budget hotel chain, with over 750 hotels.[46]

Table Table

Table Table is a UK restaurant brand. They started as converted Brewers Fayre restaurants. The brand was originally set up in 2006 unnamed; the name Table Table was launched in May 2008. There are around 100 sites in the UK.[47]

Beefeater

Main article: Beefeater (restaurant)

Beefeater was launched in 1974. The chain underwent a huge revamp in the early 2000s. It then proceeded to change its name to "Beefeater Grill" for a period but in 2014 reverted to "Beefeater". Beefeater has 140 restaurants across the UK.[48]

Brewers Fayre

Brewer's Fayre, Royal Quay, North Shields

Main article: Brewers Fayre

Brewers Fayre is a pub-restaurant brand which was created in 1979. The pubs are designed to look and feel like traditional local pubs but with a particularly strong family presence. There are around 145 pubs across the country.[49]

Whitbread Inns

The Whitbread Inns brand of restaurants was created by Whitbread in 2014. In January 2016 there were 13 pubs (all of which were Table Table) across central and southern England.[50]

Former operations

Whitbread's former operations include:

References

  1. ^ "WHITBREAD PLC overview - Find and update company information - GOV.UK". Companies House. 1 December 2000. Retrieved 27 January 2024.
  2. ^ a b c "Annual Results 2022/23" (PDF). Whitbread PLC. Retrieved 25 April 2023.
  3. ^ "Whitbread is a leading hospitality business". Whitbread. Retrieved 12 February 2024.
  4. ^ a b Ritchie, Berry (1992). An Uncommon Brewer, the Story of Whitbread. London: James & James. p. 11. ISBN 978-0907383369.
  5. ^ "Our Brands". Whitbread PLC. Archived from the original on 27 October 2016. Retrieved 3 November 2016.
  6. ^ a b c d e "Whitbread, Samuel". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. 2004. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/39057. Retrieved 31 January 2015. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  7. ^ Ritchie, Berry (1992). An Uncommon Brewer, the Story of Whitbread. London: James & James. p. 14. ISBN 978-0907383369.
  8. ^ a b c d Ritchie, Berry (1992). An Uncommon Brewer, the Story of Whitbread. London: James & James. p. 21. ISBN 978-0907383369.
  9. ^ a b c d Jack S. Blocker; David M. Fahey; Ian R. Tyrrell (2003). Alcohol and Temperance in Modern History: An International Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 656–657. ISBN 978-1-57607-833-4.
  10. ^ a b "History of Whitbread". Whitbread.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2 March 2018. Retrieved 11 April 2014.
  11. ^ Ritchie, Berry (1992). An Uncommon Brewer, the Story of Whitbread. London: James & James. p. 39. ISBN 978-0907383369.
  12. ^ Ritchie, Berry (1992). An Uncommon Brewer, the Story of Whitbread. London: James & James. p. 57. ISBN 978-0907383369.
  13. ^ Ritchie, Berry (1992). An Uncommon Brewer, the Story of Whitbread. London: James & James. p. 67. ISBN 978-0907383369.
  14. ^ a b Ritchie, Berry (1992). An Uncommon Brewer, the Story of Whitbread. London: James & James. p. 74. ISBN 978-0907383369.
  15. ^ "Shut up about Barclay Perkins: Kidd beers in early 1917". Shut up about Barclay Perkins. 4 January 2018. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  16. ^ Ritchie, Berry (1992). An Uncommon Brewer, the Story of Whitbread. London: James & James. p. 97. ISBN 978-0907383369.
  17. ^ Pattinson, Ron (30 October 2019). "Let's Brew Wednesday - 1940 Whitbread Porter". Shut Up About Barclay Perkins. Retrieved 30 October 2019.
  18. ^ Ritchie, Berry (1992). An Uncommon Brewer, the Story of Whitbread. London: James & James. p. 107. ISBN 978-0907383369.
  19. ^ Ritchie, Berry (1992). An Uncommon Brewer, the Story of Whitbread. London: James & James. p. 110. ISBN 978-0907383369.
  20. ^ Ritchie, Berry (1992). An Uncommon Brewer, the Story of Whitbread. London: James & James. p. 115. ISBN 978-0907383369.
  21. ^ Blocker, Jack S.; Fahey, David M.; Tyrrell, Ian R. (2003). Alcohol and Temperance in Modern History. Bloomsbury Academic. ISBN 9781576078334. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
  22. ^ (CBA-Past-Winners-2015-Version.pdf) Archived 15 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Costa Book Awards. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
  23. ^ "Drastic early days of broken boats and high drama in Whitbread Round the World Race". Yachting World. 12 November 2014. Retrieved 15 April 2017.
  24. ^ a b Ritchie, Berry (1992). An Uncommon Brewer, the Story of Whitbread. London: James & James. p. 130. ISBN 978-0907383369.
  25. ^ Ritchie, Berry (1992). An Uncommon Brewer, the Story of Whitbread. London: James & James. p. 135. ISBN 978-0907383369.
  26. ^ Whitbread buys £6m TVS stake. By Derek Harris Commercial Editor. The Times, Thursday, 12 Apr 1984; pg. 18
  27. ^ Ritchie, Berry (1992). An Uncommon Brewer, the Story of Whitbread. London: James & James. p. 132. ISBN 978-0907383369.
  28. ^ Ap (23 December 1989). "COMPANY NEWS; Allied-Lyons Is Buying Whitbread Liquor Unit". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
  29. ^ Ritchie, Berry (1992). An Uncommon Brewer, the Story of Whitbread. London: James & James. p. 133. ISBN 978-0907383369.
  30. ^ Ritchie, Berry (1992). An Uncommon Brewer, the Story of Whitbread. London: James & James. p. 137. ISBN 978-0907383369.
  31. ^ "Whitbread PLC History". Funding Universe. Retrieved 26 November 2012.
  32. ^ "BrightReasons Group". Glasgow Herald. 28 November 1996. Retrieved 8 June 2020.
  33. ^ "Enterprise Inns buys 1,860 pubs to become UK's top landlord | Independent, The (London) | Find Articles at BNET". 18 September 2008. Archived from the original on 18 September 2008. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  34. ^ "Whitbread sells restaurant groups". Evening Standard. 31 May 2002. Retrieved 31 May 2017.
  35. ^ Whitbread sells historic brewery Archived 12 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  36. ^ "Whitbread – market intelligence". Ukbusinesspark.co.uk. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 11 April 2014.
  37. ^ "Whitbread sells group headquarters". Business Milton Keynes. 1 October 2006. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
  38. ^ "Business | Beefeater sites bought by M&B". BBC News. 21 July 2006. Retrieved 11 April 2014.
  39. ^ "BBC News – Horsemeat scandal: Supermarkets 'share anger and outrage'". Bbc.co.uk. 15 February 2013. Retrieved 11 April 2014.
  40. ^ "Compass and Whitbread caught up in horse meat scandal". Telegraph.co.uk. Reuters. 15 February 2013. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
  41. ^ "Whitbread makes food pledge after horsemeat scandal". The Guardian. 26 February 2013. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
  42. ^ "Business Sale Report – Will Costa Coffee chain be up for sale soon". business-sale.com. 22 April 2018. Retrieved 22 April 2018.
  43. ^ "Whitbread Group Structure Update". whitbread.co.uk. 25 April 2018. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
  44. ^ "Coca-Cola to buy Costa chain for £3.9bn". BBC News. Retrieved 31 August 2018.
  45. ^ "Whitbread to cut 6,000 jobs as hotel demand slumps". BBC News. 22 September 2020. Retrieved 22 September 2020.
  46. ^ "Premier Inn opens 600th UK hotel". Retrieved 31 January 2015.
  47. ^ "Table Table". Archived from the original on 6 February 2015. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
  48. ^ "Beefeater". Archived from the original on 31 January 2015. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
  49. ^ "Brewers Fayre". Archived from the original on 6 February 2015. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
  50. ^ "Whitbread Inns". Retrieved 16 January 2016.
  51. ^ "Catering & Hospitality News". Archived from the original on 18 April 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
  52. ^ "The Coca-Cola Company Completes Acquisition of Costa from Whitbread PLC". www.businesswire.com. 3 January 2019. Retrieved 8 January 2020.
  53. ^ beveragedaily.com (3 January 2019). "Coca-Cola completes Costa acquisition: 'Our vision is to use Costa's platform to expand in the growing coffee category'". beveragedaily.com. Retrieved 8 January 2020.
  54. ^ "Brewster's Restaurants - Break From The Old Routine by Oui 3". YouTube. Archived from the original on 13 December 2021.
  55. ^ "Rise of the all-you-can-eat restaurant". newsvote.bbc.co.uk. BBC. Retrieved 21 June 2016.
  56. ^ "Taybarns". Archived from the original on 6 February 2015. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
  57. ^ "Britvic IPO to value drinks group at up to £537m". FT.com. 25 November 2005. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
  58. ^ "When Alan Parker moved Whitbread from beer to hotels no-one got it, they do now". The Telegraph. 23 October 2010. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
  59. ^ Bill, Tom (17 January 2007). "Whitbread sells TGI Friday's to joint venture – Caterer and Hotelkeeper". Caterersearch.com. Retrieved 11 April 2014.
  60. ^ "Pizza Hut restaurants sold to investment group". The Guardian. 9 November 2012. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
  61. ^ "Sale of David Lloyd Leisure". Whitbread plc. 4 June 2007. URL accessed 4 June 2007. Archived 29 May 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  62. ^ "Luminar eyes Hogshead pubs deal". The Telegraph. 15 April 2001. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
  63. ^ "Former owners Punch Taverns and Whitbread face Threshers liability". The Telegraph. 16 November 2009. Archived from the original on 19 November 2009. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
  64. ^ "Milestones". Maredo. Archived from the original on 19 April 2014. Retrieved 31 January 2015.