A digital object identifier (DOI) is a unique persistent identifier to a published work, similar in concept to an ISBN. Wikipedia supports the use of DOI to link to published content. Where a journal source has a DOI, it is good practice to use it, in the same way as it is good practice to use ISBN references for book sources.

How to use DOIs in content[edit]

There are several ways to cite a reference via DOI. In general, you should avoid entering explicit URLs to the doi.org website. By using one of the following methods, the actual links are centrally managed and can be adjusted, if the external website alters the way the URLs must be formatted.

Wikipedia "doi:" interwiki links

A wiki-formatted link, for example:


Is handled and displayed as:


A DOI is not case-sensitive.

The ((doi)) template

This is an alternative way to generate a link to the article.




It generates an external URL link rather than a wikilink. In addition, the "doi:" string is displayed as a separate link (to the Digital object identifier page) rather than being part of the reference link itself. This template is also used internally in various ((cite)) templates via a parameter doi=.

Generating citations[edit]

Wikipedia citations (including DOI) can be generated from the DOI by several citation tools such as Citer. Many tools can generate a full citation from a variety of reference IDs, e.g. DOI, ISBN, PMID, PMCID, OCLC.

Note that these Wikipedia guidelines do not conform to revised DOI display guidelines issued by CrossRef, which recommend displaying DOIs in URL format, for example, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2008.03.001[1]

Why use DOI?[edit]

This approach avoids a number of common issues with citations in Wikipedia:

When not to use DOI[edit]


  1. ^ "CrossRef DOI Display Guidlines". CrossRef website. CrossRef. Retrieved January 3, 2021.

External links[edit]