Winchester College
The school seen from Winchester Cathedral
College Street

SO23 9NA

Coordinates51°03′29″N 01°18′46″W / 51.05806°N 1.31278°W / 51.05806; -1.31278
MottoManners makyth man
Religious affiliation(s)Church of England
Established1382; 642 years ago (1382)
FounderWilliam of Wykeham
Department for Education URN116532 Tables
WardenRichard Stagg
HeadmasterElizabeth Stone
Staffc. 350
GenderMale (mixed at 16-18)
Age13 to 18
Enrolmentc. 740
Houses11 (10 Commoner or Old Tutor Houses plus College):
  • College
  • A. Chernocke House (Furley's)
  • B. Moberly's (Toye's)
  • C. Du Boulay's (Cook's)
  • D. Fearon's (Kenny's)
  • E. Morshead's (Freddie's)
  • F. Hawkins' (Chawker's)
  • G. Sergeant's (Phil's)
  • H. Bramston's (Trant's)
  • I. Turner's (Hopper's)
  • K. Kingsgate House (Beloe's)
Colour(s)Blue, brown & red    
PublicationThe Wykehamist, Quelle, The Spirit Lamp, The Trusty Servant
Former pupilsOld Wykehamists
School songDomum

Winchester College is an English public school (a long-established fee-charging boarding school for pupils aged 13–18) with some provision for day attendees, in Winchester, Hampshire, England. It was founded by William of Wykeham in 1382 as a feeder school for New College, Oxford, and has existed in its present location ever since. It is the oldest of the nine schools considered by the Clarendon Commission. The school has begun a transition to become co-educational, and has accepted male and female day pupils from September 2022, having previously been a boys' boarding school for over 600 years.

The school was founded to provide an education for 70 scholars. Gradually numbers rose, a choir of 16 "quiristers" being added alongside paying pupils known as "commoners". Numbers expanded greatly in the 1860s with the addition of ten boarding houses. The scholars continue to live in the school's medieval buildings, which consist of two courtyards, a chapel, and a cloisters. A Wren-style classroom building named "School" was added in the 17th century. An art school ("museum"), science school, and music school were added at the turn of the 20th century. A war cloister was built as a memorial in 1924.

The school has maintained traditions including its mascot, the Trusty Servant; a set of "notions" forming a sort of private language; and a school song, Domum. Its headmasters have included the bishops William Waynflete in the 15th century and George Ridding in the 19th century. Former pupils are known as Old Wykehamists.


Main article: History of Winchester College

Foundation and early years

Photograph of a medieval document with seal
King Richard II's founding charter for Winchester College, 1382

Winchester College was founded in 1382 by William of Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester and Chancellor to both Edward III and Richard II, in part because of the lack of trained priests following the Black Death. Winchester was to act as a feeder school to New College, also founded by Wykeham.[1] According to its 1382 charter and final statutes (1400), the school is called in Latin Collegium Sanctae Mariae prope Wintoniam ("St Mary's College, near Winchester"), or Collegium Beatae Mariae Wintoniensis prope Winton ("The College of the Blessed Mary of Winchester, near Winchester").[2] The first 70 "poor scholars" entered the school in 1394.[3] In the early 15th century the specific requirement was that scholars come from families where the income was less than five marks sterling (£3 6s 8d) per annum; in comparison, the contemporary reasonable living for a yeoman was £5 per annum.[4]

Other innovations at Winchester included enforcing discipline through the pupils themselves, using prefects. Discipline was in any case meant to be less harsh than was common in medieval schools, at least as the statutes read.[5] Winchester was also unusual in giving education to boys aged 12-18, as universities would accept students within this age range.[6] These features, including the double foundation, formed the model for Eton College and King's College, Cambridge, some 50 years later.[7] Eton and Winchester formed a close partnership at that time.[8] At first only a small number of pupils other than scholars were admitted; by the 15th century the school had around 100 pupils in total, nominally the 70 scholars, 16 choirboys known as "quiristers", and the rest "commoners". Demand for places for commoners was high, and though at first restricted, numbers gradually rose.[9]

Early modern period

As the college was a religious as well as educational establishment, it was threatened with closure during Henry VIII's reign. A statute to this effect was drawn up in 1545, which was only halted by his death. Edward VI swiftly reversed direction.[10] Edward made provision for worship and Bible readings to be made in English rather than Latin.[11] In the early modern period, under Henry, Edward, Elizabeth and James, royal visits were accompanied by presentations of Latin and a small amount of Greek occasional poetry, composed by the pupils. Elizabeth also granted an exemption to allow Winchester, Eton and elsewhere to conduct their religious services in Latin, to help pupils to improve their skills in the language.[12]

Victorian era to present

From the 1860s, ten boarding houses, each for up to sixty pupils, were added, greatly increasing the school's capacity.[13] By 2020, the number of pupils had risen to 690.[14] From 2022, the school has accepted day pupils in the Sixth Form, including girls.[15]


Main article: Architecture of Winchester College

The college consists of an assemblage of buildings from medieval times to the present day. There are 94 listed buildings, set in grounds of some 250 acres, of which 100 acres are water meadows, 52 acres are playing fields, and 11 acres are formal gardens; the area includes St Catherine's Hill.[16] The medieval buildings, representing most of the original foundation from the school's opening in 1394, include Outer Gate and Outer Court, Chamber Court, the chapel, and the Cloisters. These are built in flint with limestone facings and slate roofs.[17][16] The chapel retains its original wooden fan-vaulted ceiling, designed by Hugh Herland, carpenter to Richard II. Little of the original medieval glass, designed by Thomas Glazier, survives, as it was scattered in the 1820s, but some is now housed in Thurburn's Chantry, at the back of the chapel, and in Fromond's Chantry, inside the Cloisters.[18] The "School" building was constructed in 1683–1687 in Wren style,[16] with a statue of the founder above the door by C. G. Cibber.[19] The school was greatly extended in the 19th century with the addition of boarding houses for "commoners", paying pupils, as opposed to the scholars who continued to live in the medieval College.[20] At the turn of the 20th century, a Music School, "Museum" (art school), and Science School, all architect-designed, were added.[19][16] A hall big enough for the enlarged school, New Hall, was opened in 1961, accommodating the oak panelling removed from the Chapel in the 1874 refurbishment.[21] In 1924, a War Cloister was constructed; it now serves as a memorial of the Wykehamists killed in the two World Wars.[22] Visitors may tour areas such as Chamber Court, the Chapel, College Hall, the Cloisters, School and Museum, for a fee.[23]



The seventy scholars live in the original buildings, known as "College". The scholars are known as "Collegemen", and the schoolmaster in charge of them is called the Master in College. Collegemen wear black gowns, following the founding traditions of the school. Collegemen enjoy certain privileges compared to the Commoners, such as having open fires and being allowed to walk across Meads, the walled sports field outside School.[25]

Boarding houses

Every pupil at Winchester, apart from the Scholars, lives in a boarding house, chosen or allocated when applying to Winchester. It is here that he studies, eats and sleeps. Each house is presided over by a housemaster (who takes on the role in addition to teaching duties), assisted by house tutors. Houses compete against each other in school sports. Each house has an official name, usually based on the family name of the first housemaster, which is used mainly as a postal address. Each house also has an informal name, usually based on the name or nickname of an early housemaster. Each house also has a letter, in the order of their founding, to act as an abbreviation, especially on laundry tags. A member of a house is described by the informal name of the house with "-ite" suffixed, as "a Furleyite", "a Toyeite", "a Cookite" and so on. College does not have an informal name, although the abbreviation Coll is sometimes used; "X" (meaning, not one of the boarding houses) was originally used only on laundry tags.[26]



Winchester is considered one of the most prestigious schools in the world.[27] It has its own entrance examination, and does not use Common Entrance like other major public schools. Those wishing to enter a Commoner House make their arrangements with the relevant housemaster some two years before sitting the exam, usually sitting a test set by the housemaster and an interview. Those applying to College do not take the normal entrance examination but instead sit a separate, harder, exam called "Election": successful candidates may obtain, according to their performance, a scholarship, an exhibition or a Headmaster's nomination to join a Commoner House.[28] Admission to College was historically coupled to remission of fees, but this has ceased;[29] instead, means-tested bursaries ranging from 5% to 100% of the school fee are provided, according to need.[30] From 2022, Winchester admitted girls into the 6th form (year 12) as day pupils, with girls boarding from 2024.[31] For 2023/24, the fee is £49,152 per annum (£16,384 per term) for boarding pupils and £36,369 per annum (£12,123 per term) for day pupils.[32]


In addition to normal lessons, all boys throughout the school are required to attend a class called Division (known as "Div") which explores parts of history, literature, and politics that do not lead to external examinations; its purpose is to ensure a broad education.[33]

From year 9, pupils study for at least nine GCSE and IGCSEs. Every pupil studies English, mathematics, Latin, French or German, and at least two sciences at this level, as well as "Div". Pupils then study three A-levels, "Div", and an Extended Project Qualification.[34]


Winchester College is particularly known for its academic rigour.[35] In 2023 at A-Level, 77.9% of student results were graded A*-A while 88.1% of GCSE results were graded 9-7.[36] 80.3% of GCSEs were graded 8 or 9 (A* equivalent), and 91.2% of grades achieved were graded 7, 8 or 9 (A*/A equivalent).[36] Between 2010 and 2018, an average of 33% of leavers obtained places at Oxford or Cambridge.[37]



Further information: Winchester College football

Photograph of a football scrum on a long narrow pitch with ropes and nets along the sides
Winchester College football: a "hot" between OTH (brown and white) and Commoners (red and white) on Meads in 2023

Winchester College has its own game, Winchester College football (also known as "Win: Co: Fo:" or "Winkies"), played only at Winchester.[38] It is played in the spring term with a competition between the school's houses; it is largely managed by the boys.[39]

A distinctive Winchester version of fives resembles Rugby fives but with a buttress on the court. The buttress enables a skilful player to cause the ball to ricochet in an unexpected direction.[40]

Photograph of buildings with a concrete apron beside a river
Winchester College Boat Club, on the River Itchen

The school has an active rowing club called the Winchester College Boat Club which is based on the River Itchen. The club is affiliated to British Rowing (boat code WIN)[41] and was twice winner of the Princess Elizabeth Challenge Cup (in 1949 and 1954) at the Henley Royal Regatta.[42]

Rivalry — particularly sporting — between Winchester and Eton has existed for centuries.[43]

Combined Cadet Force

Pupils of the school in their second year are currently required to serve in the college's Combined Cadet Force.[44]

The organisation was founded in 1860 as "The Winchester College Rifle Volunteer Corps" by various boys in their top year as a result of the perceived threat of Napoleon III after the Orsini plot, and remained entirely autonomous until it was taken over by the Second Master in 1868. It was enrolled as a Cadet Corps in the 1st Hants Volunteer Battalion. In 1908, the Officer Training Corps was established, and by 1914, through the request of the War Office that Senior Cadets be given appropriate training for the war effort, almost every student became involved in the Corps, though it was never explicitly compulsory. In the Second World War, it was renamed as "The Junior Training Corps", though its function was still to prepare boys for Officer responsibilities. Montgomery remarked on inspecting the Corps in 1946 that there was "latent leadership in all ranks". In 1948, the "Junior Training Corps" became known as the "Combined Cadet Force" (CCF) which incorporated RAF and RN sections. In 1963, "Alternative Service Activities" were introduced for boys who did not want to join the CCF. Pupils were made eligible to opt out of the CCF at the end of their second year after starting at the beginning of the year: this is still the school's policy.[45]


Winchester offers extensive opportunities for musical development, with two-thirds of pupils playing at least one instrument. The school has a music school and numerous practice rooms, and a variety of cchoirs, ensembles, and orchestras. The chapel choir has existed since the school's foundation. Music and choral scholarships fund free tuition for candidates proficient in multiple instruments at grade 6 level or above.[46]


The Trusty Servant: the school mascot

Old-fashioned allegorical print of a man in a long buttoned coat and hose, wearing a sword and holding tools in his hand, with a pig's head and donkey's ears
The Trusty Servant: 19th-century print

Main article: The Trusty Servant

The Trusty Servant is an emblematic figure in a painting at Winchester College, that serves as the school's unofficial mascot and the name of its alumni magazine.[47] A painting of The Trusty Servant and accompanying verses both devised by the poet John Hoskins in 1579 hangs outside the college kitchen. The current version was painted by William Cave the Younger in 1809. The painting depicts a mythical creature with the body of a man, the head of a pig, with its snout closed with a padlock, the ears of an ass, the feet of a stag, and tools in his left hand.[48] The verses are on the virtues that pupils of the college were supposed to have. The college arms are shown in the background of the painting.[49]

Notions: the school language

Main article: Notions (Winchester College)

A notion is a specialised term peculiar to Winchester College. The word notion is also used to describe traditions unique to the school. An example of a notion is "toytime", meaning homework, from the notion "toys", a wooden cubicle that serves as a pupil's workspace in a communal room, known as "mugging hall" in Commoner Houses or a "chamber" in College.[50]

Manners makyth man: the school motto

Arms of school and founder

Since the foundation, Winchester College has had numerous words and phrases directly associated with it, including its motto, its graces, and a prayer. A grace is read before and after every lunch and formal meal in College Hall. Two separate graces are traditionally sung during Election, the scholarship process.

Manners makyth man
– Motto of Winchester College, New College, Oxford, and the founder of the two colleges, William of Wykeham

The Latin grace before meals in College goes:[51]

Latin grace English translation

Benedic nobis, Domine Deus,
Atque iis donis tuis,
Quae de tua largitate
Sumus Sumpturi,
Per Jesum Christum, Dominum nostrum. Amen.

Bless us, Lord God,
And those Thy gifts,
Of which through Thy bounty
We are about to partake,
Through Jesus Christ, our Lord. Amen.

The Latin grace after meals in College goes:[51]

Latin grace English translation

Agimus tibi gratias,
Omnipotens Deus,
Pro his et universis donis tuis,
Quae de tua largitate
Qui vivis et regnas,
Et es Deus,
In saecula saeculorum. Amen.

We return thanks to Thee,
Almighty God,
For these and all Thy gifts,
Which through They bounty
We have received
Who livest and reigneth,
And art God,
World without end. Amen.

Domum: the school song

Not to be confused with Dulce Domum.

Photograph of a river in front of wide playing fields and distant buildings
It is said that the pupil who wrote "Domum" threw himself into the River Itchen, which runs through the school grounds.

The school song is entitled "Domum" and is sung at the end of the summer term, known as Cloister Time. The origin of the song is unknown; it was described as "an old tradition" in the 1773 History and Antiquities of Winchester.[52] The traditional tune was composed by John Reading.[53][54] A new tune, by Malcolm Archer, was officially adopted by the school in about 2007.[55]

According to legend, the text was written in the 17th century by a pupil who was confined for misconduct during the Whitsun holidays.[56] (In one account, he was tied to a pillar.) It is said that he carved the words on the bark of a tree, which was thereafter called "Domum Tree", and cast himself into Logie (the river running through the school grounds).[52][57] There is still a "Domum Cottage" in that area. The author of the text apparently wrongly treated domum as a neuter noun.[58]

A "Domum Dinner" is held at the end of the summer term for leavers. It was formerly restricted to those former scholars of Winchester who were also scholars of New College, and distinguished guests. Until the reforms of the 19th century, there were three successive Election Dinners held during Election Week, culminating in a Domum Ball. Originally these festivities occurred around Whitsun, as suggested by references in the song to early summer such as "See the year, the meadow, smiling" and "Now the swallow seeks her dwelling".[53]


Further information: Winchester College in fiction

Winchester's approach to education was influential on later schools. It was unusual in the medieval period in giving education to boys aged 12–18, as universities would accept students within this age range.[59] The age range, the double foundation with New College, Oxford,, and the approach to discipline formed the model for Eton College and King's College, Cambridge, some 50 years later.[60]

Pupils of the school have appeared in many works of fiction: the school itself rather less often.[61] The figure of Sir Humphrey Appleby in the TV series Yes Minister is among the best-known Old Wykehamists in fiction.[62]

As with other prominent public schools, a locomotive of the Southern Railway V Class was named after Winchester College. The second of the class, No. 901 Winchester was constructed by Southern at the nearby Eastleigh Works; it entered service in 1930.[63]


The headmasters of Winchester College from the 14th century onwards are:[64]

Former pupils

Main article: List of Old Wykehamists

Current pupils of Winchester College are known as Wykehamists, in memory of the school's founder, William of Wykeham; former pupils are known as Old Wykehamists,[71] or amongst themselves as Old Woks.[72] Fictional Old Wykehamists appear in over 50 novels, starting with Tobias Smollett's eponymous Peregrine Pickle in 1751.[73]


In 1872, under the headmaster George Ridding, "tunding", beatings given by a prefect (a senior pupil), using a ground-ash across the shoulders, were still permitted. The matter became a national scandal, known as "the Tunding Row", when "an overzealous Senior Commoner Prefect"[74] beat a pupil for refusing to attend a notions test.[75] Ridding made matters worse by trying to defend the action. He eventually limited the prefects' power to beat, and forbade notions tests as a "disgraceful innovation".[75]

In the 1970s and 80s, the college allowed a Christian Forum to operate on college grounds which was later described as "cult-like", and which gave access to pupils to a man who reportedly carried out sadomasochistic abuse on several of them.[76][77] The alleged perpetrator, John Smyth, was a leader of the evangelical Christian Iwerne camps (known as "Bash camps" after the nickname of their founder, E. J. H. Nash) where abuse was also reported to have taken place. The college and the Iwerne Trust became aware of these allegations in 1982, but neither reported them to the police.[78] Smyth was warned off and moved to Zimbabwe and then South Africa where abuse continued.[79] An independent review into the abuse, commissioned by the college, was published in January 2022,[77] alongside reviews by the Church of England and the Titus Trust (which succeeded the Iwerne Trust).[76]

In 2005, Winchester College was one of fifty of the country's leading independent schools found guilty of running an unlawful price-fixing cartel by the Office of Fair Trading.[80] As a penalty, the schools paid for a trust fund to benefit the affected pupils.[81] Winchester College, like Eton, received a fifty per cent reduction in its penalty in return for its full cooperation.[82][83]

In 2017 Winchester College suspended its Head of Art History for providing students with information about questions on an upcoming public exam.[84] The headmaster of Winchester confirmed that the school had treated the matter "very seriously" and that no boy was responsible for the "exam irregularity". The information was widely distributed, resulting in their papers being disallowed.[85][86]


  1. ^ Adams 1878, pp. 19–23
  2. ^ Hebron, Malcolm (2019). "The statutes of Winchester College, 1400". In Foster, Richard (ed.). 50 Treasures from Winchester College. SCALA. pp. 9, 45–47, 55. ISBN 978-1785512209.
  3. ^ "Winchester College: Heritage". Winchester College. Archived from the original on 26 January 2022. Retrieved 21 October 2021.
  4. ^ Harwood, Winifred A. (2004). "The Household of Winchester College in the later Middle Ages 1400-1560" (PDF). Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club Archaeological Society. 59: 163–179. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
  5. ^ Adams 1878, pp. 56–7
  6. ^ Leach 1899, p. 159-160
  7. ^ Clutton-Brock, A. (1900). Eton. George Bell and Sons. pp. 3–5.
  8. ^ Adams 1878, pp. 65–67
  9. ^ Turner, David (2014). The Old Boys: the decline and rise of the public school. Yale University Press. pp. 2–9. ISBN 978-0-300-18992-6.
  10. ^ Adams 1878, pp. 70–71.
  11. ^ Adams 1878, pp. 73–76.
  12. ^ Adams 1878, p. 77.
  13. ^ "Houses: Why is it so important to belong?". Winchester College. Archived from the original on 24 October 2022. Retrieved 22 February 2020.
  14. ^ "Winchester College". Retrieved 22 February 2020.
  15. ^ "Winchester College: Welcoming girls for the first time". School Management Plus. 14 October 2022. Retrieved 11 February 2023.
  16. ^ a b c d "Buildings and Grounds". Winchester College. Retrieved 27 October 2022.
  17. ^ Sabben-Clare 1981, pp. 1–3.
  18. ^ "Chapel". Winchester College. Retrieved 4 October 2020.
  19. ^ a b "Winchester College, Hampshire: Late 14th century". Astoft. Retrieved 28 October 2022. (3 pages) partly consisting of text from Pevsner, Nikolaus; Lloyd, David (1967). Hampshire and the Isle of Wight. Yale University Press.
  20. ^ Sabben-Clare 1981, pp. 13–17.
  21. ^ Sabben-Clare 1981, pp. 24–26.
  22. ^ "The War Cloister, Winchester College". Historic England. Retrieved 4 October 2020.
  23. ^ "Winchester College: The school that's survived six centuries of turmoil, including the sacking of the city around it". Country Life. 6 February 2023. Retrieved 11 February 2023.
  24. ^ "House from Home: Sergeant's (Phil's)". Winchester College. 9 March 2021. Archived from the original on 19 April 2021. Retrieved 28 October 2022.
  25. ^ "Winchester College". The City of Winchester. 1990. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
  26. ^ "Houses". Winchester College. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
  27. ^ "Winchester College". The Good Schools Guide. Retrieved 8 October 2023.
  28. ^ "Timeline for Entry". Winchester College. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
  29. ^ Scholarships for College Archived 8 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Winchester College. Retrieved on 13 August 2013.
  30. ^ "Bursaries". Winchester College. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
  31. ^ "Winchester College in the 21st Century". Winchester College. Retrieved 9 February 2021.
  32. ^ "Winchester College | Fees".
  33. ^ "Div". Winchester College. Retrieved 4 October 2020.
  34. ^ "Curriculum". Winchester College. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
  35. ^ "Winchester College Review". Which School Advisor. 28 August 2022. Retrieved 13 October 2022.
  36. ^ a b "Winchester College Exam Results and Universities". Retrieved 23 April 2024.
  37. ^ "Winchester College Leavers' Destinations" (PDF). Retrieved 25 October 2022.
  38. ^ "Arcane public school games explained: Anyone for Rugby Fives, The Field Game or Winkies?". The Independent. 29 August 2014. Archived from the original on 10 March 2021. Retrieved 4 October 2020.
  39. ^ "Sport: Winchester College Football". Winchester College. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
  40. ^ "Get Active: Why Winchester Fives is better than squash". Southern Daily Echo. 19 March 2015. Retrieved 4 October 2020.
  41. ^ "Club details". British Rowing.
  42. ^ "Results". Friends of Rowing History. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
  43. ^ Sherwood, H. (16 February 2020). "Winchester College v Eton feud comes to Downing Street". UK Guardian. Retrieved 19 January 2022. [Eton and Winchester] have been rivals for centuries
  44. ^ "Combined Cadet Force". Winchester College. Archived from the original on 21 June 2010. Retrieved 29 October 2022.
  45. ^ "Armoury" (PDF). Winchester College. 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 29 October 2022. Further history of the CCF is given in Sabben-Clare 1981, pp. 169–176
  46. ^ Bryan (25 April 2024). "Exploring Winchester College: A Comprehensive School Review". Britannia UK. Retrieved 16 May 2024.
  47. ^ "Publications". Winchester College. Archived from the original on 29 June 2022. Retrieved 4 October 2020.
  48. ^ Skull, Joseph (30 January 2019). "Dr Collegio Wintoniensi, 1640s". In Foster, Richard (ed.). 50 Treasures from Winchester College. SCALA. p. 86. ISBN 9781785512209.
  49. ^ Burnett, Mark Thornton (2002). Constructing "monsters" in Shakespearean drama and early modern culture. Macmillan. p. 139.
  50. ^ Lawson, W.H., Hope, J.R. and Cripps, A.H.S., Winchester College Notions, by Three Beetleites: Winchester 1901, pp. 81, 126–127
  51. ^ a b Stevens, Charles; Stray, Christopher (1998). Winchester Notions: The English Dialect of Winchester College. Athlone Press. ISBN 0-485-11525-5.
  52. ^ a b Adams 1878, pp. 407–
  53. ^ a b The British Minstrel, and Musical and Literary Miscellany: A Selection of Standard Music, Songs, Duets, Glees, Choruses, Etc. and Articles in Musical and General Literature. W. Hamilton. 1843. pp. 131–.
  54. ^ William of Wykeham and his Colleges. D. Nutt. 1852. p. i.
  55. ^ "Winchester College - The School Song: Domum". Archived from the original on 30 September 2017. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
  56. ^ The Gentleman's Magazine, 1796, vol. 66, pp. 208–210.
  57. ^ Charles Dickens, All the Year Round 29 June 1872 p 160.
  58. ^ Robert Townsend Warner, Winchester (1900) p 168.
  59. ^ Leach 1899, pp. 159–160
  60. ^ Clutton-Brock, A. (1900). Eton. George Bell and Sons. pp. 3–5.
  61. ^ Sabben-Clare 1981, pp. 177–180.
  62. ^ Leys, Colin (15 June 2012). "The Dissolution of the Mandarins: the sell-off of the British state". Open Democracy. Retrieved 6 November 2022.
  63. ^ Russell, J. H. (1991). A Pictorial History of Southern Locomotives. Haynes Publishing. p. 306.
  64. ^ Sabben-Clare 1981, pp. 198–199.
  65. ^ "James Sabben-Clare, gifted headmaster of Winchester – obituary". The Daily Telegraph. 28 March 2017. Retrieved 28 October 2022.
  66. ^ "Nicholas Tate". 27 April 2004. Archived from the original on 18 June 2006. Retrieved 28 October 2022.((cite web)): CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  67. ^ "Former Headmaster Tommy Cookson MBE Honoured". Winchester College. 11 June 2022. Archived from the original on 28 June 2022. Retrieved 28 October 2022.
  68. ^ "The long view". The Guardian. 29 November 2005. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
  69. ^ "Winchester College - Meet the Headmaster". Archived from the original on 3 October 2017. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
  70. ^ "Winchester College Welcomes New Head". Retrieved 11 February 2023.
  71. ^ Spicer, Paul (2014). Sir George Dyson: His Life and Music. Boydell & Brewer. p. 139. ISBN 978-1-84383-903-3.
  72. ^ Adams, Michael (2012). Slang: The People's Poetry. Oxford University Press. p. 38. ISBN 978-0-19-998653-8.
  73. ^ Sabben-Clare 1981, p. 178.
  74. ^ Sabben-Clare 1981, pp. 44–45.
  75. ^ a b Gwyn, Peter (1982). "The 'Tunding Row' [of 1872]. George Ridding and the belief in 'boy-government'". In Custance, Roger (ed.). Winchester College, sixth-centenary essays. Oxford University Press. pp. 431–477. ISBN 019920103X.
  76. ^ a b Sherwood, Harriet (18 January 2022). "Winchester college society was cult-like, finds report into child abuse". The Guardian.
  77. ^ a b "Review of Abuse in The 1970s and 1980s by John Smyth QC of Pupils from Winchester College". Winchester College. Retrieved 20 January 2022.
  78. ^ Laville, Sandra; Sherwood, Harriet (2 February 2017). "Public school defends role in alleged cover up of abuse at Christian camps". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
  79. ^ Sherwood, Harriet (13 August 2019). "Welby in spotlight over sadistic abuse claims at Christian camps". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
  80. ^ [The Schools Competition Act Settlement Trust "History". Archived from the original on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2011.]
  81. ^ "OFT names further trustees as part of the independent schools settlement". Office of Fair Trading. Archived from the original on 10 June 2008. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
  82. ^ "Independent schools face huge fines over cartel to fix fees". The Times. Archived from the original on 7 October 2008. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
  83. ^ "Private schools send papers to fee-fixing inquiry". The Daily Telegraph. London. 3 January 2004. Archived from the original on 25 June 2013. Retrieved 15 March 2010.
  84. ^ Adams, Callum (28 August 2017). "Exam fraud scandal at Winchester College". The Times. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
  85. ^ Adams, Richard (30 August 2017). "Eton pupils' marks disallowed over second exam paper leak". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 30 August 2017. Retrieved 30 August 2017.
  86. ^ Miranda Green (1 September 2017), The rigged crapshoot of top exam grades, The Financial Times, archived from the original on 10 October 2017

Further reading