Wind farm in Panketal
Wind farm in Panketal
German electricity by source in 2020
NuclearBrown coalHard coalNatural gasWindSolarBiomassHydroCircle frame.svg
  •   Nuclear: 60.9 TW⋅h (12.6%)
  •   Brown coal: 81.94 TW⋅h (16.9%)
  •   Hard coal: 35.56 TW⋅h (7.4%)
  •   Natural gas: 59.08 TW⋅h (12.2%)
  •   Wind: 131.69 TW⋅h (27.2%)
  •   Solar: 50.7 TW⋅h (10.5%)
  •   Biomass: 45.45 TW⋅h (9.4%)
  •   Hydro: 18.27 TW⋅h (3.8%)
Net generated electricity in 2020[1]
Wind park in Bernburg, consisting entirely of Enercons
Wind park in Bernburg, consisting entirely of Enercons
Erection of an Enercon E70-4 in Germany
Erection of an Enercon E70-4 in Germany

Wind power in Germany is a growing industry. The installed capacity was 55.6 gigawatts (GW) at the end of 2017, with 5.2 GW from offshore installations. In 2019, a quarter of the country's total electricity was generated using wind power,[2] compared to an estimated 9.3% in 2010.[3]

More than 26,772 wind turbines were located in the German federal area by year end 2015, and the country has plans for further expansion.[4][5] As of the end of 2015, Germany was the third largest producer of wind power in the world by installations, behind China and the USA.[6] Germany also has a number of turbine manufacturers, like Enercon, Nordex and Senvion.

In the first half of 2021, with 22% a contribution to German electric generation, wind was the second most important contributor, following coal, which was the top producer, with 27%. In 2020 wind was the top generator.[7]

Onshore wind power

Since 1995, onshore wind energy has been an important and major industry in Germany.[citation needed] In 1995, the gross production of onshore wind power was 1,530 GWh. By 2019, gross production from onshore wind power was over 101,000 GWh, allowing Germany to power about a fifth of the country from wind.[8] Larger onshore installations are in the works, which could possibly see a larger percentage of wind energy powering Germany.[citation needed] Germany is also notable for having some major wind turbine manufacturers based there, such as Enercon in Aurich, Senvion in Hamburg, and Nordex in Rostock.

Offshore wind power

Offshore wind farms in the German Bight
Offshore wind farms in the German Bight

See also: List of offshore wind farms in Germany, List of offshore wind farms in the North Sea, and List of offshore wind farms in the Baltic Sea

Offshore wind energy also has great potential in Germany.[9] Wind speed at sea is 70 to 100% higher than onshore and much more constant. As of 2007, a new generation of 5 MW or larger wind turbines which are capable of making full use of the potential of wind power at sea had been developed. This made it possible to operate offshore wind farms in a cost-effective way.[10]

On 15 July 2009, the first offshore German windturbine completed construction. This turbine is the first of a total of 12 wind turbines for the alpha ventus offshore wind farm in the North Sea.[11]

Following the 2011 Japanese nuclear accidents, Germany's federal government began work on a new plan for increasing renewable energy commercialization, with a particular focus on offshore wind farms.[12] Under the plan, large wind turbines were to be erected far away from the coastlines, where the wind blows more consistently than it does on land, and where the enormous turbines won't bother the inhabitants. The plan aimed to decrease Germany's dependence on energy derived from coal and nuclear power plants.[13] The German government wanted to see 7.6 GW installed by 2020 and as much as 26 GW by 2030.[14]

A major challenge was the lack of sufficient network capacities for transmitting the power generated in the North Sea to the large industrial consumers in southern Germany.[15]

In 2014 410 turbines with 1747 megawatts were added to Germany's offshore windparks. Due to not yet finished grid-connections, only turbines with combined 528.9 megawatts were added to the grid feed at the end of 2014. Despite this, the gigawatt offshore windpower barrier was reportedly breached by Germany around the end of 2014[16] During 2015 offshore windpower was tripled to over 3 gigawatts capacity, signalling the growing importance of this sector.[17]

At the end of 2019, Germany had installed 1,469 offshore wind turbines with a total capacity of 7,516 MW. Capacity in the North Sea reached 6.440 GW, capacity in the Baltic Sea reached 1.076 GW. In total, 25.8 TWh of power were produced in German offshore wind parks in 2019.[18]

Government support

Since 2011, Germany's federal government has been working on a new plan for increasing renewable energy commercialization,[19] with a particular focus on offshore wind farms.[13]

In 2016, Germany decided to replace feed-in tariffs with auctions from 2017, citing the mature nature of the windpower market being best served in this way.[20] These auctions have resulted in some future offshore wind farms to be operated at market prices and receive no subsidy.[21]

Energy transition

Main article: Energy Transition in Germany

See also: Nuclear power in Germany and Renewable energy in Germany

Energy transition scenario in Germany
Energy transition scenario in Germany

The 2010 "Energiewende" policy has been embraced by the German federal government and has resulted in a huge expansion of renewables, particularly wind power. Germany's share of renewables has increased from around 5% in 1999 to 17% in 2010, reaching close to the OECD average of 18% usage of renewables.[22] Producers have been guaranteed a fixed feed-in tariff for 20 years, guaranteeing a fixed income. Energy co-operatives have been created, and efforts were made to decentralize control and profits. The large energy companies have a disproportionately small share of the renewables market. Nuclear power plants were closed, and the existing 9 plants will close earlier than necessary, in 2022.

The reduction of reliance on nuclear plants has so far had the consequence of increased reliance on fossil fuels and on electricity imports from France. However, in good wind Germany exports to France; in January 2015 the average price was €29/MWh in Germany, and €39/MWh in France.[23] One factor that has inhibited efficient employment of new renewable energy has been the lack of an accompanying investment in power infrastructure (SüdLink) to bring the power to market.[22][24] The transmission constraint sometimes causes Germany to pay Danish wind power to stop producing; in October/November 2015 this amounted to 96 GWh costing 1.8 million euros.[25]

The German states have varying attitudes to the construction of new power lines. Industry has had their rates frozen and so the increased costs of the Energiewende have been passed on to consumers, who have had rising electricity bills. Germans in 2013 had some of the highest electricity costs in Europe.[26]

Public opinion

Wind power Germany 2016 fact sheet: electricity generation, development, investments, capacity, employment and the public opinion.[5]
Wind power Germany 2016 fact sheet: electricity generation, development, investments, capacity, employment and the public opinion.[5]

Wind power has had very high social acceptance in Germany since 2008.[27]

In Germany, hundreds of thousands of people have invested in citizens' wind farms across the country and thousands of small and medium-sized enterprises are running successful businesses in a new sector that in 2015 employed 142,900 people and generated 12.3 percent of Germany's electricity in 2016.[28]

However, more recently, there has been increasing local resistance to the expansion of wind power in Germany, due to its impact on the landscape, incidences of removal of forests to build wind turbines, the emission of low frequency noise,[29][30] and the negative impact on wildlife, such as birds of prey and bats.[31][32]

Repowering

Repowering, the replacement of first-generation wind turbines with modern multi-megawatt machines, is occurring in Germany. Modern turbines make better use of available wind energy and so more wind power can come from the same area of land. Modern turbines also offer much better grid integration since they use a connection method similar to conventional power plants.[33][34]

Statistics

Annual Wind Power in Germany 1990-2015, shown in a semi-log plot with installed capacity (MW) in red and power generated (GWh) in blue
Annual Wind Power in Germany 1990-2015, shown in a semi-log plot with installed capacity (MW) in red and power generated (GWh) in blue

Installed wind power capacity and generation in recent years is shown in the tables below:

Total

Total installed capacity and generation in Germany (land and sea-based combined)[17]
Year 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Installed Capacity (MW) 55 106 174 326 618 1,121 1,549 2,089 2,877 4,435
Generation (GW·h) 71 100 275 600 909 1,500 2,032 2,966 4,489 5,528
Capacity factor 14.74% 10.77% 18.04% 21.01% 16.79% 15.28% 14.98% 16.21% 17.81% 14.23%
Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Installed Capacity (MW) 6,097 8,738 11,976 14,381 16,419 18,248 20,474 22,116 22,794 25,732
Generation (GW·h) 9,513 10,509 15,786 18,713 25,509 27,229 30,710 39,713 40,574 38,648
Capacity Factor 17.81% 13.73% 15.05% 14.64% 17.53% 16.92% 17.04% 20.44% 19.45% 17.19%
Year 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017[35] 2018[36] 2019[37]
Installed Capacity (MW) 26,903 28,712 30,979 33,477 38,614 44,541 49,534 55,550 59,420 61,357
Generation (GW·h) 37,795 48,891 50,681 51,721 57,379 79,206 77,412 103,650 111,410 127,230
Capacity Factor 16.04% 19.44% 18.68% 17.75% 17.07% 20.43% 17.95% 21.30% 21.40% 23.67%
Year 2020[38]
Installed Capacity (MW) 62,708
Generation (GW·h) 131,700
Capacity Factor 23.97%

Offshore only

Total installed capacity and generation (sea-based only) [17]
Year 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
Installed Capacity (MW) 30 80 188 268 622 994 3,297 4,150 5,260 7,600 7,740 7,770
Generation (GW·h) 38 176 577 732 918 1,471 8,284 12,365 17,420[39] 19,070[39] 24,400[40] 27,000[41] 24,000[42]
Generation in the North Sea (in TWh) 20.2 22.8 18.5
Generation in the Baltic Sea (in TWh) 4.1 4.2 3.5
% of Wind Gen. 0.1 0.5 1.2 1.4 1.8 2.6 10.5 16.0 16.8 14.99 19.2 20 21.1
Capacity Factor 14.46% 25.11% 35.04% 31.18% 16.85% 19.94% 28.68% 34.01% 37.81% 36.6% 39.82% 35.26%

By State

This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (May 2018)
Geographic distribution of wind farms in Germany
Geographic distribution of wind farms in Germany
Installed capacity and wind share of annual electricity consumption by state in June 2018[43]
State No. Turbines Installed Capacity [MW] Share in the net electrical energy
consumption [% in 2011]
 Saxony-Anhalt 2,861 5,121 48.11
 Brandenburg 3,791 6,983 47.65
 Schleswig-Holstein 3,653 6,894 46.46
 Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 1,911 3,325 46.09
 Lower Saxony 6,277 10,981 24.95
 Thuringia 863 1,573 12.0
 Rhineland-Palatinate 1,739 3,553 9.4
 Saxony 892 1,205 8.0
 Bremen 91 198 4.7
 North Rhine-Westphalia 3,708 5,703 3.9
 Hesse 1,141 2,144 2.8
 Saarland 198 449 2.5
 Bavaria 1,159 2,510 1.3
 Baden-Württemberg 719 1,507 0.9
 Hamburg 63 123 0.7
 Berlin 5 12 0.0
offshore North Sea 997 4,695
offshore Baltic Sea 172 692
Germany Total 30,240 57669 17,6

See also

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