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Wuhu
芜湖市
Wuhu Skyline, December 2019.jpg
Location of Wuhu in Anhui
Location of Wuhu in Anhui
Coordinates (Wuhu municipal government): 31°21′09″N 118°25′59″E / 31.3526°N 118.4331°E / 31.3526; 118.4331Coordinates: 31°21′09″N 118°25′59″E / 31.3526°N 118.4331°E / 31.3526; 118.4331
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceAnhui
County-level divisions8
Municipal seatJiujiang District
Government
 • Party SecretaryPan Zhaohui (潘朝晖)
 • MayorHe Maoxie (贺懋燮)
Area
 • Prefecture-level city6,010.9 km2 (2,320.8 sq mi)
 • Urban
2,157 km2 (833 sq mi)
 • Metro
1,172.9 km2 (452.9 sq mi)
Elevation
7.9 m (26 ft)
Population
 (2020 census)[1]
 • Prefecture-level city3,644,420
 • Density610/km2 (1,600/sq mi)
 • Urban
2,151,368
 • Urban density1,000/km2 (2,600/sq mi)
 • Metro
1,622,799
 • Metro density1,400/km2 (3,600/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Area code0553
ISO 3166 codeCN-AH-02
GDP (2017)¥306.552 billion
GDP per capita¥82942 US$12284
License Plate Prefix皖B
Websitewww.wuhu.gov.cn

Wuhu (simplified Chinese: 芜湖; traditional Chinese: 蕪湖; pinyin: Wúhú; lit. 'Weedy Lake') is a prefecture-level city in southeastern Anhui province, China. Sitting on the southeast bank of the Yangtze River, Wuhu borders Xuancheng to the southeast, Chizhou and Tongling to the southwest, Hefei city to the northwest, Ma'anshan city to the northeast, Jiangsu Province to the east, and is approximately 90 km (56 mi) southwest of Nanjing. With the urbanization trend in the southern part of Nanjing, a conurbation between Nanjing, Maanshan and Wuhu is in building with more than 10,660,000 inhabitants.

Administration

The prefecture-level city of Wuhu administers 8 county-level divisions, including 5 districts, 1 county, and 1 county-level city.[2]

Name Simplified Chinese Pinyin Population Postal Code
Jinghu District 镜湖区 Jìnghú Qū 478,658 241000
Yijiang District 弋江区 Yìjiāng Qū 422,620 241002
Jiujiang District 鸠江区 Jiūjiāng Qū 721,521 241000
Wanzhi District 湾沚区 Wānzhǐ Qū 344,016 241100
Fanchang District 繁昌区 Fánchāng Qū 243,907 241200
Nanling County 南陵县 Nánlíng Xiàn 431,148 241300
Wuwei city 无为市 Wúwéi Shì 817,997 238300
Map

Geography

Climate data for Wuhu (1981–2010 normals)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 7.5
(45.5)
9.8
(49.6)
14.4
(57.9)
21.1
(70.0)
26.7
(80.1)
29.4
(84.9)
32.9
(91.2)
32.3
(90.1)
28.1
(82.6)
22.9
(73.2)
16.6
(61.9)
10.3
(50.5)
21.0
(69.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) 3.6
(38.5)
5.8
(42.4)
10.0
(50.0)
16.4
(61.5)
21.9
(71.4)
25.4
(77.7)
28.9
(84.0)
28.2
(82.8)
23.9
(75.0)
18.4
(65.1)
11.9
(53.4)
6.0
(42.8)
16.7
(62.0)
Average low °C (°F) 0.8
(33.4)
2.7
(36.9)
6.5
(43.7)
12.4
(54.3)
17.9
(64.2)
22.0
(71.6)
25.7
(78.3)
25.2
(77.4)
20.8
(69.4)
15.0
(59.0)
8.4
(47.1)
2.8
(37.0)
13.4
(56.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 59.0
(2.32)
66.2
(2.61)
108.5
(4.27)
102.5
(4.04)
116.7
(4.59)
202.5
(7.97)
185.7
(7.31)
129.7
(5.11)
81.4
(3.20)
59.0
(2.32)
63.0
(2.48)
36.8
(1.45)
1,211
(47.67)
Average relative humidity (%) 77 76 75 74 73 78 79 80 79 76 76 74 76
Source: China Meteorological Administration[3]

Demographics

Population

As of the 2020 Chinese census, Wuhu had a total population of 3,644,420 inhabitants whom 1,622,799 lived its built-up (or metro) area made of Jiujiang District, Jinghu District and Yijiang District. The city has over 47 ethnic minorities present — the largest being the Muslim population. There are other ethnic minorities with over 500 inhabitants in the city: Yi, Tujia, Miao, Zhuang, and Manchu.

Language

Jiang-Huai Mandarin, a branch of Mandarin Chinese, is widely spoken in urban area, while some people in the counties speak Wu Chinese. Putonghua, or Standard Mandarin, was commonly used in this area.

History

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A heritage building: the No. 11 Middle School in Wuhu
A heritage building: the No. 11 Middle School in Wuhu

Wuhu is known to have been inhabited since at least 770 BCE. It became a strategically important town during the Three Kingdoms period (220-280 AD), when it was controlled by the Eastern Wu. At this time it was known as Jiuzi (Chiu-tzu 鸠兹). Under the Ming dynasty, Wuhu developed into a major commercial center and river port and since that time has been known as a center of the rice trade.

In 1644, the Hongguang Emperor (better known as the Prince of Fu), one of the last emperors of the Ming Dynasty, was captured by forces of the new Qing Dynasty in Wuhu. During the Taiping Rebellion, Wuhu exchanges hands over five times between Taiping and Imperial forces. The city became a treaty port in 1876 and has remained a commercial center since that time. The city's Roman Catholic cathedral, St. Joseph's Cathedral (圣若瑟主教座堂), dates from this time. Most of the downtown area alongside the Yangtze River was ceded in the British concession.

"Ufu". Nieuhof: L'ambassade de la Compagnie Orientale des Provinces Unies vers l'Empereur de la Chine, 1665
"Ufu". Nieuhof: L'ambassade de la Compagnie Orientale des Provinces Unies vers l'Empereur de la Chine, 1665
Zhongjiang Pagoda in the late 19th century.
Zhongjiang Pagoda in the late 19th century.

Trade in rice, wood, and tea flourished at Wuhu until the Warlord Era of the 1920s and 1930s, when bandits were active in the area.

At the beginning of the Second Sino-Japanese War, part of the Second World War, Wuhu was occupied by Japan on December 10, 1937. This was a prelude to the Battle of Nanjing, ending in the Nanjing Massacre. Under Japanese occupation, Chinese resistance fighters hid in the lakes around Wuhu by submerging themselves and breathing through reeds.

Major industries began to be developed in Wuhu after the Second World War, with the development of the textile industry, shipbuilding, and paper mills. Despite this, Wuhu had been lagging behind Ma'anshan and Tongling in industrial production for decades after the establishment of the People's Republic of China and remained primarily a commercial center for trade in rice, silk, cotton, tea, wheat and eggs. However, with recent years' economic rise, Wuhu has become a hub for manufacturing.

In July 2016, Nanling and Wuwei counties suffered serious damage from heavy rain.

Economy

The city is the second largest economy in Anhui, after Hefei, the provincial capital. In 2019, Wuhu's GDP reached RMB 361.826 billion. Its per capita GDP was RMB 96533 (app.$13790).[4]

Wuhu Economic & Technological Development Area in the north of the city launched in 1993 is one of the first state-level economic and technological development area in Anhui province. It has the only export processing zone in the province.[5][page needed] Chery Automobile and Anhui Conch Cement Company are headquartered in this development area.

Wuhu is the fifth largest port alongside Yangtze River. Yuxikou Pier is the largest inland river coal harbor in China.

Transportation

Bus

Buses in Wuhu start at ¥1 for a general bus and ¥2 for air-conditioned buses.

Taxi

During the day, taxis start at ¥7; after 2.5 km, the price increases at ¥1.8 per km. From 10 p.m. to 5 a.m. taxis start at ¥8 and after 2.5 km, the prices increase at a rate of ¥2.5 for each additional km. There is a free 4 minutes of waiting time due to traffic/red lights. Afterwards it's an additional ¥0.34 for every minute during the day and ¥0.38 for every minute at night.

Airport

The city is served by the Wuhu Xuanzhou Airport which opened on April 30, 2021.

Bridge

the Wuhu Yangtze River Bridge

Wuhu has one Yangtze River crossing—the Wuhu Yangtze River Bridge, opened in 2000, carries the G5011 Wuhu–Hefei Expressway and Huainan Railway.

Train

Wuhu is served by the Anhui–Jiangxi, Nanjing–Tongling and Huainan Railways. It only takes 2.5 hours from Shanghai to Wuhu by high-speed train.

Metro system

Main article: Wuhu Rail Transit

Wuhu Rail Transit consists of two lines (Lines 1 and 2) which opened on November 3 and December 28, 2021.[6][7]

Culture

The acclaimed poet Li Bai spent his late life in Wuhu, it is said, due to its striking landscape. Li Bai was born in Suyab, an ancient Silk Road city in Central Asian, and raised in southwestern China. Xie Tiao, one of the most distinctive Six Dynasty poets whom he greatly admired, left many poems when holding positions here.

During the Tang dynasty (619-907), the poet Du Mu wrote a famous poem Thoughts on Staying Again at Wuhu.

A factory in Wuhu carries on the local craft of making wrought iron pictures. Other local handicrafts are embossed lacquerware and rice straw pith patchwork. A famous stone tablet in Wuhu recording local events of the Song dynasty period (ca. 1000 AD) is considered to be a masterpiece of the renowned calligrapher Mi Fu.

Folklore

An itinerant blacksmith named Tang Tianchi is reputed to have invented the wrought-iron picture in Wuhu, when a painter whom he admired chided him, "You will never make pictures by beating iron."

Another blacksmith of the Spring and Autumn period (770-476 BC) named Gan Jiang was famous for sword making. Zhe Shan (Reddish Brown Hill) is said to get its colour from the flames of Gan Jiang's furnace. Shen Shan (Sacred Hill) is the legendary location of his sword grinding rock and tempering pool.

Cuisine

Wuhu and Anqing are noted centers of the Yanjiang cuisine. It specializes in freshwater fish and poultry, and features special techniques of chopping, shaping, and colouring. The flavour of Yanjiang dishes is often enhanced by sweetening and smoking.

Religion/Medicine

The New York Methodist Mission Society's Superintendent Virgil C. Hart arrived in Wuhu in 1881, intent on purchasing a piece of property to build the city's first Methodist Church and Western-style hospital. Hart was able to secure the Yichisan Hill before the British, who wanted the property to build a consulate and naval base[citation needed]. The Yichisan Hospital is Anhui's oldest/continuous western hospital. Dr. Edgerton H. Hart (V.C. Hart's eldest son) became the hospital's Director in 1895 and continued at that capacity until his death in April 1913.[8] Caroline Maddock arrived in Wuhu in October, 1904, to serve as the General Hospital's Head Nurse. Caroline Maddock married Dr. Edgerton Hart in October 1907. In 1909, Caroline and four other nurses founded the Nurses Association of China and she served as its first president; this association still represents China's Nurse profession.[9][10]

Heritage and Tourism

Several sites in Wuhu have been included on the China's List of Major National Historical and Cultural Sites. They include the Guangji Temple (广济寺), a Buddhist temple originally dating back to the Tang dynasty that contains the Zhe pagoda, an edifice from the Northern Song dynasty.

Zhe pagoda in Guangji Temple, dating to the Northern Song dynasty
Zhe pagoda in Guangji Temple, dating to the Northern Song dynasty

Other listed monuments date back to the 19th century, when Wuhu was a British treaty port. These include St. Joseph Cathedral, the site of the former British Consulate, the former Customs Building on the Yangtze River and the site of the former St. James Secondary School.[11]

Other touristic sites in Wuhu:

Education

Universities and Colleges
High Schools

Health care system

Notable hospitals[citation needed]
Related health care settings

Notable people

Notable constructions

Sister cities and friendly cities

References

  1. ^ "China: Ānhuī (Prefectures, Cities, Districts and Counties) - Population Statistics, Charts and Map".
  2. ^ "重磅!国务院批复同意芜湖市部分行政区划调整-新华网". csj.xinhuanet.com. Archived from the original on July 6, 2020. Retrieved 2020-07-06.
  3. ^ 中国气象数据网 - WeatherBk Data (in Chinese (China)). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2020-04-12.
  4. ^ "Wuhu ( Anhui ) City Information". hktdc.com. 2010-09-16. Retrieved 2011-09-06.
  5. ^ 芜湖经济技术开发区. Weda.gov.cn. Retrieved 2011-09-06.
  6. ^ "Wuhu driverless monorail line opens". PEOPLEMOVERS & MONORAILS. 4 November 2021. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
  7. ^ "The first phase of Wuhu Rail Transit Line 2 opened for operation". Seetao. 30 December 2021. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
  8. ^ "Man On A Mission" by Stanley Crawford
  9. ^ "About Yijishan Hospital". First Affiliated Hospital of Wannan Medical College. Retrieved 14 May 2022.
  10. ^ Crawford Green, Cathleen; Crawford, Stanley; Maddock Hart, Caroline (2014-05-01). Wuhu Missionaries. Eye Soar, Inc. p. 262. ISBN 9780991608232.
  11. ^ "Major Historical and Cultural Sites of China - Announcement of Batch 8". Archived from the original on 2019-10-16.