.mw-parser-output .hidden-begin{box-sizing:border-box;width:100%;padding:5px;border:none;font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .hidden-title{font-weight:bold;line-height:1.6;text-align:left}.mw-parser-output .hidden-content{text-align:left}This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in Russian. (November 2020) Click [show] for important translation instructions. Machine translation, like DeepL or Google Translate, is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Consider adding a topic to this template: there are already 2,804 articles in the main category, and specifying|topic= will aid in categorization. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary is Content in this edit is translated from the existing Russian Wikipedia article at [[:ru:Енисей (ракета-носитель)]]; see its history for attribution. You should also add the template ((Translated|ru|Енисей (ракета-носитель))) to the talk page. For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation.
FunctionOrbital Launch Vehicle
ManufacturerRSC Energia
Country of originRussia
Project cost1.5 trln Roubles (USD ~$20.8 billion)
Diameter4.1 m
Mass3167 tons
Stages2 (Don - 3)
Payload to low Earth orbit
Mass103–140 metric tons (101–138 long tons)
Associated rockets
Launch history
StatusDevelopment Postponed.

Yenisei (Russian: Енисей), project name RN STK-1 (Raketa-Nositel' SverkhTyazhologo Klassa - Carrier rocket super-heavy class), was the first super-heavy launch vehicle being developed by the Russian space industry since the fall of the USSR. The main developer is RSC Energia.

It is being developed within the framework of the federal target program "Creation of a super-heavy class space rocket complex for 2020–2030"[1] and the program cost is estimated at 1.5 trillion roubles (US$1.6 billion). It is the main rocket of the Russian Lunar program.

The final design for the rocket was expected to be complete by autumn 2021,[2] but the program appears to have been paused or stopped just before this expected completion date.

The first launch is expected to happen in 2028 from the Vostochny cosmodrome.[3]

Based on the Yenisei launch vehicle, the Don launch vehicle (RN STK-2) is being developed by adding another stage.[4]

It looks like this proposal has been at least paused.[5]

Anatoly Zak
image icon Roadmap with two rockets on the right Yenisei and Don respectively
image icon "Irtysh" "Soyuz-5" is a basis for the first stage
image icon "Volga" "Soyuz-6" will be used as a basis for second stage
image icon "Yenisei"
image icon "Yenisei" (cutaway)
image icon "Don"


The rocket got its name at the end of 2018, before that it was called "RN STK" (super-heavy launch vehicle).

Chronology of development.

Event Date
Start of work on the creation of the RD-171MV engine June 2017
Start of research work on RD-0150 engine June 2017
Preliminary estimate of the cost of R&D on the RN STK October 2017
Decree of the President of the Russian Federation on the creation of the RN STK January 2018
Official name for RN STK January 2019
Feasibility study of the RN STK project Spring 2019
Draft design 2018–2019
R&D, design, and construction works 2020–2028
Flight tests from 2028

Planned events


The first stage will consist of 6 blocks, each block will be based on the first stage of the planned Irtysh / Soyuz-5 rocket with an RD-171MV engine.[7]

Anatoly Zak
image icon Roadmap with two rockets on the right Yenisei and Don respectively
image icon "Irtysh" "Soyuz-5" is a basis for the first stage
image icon "Volga" "Soyuz-6" will be used as a basis for second stage
image icon "Yenisei"
image icon "Yenisei" (cutaway)
image icon "Don"

The second stage will consist of one block - matching the first stage of Soyuz-6 - with RD-180 as engine.[7]

The upper stage will be KVTK[7]

Accelerating braking unit:[clarification needed] Block DM[7]

Proposed variants

Name of a rocket Yenisei[8][7][9][10] Don[8][10]
Type Stage one Stage two
First launch 2028 2032–2035
First stage 6xRD-171MV 6xRD-171MV
Second stage RD-180 RD-180
Third stage - 2×RD-0150
Upper stage KVTK, 2×RD-0146 KVTK, 2×RD-0146
Accelerating braking unit DM, 11D58MF DM, 11D58MF
Height (max.)
Launch weight, t 3167 3281
Thrust (at ground level)
Thrust-to-weight ratio
Payload (LEO 200 km), t 103 140
Payload (GTO 5500 km), t
Payload (GEO 35,786 km), t 26 29.5
Payload to TLI 27 33

Flight tests

Flight tests of a super-heavy launch vehicle will take place in two stages from 2028 to 2035.[11]

The first stage of testing will take place in 2028–2032. It involves the launch of a crewed spacecraft, a lunar take-off and landing complex (LVPK) and other payloads on the trajectory of the flight around the Moon and circumlunar orbits in order to work out the elements of a crewed complex, create a station in the orbit of the Moon, and land on the lunar surface.

The second stage of testing will take place in 2032–2035. It is planned to launch LVPK and other uncrewed payloads for the construction and operation of a base on the lunar surface. In addition, this stage involves participation in international programs related to the study of Mars.


The super-heavy rocket is supposed to be used in the Russian lunar program, since the carrying capacity of the Angara-A5V launch vehicle (37.5 tons to LEO) is insufficient for these purposes.

Lunar program payloads

Satellite constellation

See also


  1. ^ "Russia has developed the concept of the Federal Target Program for the creation of a super-heavy rocket (in Russian)". Ria Novosti. 28 May 2019.
  2. ^ a b "The design of the Russian super-heavy rocket will be completed in 2021 (In Russian)". Izvestia. 23 August 2020.
  3. ^ "Roskosmos has named the timing of the launch of a super-heavy rocket (in Russian)". Ria Novosti. 17 July 2018.
  4. ^ "Possible dates for the launch of the Don super-heavy rocket have been named (in Russian)". Ria Novosti. 14 February 2019.
  5. ^ "Better late than never: why the development of the Yenisei launch vehicle was stopped". 17 September 2021.
  6. ^ "Russian super-heavy rocket will be able to launch at least 70 tons of cargo into orbit (In Russian)". TASS. 14 July 2017.
  7. ^ a b c d e "New generation locomotives (in Russian)". Russkiy Kosmos. 15: 34–39. 2020.
  8. ^ a b "Roscosmos unveils characteristics of super-heavy rockets for flights to the Moon (In Russian)". Ria Novosti. 24 April 2019.
  9. ^ "The Yenisei super-heavy rocket". RussianSpaceWeb.
  10. ^ a b "Transformation of Roscosmos". Russki Kosmos. 7: 2–7. July 2019.
  11. ^ "RSC Energia: flight tests of the Soyuz-5 rocket will take place from 2022 to 2025 (In Russian)". TASS. 3 July 2018.