Yokkaichi
四日市市
Yokkaichi Port Building&Yokkaichi Port
Hureai mallYokkaichi Municipal Museum
Yokkaichi kombinatYokkaichi-Tonteki
Yokkaichi City skyline

Location of Yokkaichi in Mie Prefecture
Yokkaichi
Yokkaichi
 
Coordinates: 34°57′54.1″N 136°37′27.9″E / 34.965028°N 136.624417°E / 34.965028; 136.624417Coordinates: 34°57′54.1″N 136°37′27.9″E / 34.965028°N 136.624417°E / 34.965028; 136.624417
CountryJapan
RegionKansai
PrefectureMie
Government
 • MayorTomohiro Mori
Area
 • Total206.44 km2 (79.71 sq mi)
Population
 (August 2021)
 • Total310,259
 • Density1,500/km2 (3,900/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+9 (Japan Standard Time)
- TreeCinnamomum camphora
- FlowerSalvia splendens
-BirdBlack-headed gull
Phone number059-354-8244
Address1-5 Suwa-chō, Yokkaichi-shi, Mie-ken 510-8601
WebsiteOfficial website

Yokkaichi (四日市市, Yokkaichi-shi) is a city located in Mie Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 August 2021, the city had an estimated population of 310,259 in 142162 households and a population density of 1500 persons per km².[1] The total area of the city is 206.44 square kilometres (79.71 sq mi).

Geography

Yokkaichi is located in north-central of Mie Prefecture, part of the northeastern Kii Peninsula. It stretches the width of Mie Prefecture, and is bordered by Ise Bay on the Pacific Ocean to the east, and Shiga Prefecture to the northwest.

Neighboring municipalities

Mie Prefecture

Shiga Prefecture

Climate

Yokkaichi has a Humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) characterized by warm summers and cool winters with light to no snowfall. The average annual temperature in Yokkaichi is 14.9 °C. The average annual rainfall is 1737 mm with September as the wettest month. The temperatures are highest on average in August, at around 26.5 °C, and lowest in January, at around 3.6 °C.[2]

Climate data for Yokkaichi, Mie
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 8.6
(47.5)
8.9
(48.0)
12.0
(53.6)
17.9
(64.2)
22.1
(71.8)
25.1
(77.2)
28.6
(83.5)
30.5
(86.9)
26.9
(80.4)
21.5
(70.7)
16.5
(61.7)
11.3
(52.3)
19.2
(66.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.3
(39.7)
4.6
(40.3)
7.5
(45.5)
13.3
(55.9)
17.8
(64.0)
21.4
(70.5)
25.0
(77.0)
26.4
(79.5)
22.7
(72.9)
16.9
(62.4)
11.8
(53.2)
6.7
(44.1)
14.9
(58.8)
Average low °C (°F) 0.3
(32.5)
0.7
(33.3)
2.9
(37.2)
8.7
(47.7)
13.4
(56.1)
17.9
(64.2)
22.0
(71.6)
23.1
(73.6)
19.3
(66.7)
12.6
(54.7)
7.3
(45.1)
2.4
(36.3)
10.9
(51.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 43.1
(1.70)
66.8
(2.63)
118.7
(4.67)
173.2
(6.82)
180.0
(7.09)
263.9
(10.39)
268.5
(10.57)
167.7
(6.60)
241.1
(9.49)
128.2
(5.05)
86.0
(3.39)
40.6
(1.60)
1,777.8
(70)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 7
(2.8)
6
(2.4)
1
(0.4)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
14
(5.6)
Average relative humidity (%) 63 63 62 67 71 79 82 79 77 71 67 65 71
Mean monthly sunshine hours 152.0 141.9 174.0 171.2 198.2 145.9 155.7 187.7 133.7 158.3 152.0 158.2 1,928.8
Source: NOAA (1961-1990) [3]

Demographics

Per Japanese census data,[4] the population of Yokkaichi has increased steadily over the past 60 years.

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1960 206,379—    
1970 241,409+17.0%
1980 266,756+10.5%
1990 285,015+6.8%
2000 302,102+6.0%
2010 307,807+1.9%

History

Suwa park exchange hall
Suwa park exchange hall

The area around modern Yokkaichi has been settled since prehistoric times. Numerous Kofun period burial mounds have been discovered, and the area was one of the battle sites of the Asuka period Jinshin War. However, until the end of the Heian period, the area was sparsely settled, and the site of Yokkaichi was only a small port village. The area developed during the Kamakura period and by the Azuchi–Momoyama period, the port was developed and a regular market was opened on the 4th, 14th, and 24th day each month. Thus, the city is named Yokkaichi: "yokka" means fourth day, and "ichi" means market. After the Honnō-ji Incident during which warlord Oda Nobunaga was assassinated, Tokugawa Ieyasu fled from Yokkaichi port by sea to his castle at Edo. Under the Tokugawa shogunate, Yokkaichi was tenryō territory controlled directly by the shōgun and administered by a daikan based at the Yokkaichi Jin'ya. Throughout the Edo period, the area prospered as Yokkaichi-juku, the forty-third station on the Tōkaidō highway connecting Edo with Kyoto. However, the city was largely destroyed by the Ansei great earthquakes.

Following the Meiji Restoration, Yokkaichi Town was established with the creation of the modern municipalities system on April 1, 1889 and was designated the capital of Mie Prefecture. Yokkaichi's port advanced remarkably during the Meiji period, primarily under the guidance of Inaba Sanuemon, a resident merchant interested in increasing trade in the Yokkaichi and Ise area by modernizing the port facilities. Starting in 1872, the project took 12 years to complete due to typhoons and difficulties in financing the project. This led to the port city being designated an Official International Port in 1899[5] The primary trade items shipped through Yokkaichi were originally seed oil, Banko ware, and Ise tea; but now it has developed into a port that handles cotton, wool, glass, and heavy equipment. Yokkaichi was elevated to city status on August 1, 1897.

From 1939, Yokkaichi became a center for the chemical industry, with the Imperial Japanese Navy constructing a large refinery near the port area. Yokkaichi was one of the first cities bombed by the United States during World War II, when on April 18, 1942, the city was attacked by aircraft from the Doolittle Raid. During the final stages of World War II, on June 18, 1945, 89 B-29 Superfortress bombers dropped 11,000 incendiary bombs destroying 35% of the urban area and killing 736 people. This attack on Yokkaichi was followed by another eight air raids until August 8, 1945, killing another 808 people.

From 1960 to 1972, the city residents suffered health problems caused by the emission of SOx into the atmosphere from local petrochemical and chemical plants. In Japan, a disease called Yokkaichi zensoku (Yokkaichi asthma) derives its name from the city, and it is considered one of the Four Big Pollution Diseases of Japan.

Downtown Yokkaichi
Downtown Yokkaichi

Yokkaichi attained special city status on November 1, 2000, with increased local autonomy.

On February 7, 2005, the town of Kusu (from Mie District) was merged into Yokkaichi.

Government

Yokkaichi has a mayor-council form of government with a directly elected mayor and a unicameral city council of 34 members. Yokkaichi contributes seven members to the Mie Prefectural Assembly. In terms of national politics, the city is divided between Mie 2nd district and Mie 3rd district of the lower house of the Diet of Japan.

Economy

Yokkaichi is a manufacturing center that produces Banko ware (a kind of porcelain), automobiles, cotton textiles, chemicals, tea, cement, and computer parts such as flash memory by Toshiba subsidiary Yokkaichi Toshiba Electronics.

Education

Yokkaichi Nursing and Medical Care University
Universities
Primary and secondary education

Yokkaichi has 38 public elementary schools and 22 public middles schools operated by the city government and there are three private middle schools. The city also operates one special education school for the handicapped. The city has ten public high schools operated by the Mie Prefectural Board of Education and five private high schools. Ten prefecture also operates two special education schools for the handicapped.

International schools

Transportation

Kintetsu Yokkaichi Station
Yokkaichi Chuo-dori St
Yokkaichi Chuo-dori St
Yokkaichi Port

Railway

JR TōkaiKansai Main Line

Kintetsu RailwayNagoya Line

Kintetsu RailwayYunoyama Line

Yokkaichi Asunarou Railway – Utsube Line

Yokkaichi Asunarou Railway – Hachiōji Line

Sangi Railway – Sangi Line

Highway

Seaports

Local attractions

Festivals and events

International relations

Yokkaichi has two sister cities and one sister port.

Notable people from Yokkaichi

References

  1. ^ "Yokkaichi city official statistics" (in Japanese). Japan.
  2. ^ Yokkaichi climate data
  3. ^ "Yokkaichi Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved January 5, 2013.
  4. ^ Yokkaichi population statistics
  5. ^ US Department of State. (1906). A digest of international law as embodied in diplomatic discussions, treaties and other international agreements (John Bassett Moore, ed.), Vol. 5, p. 759.
  6. ^ "Escolas Brasileiras Homologadas no Japão" (Archived 2015-10-18 at the Wayback Machine). Embassy of Brazil in Tokyo. Retrieved on October 13, 2015.
  7. ^ ウリハッキョ一覧. Chongryon. Retrieved October 14, 2015.)) (Archived 2015-12-19 at the Wayback Machine).
  8. ^ "International Exchange". List of Affiliation Partners within Prefectures. Council of Local Authorities for International Relations (CLAIR). Retrieved 21 November 2015.
  9. ^ 遠田寛生 (2014-04-04). ホームシック こつこつ克服 いま子どもたちは No.693 夢は東京五輪 7. Asahi Shimbun. Tokyo, Japan. p. 28.
  10. ^ ユース五輪出場のレスリング・向田真優"吉田さんの後継者は私" (in Japanese). Tokyo Sports. 2014-08-13. Archived from the original on 2014-08-14. Retrieved 2014-08-14.