Zheng Qi
Zheng Yaohuang (鄭耀煌)

1760 (1760)
Died1802 (aged 41–42)
Cause of deathexecution
ChildrenZheng Baoyang (son)
Zheng Weifeng (son)
Parent(s)Zheng Lianfu (father)
Lin Xiu (mother)
RelativesZheng Yaori (brother)
Zheng Yaoyue (brother)
Zheng Yaoxing (brother)
Zheng Yaoming (brother)
Zheng Yaohuang (brother)
Zheng Yaozhen (brother)
Zheng Yi (cousin)
Ching Shih (cousin-in-law)
Zhang Lianke (nephew)
He Song (adopted son)
Piratical career
NicknameZheng Qi
AllegiancePirates of the South China Coast
Years activelate 1700s
Rankfleet commander
Base of operationsGuangdong, South China Sea
Zheng Qi
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese鄭七
Simplified Chinese郑七
Literal meaningZheng the Seventh
Zheng Yaohuang
Traditional Chinese鄭耀煌
Simplified Chinese郑耀煌
Vietnamese name
VietnameseTrịnh Thất

Zheng Qi (also spelled Ching Tsih or Cheng Chi; born Zheng Yaohuang; 1760 – September 1802)[1] was a powerful Chinese pirate operating from Canton (Guangdong) and throughout the South China Sea in the late 1700s.


He was born Zheng Yaohuang in Xin'an County, Guangdong, Qing China (modern Shenzhen and Hong Kong) in 1760. He was the seventh son of his pirate father Zheng Lianfu (鄭連福) and his wife Lin Xiu (林秀), hence the nickname Zheng Qi.

Zheng Qi was recruited by Tay Son dynasty in 1788, and later became one of the most important subordinates under Chen Tianbao. From 1788 to 1799, Zheng frequently attacked southern coast of Qing China together with Mo Guanfu, Liang Wengeng (梁文庚) and Fan Wencai (樊文才). The Qing navy feared them.

In 1795, Zheng Qi abducted a 12-year-old boy named He Song (何送) and raised him as his adopted son. Few years later, Zheng Qi gave him a captive female as his bride and seven hundred of silver (liang) to set up store for the pirate trade. He would later bestowed three ships under He Song's command.

Tay Son army was defeated by his rival Nguyen lord in 1801 and, his three comrades Mo Guanfu, Liang Wengeng and Fan Wencai were captured. Zheng Qi returned to his base in Quảng Ninh, and didn't want to get involved in the civil war. But later he was persuaded by Chen Tianbao, heading his troops to Thăng Long (modern Hanoi) to aid the king. He was appointed as the Grand Marshal (Vietnamese: Đại Tư Mã, Han tu: 大司馬) by Nguyễn Quang Toản.


Zheng Qi got involved in the siege of Đồng Hới, and his fleet was defeated in the mouth of Nhật Lệ River by the famous general Nguyễn Văn Trương, he had to flee back to his base area. On September 1802, he was captured and executed by Nguyen dynasty.

His army descended into chaos after his death, and later, his cousin Zheng Yi succeeded him as the chief.

See also


  1. ^ Neumann, Karl Friedrich (1831). History of the pirates who infested the China Sea from 1807-1810. p. 3.