Zimbabwe
Shirt badge/Association crest
Nickname(s)The Warriors
AssociationZimbabwe Football Association
ConfederationCAF (Africa)
Sub-confederationCOSAFA (Southern Africa)
Head coachNorman Mapeza (interim)
CaptainKnowledge Musona
Most capsPeter Ndlovu (81)
Top scorerPeter Ndlovu (37)
Home stadiumNational Sports Stadium
FIFA codeZIM
First colours
Second colours
Third colours
FIFA ranking
Current 122 Steady (31 March 2022)[1]
Highest39 (April 1994)
Lowest131 (October 2009, February–March 2016)
First international
 Southern Rhodesia 0–4 Northern Rhodesia 
(Southern Rhodesia; 1946)
Biggest win
 Botswana 0–7 Zimbabwe 
(Gaborone, Botswana; 26 August 1990)
Biggest defeat
 South Africa 7–0 Rhodesia 
(South Africa; 9 April 1977)
Africa Cup of Nations
Appearances5 (first in 2004)
Best resultGroup stage (2004, 2006, 2017, 2019, 2021)
African Nations Championship
Appearances5 (first in 2009)
Best resultFourth place (2014)
COSAFA Cup
Appearances20 (first in 1997)
Best resultChampions (2000, 2003, 2005, 2009, 2017, 2018)

The Zimbabwe national football team (Nicknamed The Warriors), represents Zimbabwe in men's international football and is controlled by the Zimbabwe Football Association (ZIFA), formerly known as the Football Association of Rhodesia. The team has never qualified for the FIFA World Cup finals, but has qualified for the Africa Cup of Nations five times. Zimbabwe has also won the COSAFA Cup a record six times. The team represents both FIFA and Confederation of African Football (CAF).

History

Southern Rhodesia played their first official match against the England Amateur national football team as part of their tour of South Africa and Rhodesia in June 1929. Southern Rhodesia lost their first two matches against England 4–0 and 6–1 respectively.[3] In 1965, following Southern Rhodesia's Unilateral Declaration of Independence as Rhodesia, FIFA requested that the Football Association of Rhodesia reform to be a multi-racial organisation. Prior to this only white Rhodesians were selected for the national football team but after 1965 the team became multi-racial.[4] In 1969, Rhodesia took part in the Oceanic 1970 FIFA World Cup qualification tournament. This was their first attempt to qualify for the FIFA World Cup. Contrary to the team being viewed as the representative team of white Rhodesians, the team was multi-racial including black players.[5] They were drawn against the Australia national football team. Both legs were held in Lourenço Marques, Portuguese Mozambique as the Rhodesian team were unable to get Australian visas. Rhodesia drew the first leg 1–1 but lost the second leg 3–1 thus eliminating Rhodesia from qualification.[5]

In 1980, following the country's reconstitution as Zimbabwe, they played their first FIFA World Cup qualifying match for 11 years against the Cameroon national football team. However they lost 2–1 on aggregate after a 1–0 win in the first leg in Salisbury and a 2–0 loss in the second leg.[6][7] Following this, the country passed a law that people who held British passports would not be permitted to hold a Zimbabwean passport, which mean that players such as goalkeeper Bruce Grobbelaar were not selected for the national team for 10 years.[8] Following a change in policy that allowed Grobbelaar to play for Zimbabwe, who entered the country on his British passport, Zimbabwe under manager Reinhard Fabisch were one match away from qualifying for the 1994 FIFA World Cup. However, they lost their final qualifying match to Cameroon.[8][9]

In 2004, Zimbabwe qualified for their first Africa Cup of Nations. During their first match against Egypt, their former anthem "Ishe Komborera Africa" was accidentally played instead of "Simudzai Mureza wedu weZimbabwe", an act which Information Minister Jonathan Moyo called "a cheap attempt by the organisers to demoralise our boys".[10]

In 2015, the Zimbabwe national football team were banned from participating in 2018 FIFA World Cup qualifying due to an unpaid debt to former coach, José Claudinei.[11] At the time, the team was experiencing its strongest period for many years, qualifying for both the 2017 and 2019 Africa Cup of Nations.

On 1 March 2022, Zimbabwe, along with Kenya, was suspended again from international sport due to the interference of the government. Earlier in November 2021, Harare and Nairobi dissolved their federations and were replaced with government-officials. On 31 March, the suspension was made indefinetely and was ratified by FIFA. Suspension is set until Zimbabwe and Kenya meet the demands given by FIFA.

Kit provider

Kit provider Period
Italy L-Sporto 2004–2005
Italy Legea 2006–2009
England Umbro 2013–2014
Spain Joma 2015–2016
Singapore Mafro 2017–2018
England Umbro 2019–present

Results and fixtures

Main article: Zimbabwe national football team results (2020–present)

The following is a list of match results in the last 12 months, as well as any future matches that have been scheduled.

2021

7 July 2021 COSAFA Cup Group B Mozambique  0–0  Zimbabwe Port Elizabeth, South Africa
12:00 UTC+2
  • A. Nhantumbo Yellow card 52'
  • F. Simbine Yellow card 65'
  • C. Mathe Yellow card 79'
  • H. Salas Yellow card 84'
Report
  • Q. Amini Yellow card 27'
  • D. Murimba Yellow card 72'
  • P. Musaka Yellow card 82'
Stadium: Wolfson Stadium
Referee: Eldrick Adelaide (Seychelles)
9 July 2021 COSAFA Cup Group B Malawi  2–2  Zimbabwe Port Elizabeth, South Africa
12:00 UTC+2
  • K. Muyaba 27'
  • S. Kuwali 50'
  • M. Sulumba Yellow card 66'
  • C. Chirwa Yellow card 76'
Report
  • R. Hachiro Yellow card 45+1'
  • B. Sarupinda 62'
  • A. Mbeba Yellow card 72'
  • P. Musaka 79'
Stadium: Wolfson Stadium
Referee: Keabetswe Dintwa (Botswana)
11 July 2021 COSAFA Cup Group B Namibia  2–0  Zimbabwe Port Elizabeth, South Africa
14:00 UTC+2
Report
  • S. Nyahwa Yellow card 81'
  • Malvin Enos Mkolo Yellow card 85'
Stadium: Nelson Mandela Bay Stadium
Referee: Audrick Nkole (Zambia)
13 July 2021 COSAFA Cup Group B Senegal  2–1  Zimbabwe Port Elizabeth
12:00 UTC+2 A. Ndoye 44'
M. Ba 88'
Report Q. Amini 3' (pen.) Stadium: Nelson Mandela Bay Stadium
Referee: Abongile Tom (South Africa)
3 September 2022 World Cup qualification Zimbabwe  0–0  South Africa Harare, Zimbabwe
15:00 UTC+2 Report Stadium: National Sports Stadium
Referee: Mahmoud El Banna (Egypt)
7 September 2022 World Cup qualification Ethiopia  1–0  Zimbabwe Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
19:00 UTC+3
Report Stadium: Bahir Dar Stadium
Referee: Bernard Camille (Seychelles)
9 October 2022 World Cup qualification Ghana  3–1  Zimbabwe Cape Coast, Ghana
16:00 UTC±0
Report
Stadium: Cape Coast Sports Stadium
Referee: Pierre Atcho (Gabon)
12 October 2022 World Cup qualification Zimbabwe  0–1  Ghana Harare, Zimbabwe
15:00 UTC+2 Report
Stadium: National Sports Stadium
Attendance: 0
Referee: Amin Omar (Egypt)
11 November 2022 World Cup qualification South Africa  1–0  Zimbabwe Johannesburg, South Africa
21:00 UTC+2
Report Stadium: FNB Stadium
Referee: Sadok Selmi (Tunisia)
14 November 2022 World Cup qualification Zimbabwe  1–1  Ethiopia Harare, Zimbabwe
15:00 UTC+2
Report
Stadium: National Sports Stadium
Referee: Mohamed Ali Moussa (Niger)

2022

2 January Friendly Zimbabwe  0–0  Sudan
Report
10 January 2021 Africa Cup of Nations Senegal  1–0  Zimbabwe Bafoussam, Cameroon
Report Stadium: Kouekong Stadium
Referee: Mario Escobar (Guatemala)
14 January 2021 Africa Cup of Nations Malawi  2–1  Zimbabwe Bafoussam, Cameroon
17:00
Report
Stadium: Kouekong Stadium
Referee: Beida Dahane (Mauritania)
18 January 2021 Africa Cup of Nations Zimbabwe  2–1  Guinea Yaoundé, Cameroon
17:00
Report Stadium: Stade Ahmadou Ahidjo
Referee: Salima Mukansanga (Rwanda)
9 June 2023 AFCON qualification Zimbabwe  v  Liberia
13 June 2023 AFCON qualification South Africa  v  Zimbabwe Johannesburg, South Africa
Stadium: FNB Stadium
September 2023 AFCON qualification Morocco  v  Zimbabwe
September 2023 AFCON qualification Zimbabwe  v  Morocco

2023

March 2023 AFCON qualification Liberia  v  Zimbabwe
March 2023 AFCON qualification Zimbabwe  v  South Africa

Coaching history

Caretaker managers are listed in italics.

Players

Current squad

The following players were selected for the 2021 Africa Cup of Nations.[12]

Caps and goals are correct as of 18 January 2022, after the match against Guinea.

No. Pos. Player Date of birth (age) Caps Goals Club
21 1GK Talbert Shumba (1990-05-12) 12 May 1990 (age 32) 11 0 Zambia Nkana
23 1GK Martin Mapisa (1998-05-25) 25 May 1998 (age 24) 2 0 Spain Zamora
1 1GK Petros Mhari (1989-04-15) 15 April 1989 (age 33) 4 0 Zimbabwe Platinum

14 2DF Onismor Bhasera (1986-01-07) 7 January 1986 (age 36) 44 0 South Africa SuperSport United
15 2DF Teenage Hadebe (1995-09-17) 17 September 1995 (age 26) 35 4 United States Houston Dynamo
6 2DF Alec Mudimu (1995-04-08) 8 April 1995 (age 27) 26 0 Georgia (country) Torpedo Kutaisi
12 2DF Bruce Kangwa (1988-02-24) 24 February 1988 (age 34) 19 0 Tanzania Azam
20 2DF Peter Muduhwa (1993-08-11) 11 August 1993 (age 28) 12 0 Zambia Highlanders
22 2DF Takudzwa Chimwemwe (1992-10-26) 26 October 1992 (age 29) 12 0 Zambia Nkana
3 2DF Jordan Zemura (1999-11-14) 14 November 1999 (age 22) 6 0 England Bournemouth
2 2DF Godknows Murwira (1993-07-04) 4 July 1993 (age 28) 3 0 Zimbabwe Platinum Stars

{nat fs g player|no= 5|pos=MF|name=Gushaz|age= (1998-10-29) 29 October 1998 (age 23)|caps=14|goals=0|club=Ngezi Platinum|clubnat=ZIM))

5 3MF Gerald Takwara (1994-10-29) 29 October 1994 (age 27) 14 0 Zimbabwe Ngezi Platinum
16 3MF Kudakwashe Mahachi (1993-09-29) 29 September 1993 (age 28) 44 5 South Africa SuperSport United
13 3MF Thabani Kamusoko (1988-03-02) 2 March 1988 (age 34) 20 0 Zambia ZESCO United
4 3MF Kelvin Madzongwe (1990-05-01) 1 May 1990 (age 32) 9 0 Zimbabwe Platinum
11 3MF Never Tigere (1990-12-16) 16 December 1990 (age 31) 6 1 Tanzania Azam
7 3MF Ishmael Wadi (1992-12-19) 19 December 1992 (age 29) 6 1 South Africa JDR Stars
8 3MF Kundai Benyu (1997-12-12) 12 December 1997 (age 24) 5 0 Iceland Vestri

17 4FW Knowledge Musona (1990-06-21) 21 June 1990 (age 31) 52 25 Saudi Arabia Al-Tai
10 4FW Tino Kadewere (1996-01-05) 5 January 1996 (age 26) 22 3 France Lyon
18 4FW Prince Dube (1997-02-17) 17 February 1997 (age 25) 14 7 Tanzania Azam
9 4FW David Moyo (1994-12-17) 17 December 1994 (age 27) 5 0 Scotland Hamilton Academical
19 4FW Admiral Muskwe (1998-08-21) 21 August 1998 (age 23) 6 1 England Luton Town

Recent call-ups

The following players have been called up for Zimbabwe in the last 12 months.

Pos. Player Date of birth (age) Caps Goals Club Latest call-up
GK Donovan Benard (1995-07-12) 12 July 1995 (age 26) 11 0 Zimbabwe Chicken Inn v.  Ethiopia, 14 November 2021
GK Taimon Mvula (1993-06-05) 5 June 1993 (age 29) 1 0 Zimbabwe Dynamos v.  Ethiopia, 14 November 2021
GK Washington Arubi (1985-08-29) 29 August 1985 (age 36) 29 0 South Africa Tshakhuma Tsha Madzivhandila v.  Ghana, 12 October 2021
GK Ariel Sibanda (1989-01-25) 25 January 1989 (age 33) 5 0 Zimbabwe Highlanders v.  Zambia, 29 March 2021
GK Tatenda Mkuruva (1996-01-04) 4 January 1996 (age 26) 17 0 United States Michigan Stars v.  Botswana, 25 March 2021 PRE

DF Divine Lunga (1995-05-28) 28 May 1995 (age 27) 18 0 South Africa Mamelodi Sundowns v.  Ethiopia, 14 November 2021
DF Tendayi Darikwa (1991-12-13) 13 December 1991 (age 30) 13 0 England Wigan Athletic v.  Ethiopia, 14 November 2021
DF Brendan Galloway (1996-03-17) 17 March 1996 (age 26) 0 0 England Plymouth Argyle v.  Ethiopia, 14 November 2021
DF Rahman Kutsanzira (1990-05-25) 25 May 1990 (age 32) 4 0 Zimbabwe Platinum v.  Ghana, 12 October 2021
DF Kelvin Moyo (1993-04-03) 3 April 1993 (age 29) 6 0 Zambia Nkana v.  Ethiopia, 7 September 2021
DF William Stima (1989-03-29) 29 March 1989 (age 33) 0 0 Zimbabwe Platinum v.  Ethiopia, 7 September 2021
DF Jimmy Dzingai (1990-11-21) 21 November 1990 (age 31) 11 0 Zambia Nkana v.  South Africa, 3 September 2021 PRE
DF Qadr Amini (1990-01-26) 26 January 1990 (age 32) 14 2 Zimbabwe Ngezi Platinum 2021 COSAFA Cup
DF Carlos Mavhurume (1996-04-02) 2 April 1996 (age 26) 7 0 Zimbabwe CAPS United 2021 COSAFA Cup
DF MacClive Phiri (1993-06-17) 17 June 1993 (age 28) 6 0 South Africa Venda Football Academy 2021 COSAFA Cup
DF Andrew Mbeba (2000-02-19) 19 February 2000 (age 22) 4 0 Zimbabwe Highlanders 2021 COSAFA Cup
DF Lennox Mucheto (1995-07-13) 13 July 1995 (age 26) 4 0 Zimbabwe Yadah Stars 2021 COSAFA Cup
DF Patrick Musaka (1997-02-17) 17 February 1997 (age 25) 4 1 Zimbabwe Harare City 2021 COSAFA Cup
DF Malvin Mkolo (1996-04-28) 28 April 1996 (age 26) 2 0 Zimbabwe Bulawayo Chiefs 2021 COSAFA Cup
DF Victor Kamhuka (1990-04-02) 2 April 1990 (age 32) 1 0 Vietnam Thanh Hoa FC v.  Zambia, 29 March 2021
DF Romario Matova (1999-07-10) 10 July 1999 (age 22) 1 0 Bosnia and Herzegovina Gabela v.  Zambia, 29 March 2021
DF Tendai Jirira (1991-11-12) 12 November 1991 (age 30) 0 0 United States Detroit City v.  Zambia, 29 March 2021

MF Khama Billiat (1990-08-19) 19 August 1990 (age 31) 48 17 South Africa Kaizer Chiefs v.  Ethiopia, 14 November 2021 RET
MF Marvelous Nakamba (1994-01-19) 19 January 1994 (age 28) 23 0 England Aston Villa v.  Ethiopia, 14 November 2021
MF Farai Madhanaga (1995-02-14) 14 February 1995 (age 27) 9 0 South Africa Marumo Gallants v.  Ethiopia, 14 November 2021
MF Blessing Sarupinda (1991-12-13) 13 December 1991 (age 30) 4 1 South Africa Sekhukhune United v.  Ethiopia, 14 November 2021
MF Jonah Fabisch (2001-08-13) 13 August 2001 (age 20) 0 0 Germany Hamburger SV II v.  Ethiopia, 14 November 2021
MF Tawanda Maswanhise (2002-11-20) 20 November 2002 (age 19) 0 0 England Leicester City v.  Ethiopia, 14 November 2021
MF Marshall Munetsi (1996-06-22) 22 June 1996 (age 25) 22 1 France Stade Reims v.  Ethiopia, 12 October 2021
MF Perfect Chikwende (1993-06-19) 19 June 1993 (age 28) 2 1 Tanzania Simba v.  Ethiopia, 12 October 2021
MF Tafadzwa Rusike (1989-05-07) 7 May 1989 (age 33) 22 2 Zambia ZESCO United v.  Ethiopia, 7 September 2021
MF Silas Songani (1989-06-28) 28 June 1989 (age 32) 11 0 Zimbabwe Platinum v.  Ethiopia, 7 September 2021
MF Butholezwe Ncube (1992-04-24) 24 April 1992 (age 30) 6 0 South Africa AmaZulu v.  Ethiopia, 7 September 2021
MF Ovidy Karuru (1989-01-23) 23 January 1989 (age 33) 50 7 South Africa Black Leopards v.  South Africa, 3 September 2021 PRE
MF Richard Hachiro (1998-01-27) 27 January 1998 (age 24) 10 0 Zimbabwe CAPS United 2021 COSAFA Cup
MF King Nadolo (1995-12-04) 4 December 1995 (age 26) 8 0 Zimbabwe Dynamos 2021 COSAFA Cup
MF Shadreck Nyahwa (1999-01-05) 5 January 1999 (age 23) 7 0 Zimbabwe Bulawayo Chiefs 2021 COSAFA Cup
MF Brian Banda (1995-09-09) 9 September 1995 (age 26) 4 0 Zimbabwe Platinum 2021 COSAFA Cup
MF Tatenda Tavengwa (1997-03-29) 29 March 1997 (age 25) 3 0 Zimbabwe Harare City 2021 COSAFA Cup
MF Nyasha Dube (1997-12-14) 14 December 1997 (age 24) 1 0 United States Little Rock Rangers 2021 COSAFA Cup
MF Tanaka Chinyahara (1995-10-12) 12 October 1995 (age 26) 3 0 Zambia Red Arrows v.  Zambia, 29 March 2021
MF Last gushaz (1995-02-04) 4 February 1995 (age 27) 1 0 Sudan Al-Hilal v.  Zambia, 29 March 2021

FW Knox Mutizwa (1993-10-12) 12 October 1993 (age 28) 18 6 South Africa Lamontville Golden Arrows v.  Ethiopia, 14 November 2021
FW Macauley Bonne (1995-10-26) 26 October 1995 (age 26) 2 1 England Ipswich Town v.  Ethiopia, 14 November 2021
FW Terrence Dzvukamanja (1994-05-05) 5 May 1994 (age 28) 12 0 South Africa Orlando Pirates v.  Ghana, 12 October 2021
FW Delic Murimba (1999-11-03) 3 November 1999 (age 22) 4 0 Zimbabwe Bulawayo Chiefs 2021 COSAFA Cup
FW Farau Matare (1995-12-08) 8 December 1995 (age 26) 0 0 Zimbabwe Bulawayo Chiefs 2021 COSAFA Cup
FW Evans Rusike (1990-06-13) 13 June 1990 (age 31) 28 4 South Africa SuperSport United v.  Zambia, 29 March 2021

DEC Player refused to join the team after the call-up.
INJ Player withdrew from the squad due to an injury.
PRE Preliminary squad.
RET Player has retired from international football.
SUS Suspended from the national team, red or yellow cards.

Records

As of 18 January 2022
Players in bold are still active with Zimbabwe.
Note: U indicates that a player's statistics are unverified.

Competition records

FIFA World Cup record

FIFA World Cup record FIFA World Cup qualification record
Year Round Position Pld W D* L GF GA Pld W D L GF GA
Uruguay 1930 Part of  United Kingdom Part of  United Kingdom
Italy 1934
France 1938
Brazil 1950
Switzerland 1954
Sweden 1958
Chile 1962
England 1966
Mexico 1970 Did not qualify from Asia/Oceania zone 3 0 2 1 2 4
West Germany 1974 Did not enter Did not enter
Argentina 1978
Spain 1982 Did not qualify from African zone 2 1 0 1 1 2
Mexico 1986 2 0 1 1 1 2
Italy 1990 4 0 1 3 1 10
United States 1994 10 6 2 2 11 10
France 1998 8 2 2 4 10 10
South Korea Japan 2002 8 6 0 2 11 6
Germany 2006 12 5 3 4 17 16
South Africa 2010 6 1 3 2 4 6
Brazil 2014 6 0 2 4 4 9
Russia 2018 Expelled from qualifying competition[13] Expelled from qualifying competition
Qatar 2022 Did not qualify from African zone 8 1 2 5 5 9
Canada Mexico United States 2026 To be determined To be determined
Total 0/22 69 22 18 29 67 84

Africa Cup of Nations record

Africa Cup of Nations record
Appearances: 5
Year Round Position Pld W D* L GF GA
Sudan 1957 to Nigeria 1980 Not affiliated to CAF
Libya 1982 to Mali 2002 Did not qualify
Tunisia 2004 Group stage 14th 3 1 0 2 6 8
Egypt 2006 13th 3 1 0 2 2 5
Ghana 2008 to Equatorial Guinea 2015 Did not qualify
Gabon 2017 Group stage 14th 3 0 1 2 4 8
Egypt 2019 21st 3 0 1 2 1 6
Cameroon 2021 17th 3 1 0 2 3 4
Ivory Coast 2023 Disqualified due to FIFA suspension
Guinea 2025 To be determined
Total Group stage 5/33 15 3 2 10 16 31

African Nations Championship record

African Nations Championship record
Appearances: 5
Year Round Position Pld W D* L GF GA
Ivory Coast 2009 Group stage 6th 3 0 3 0 3 3
Sudan 2011 11th 3 1 0 2 2 3
South Africa 2014 Fourth place 4th 6 2 3 1 3 2
Rwanda 2016 Group stage 13th 3 0 1 2 1 3
Morocco 2018 Did not qualify
Cameroon 2020 Group stage 16th 3 0 0 3 1 5
Algeria 2022 To be determined
Total Fourth place 5/6 15 3 7 5 9 11

African Games record

Football at the African Games has been an under-23 tournament since 1991.

See also: Zimbabwe national under-23 football team

African Games record
Year Result Pld W D L GF GA
Republic of the Congo 1965 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nigeria 1973 0 0 0 0 0 0
Algeria 1978 0 0 0 0 0 0
Kenya 1987 0 0 0 0 0 0
1991–present See Zimbabwe national under-23 football team
Total 4/4 0 0 0 0 0 0

COSAFA Cup record

COSAFA Cup

Main article: COSAFA Cup

COSAFA Cup record
Year Rank Pld W D L GF GA
1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
South Africa 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Zimbabwe 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Zambia 2013 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
South Africa 2015 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Namibia 2016 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
South Africa 2017 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
South Africa 2018 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
South Africa 2019 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Total 0/19 - - - - - -

CECAFA Cup record

Honours

COSAFA Cup :
CECAFA Cup :

References

  1. ^ "The FIFA/Coca-Cola World Ranking". FIFA. 31 March 2022. Retrieved 31 March 2022.
  2. ^ Elo rankings change compared to one year ago. "World Football Elo Ratings". eloratings.net. 4 June 2022. Retrieved 4 June 2022.
  3. ^ "England Matches – Unofficial". Englandfootballonline.com. Retrieved 6 September 2016.
  4. ^ Gilchrist, Paul (2013). The Politics of Sport: Community, Mobility, Identity. Routledge. p. 51. ISBN 978-1317990994.
  5. ^ a b "When Rhodesia flirted with the World Cup". FIFA.com. 29 August 2016. Archived from the original on 4 September 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2016.
  6. ^ "Cameroon national football team: record v Zimbabwe". 11v11.com. AFS Enterprises Limited. Retrieved 6 September 2016.
  7. ^ "1982 FIFA World Cup Spain – Matches – Zimbabwe-Cameroon". FIFA.com. 23 July 2016. Archived from the original on 17 September 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2016.
  8. ^ a b Hawkey, Ian. "When Peter Ndlovu and Bruce Grobbelaar made Zimbabwe dare to dream". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 August 2015.
  9. ^ "World Cup 1994 Qualifying". Rsssf. 9 June 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2016.
  10. ^ "Anger over Zimbabwe anthem gaffe". BBC News. 26 January 2004. Retrieved 6 September 2016.
  11. ^ "Zimbabwe expelled from 2018 World Cup". BBC Sport. 12 March 2015. Retrieved 6 September 2016.
  12. ^ "Afcon 2021: A Zimbabwe squad is named despite threat of a Fifa ban". BBC Sport. 29 December 2021. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  13. ^ "Zimbabwe expelled from the preliminary competition of the 2018 FIFA World Cup Russia". FIFA.com. 12 March 2015. Archived from the original on 17 March 2015.