3D model (JSmol)
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|Molar mass||161.47 g/mol (anhydrous) |
179.47 g/mol (monohydrate)
287.53 g/mol (heptahydrate)
|Density||3.54 g/cm3 (anhydrous) |
2.072 g/cm3 (hexahydrate)
|Melting point|| 680 °C (1,256 °F; 953 K) decomposes (anhydrous) |
100 °C (heptahydrate)
70 °C, decomposes (hexahydrate)
|Boiling point|| 740 °C (1,360 °F; 1,010 K) (anhydrous) |
280 °C, decomposes (heptahydrate)
|57.7 g/100 mL, anhydrous (20 °C) (In aqueous solutions with a pH < 5)|
Refractive index (nD)
|1.658 (anhydrous), 1.4357 (heptahydrate)|
Std enthalpy of
|Safety data sheet||ICSC 1698|
Dangerous for the environment (N)
|R-phrases (outdated)||R22, R41, R50/53|
|S-phrases (outdated)||(S2), S22, S26, S39, S46, S60, S61|
|NFPA 704 (fire diamond)|
|Cadmium sulfate |
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
Zinc sulfate is an inorganic compound. It is used as a dietary supplement to treat zinc deficiency and to prevent the condition in those at high risk. Side effects of excess supplementation may include abdominal pain, vomiting, headache, and tiredness.
The most common form includes water of crystallization as the heptahydrate, with the formula ZnSO4•7H2O. It was historically known as "white vitriol". Zinc sulfate and its hydrates are colourless solids.
Main article: Zinc sulfate (medical use)
In medicine it is used together with oral rehydration therapy (ORT) and an astringent.
The hydrates, especially the heptahydrate, are the primary forms used commercially. The main application is as a coagulant in the production of rayon. It is also a precursor to the pigment lithopone.
It is also used as an electrolyte for zinc electroplating, as a mordant in dyeing, and as a preservative for skins and leather.
Zinc sulfate is used to supply zinc in animal feeds, fertilizers, toothpaste, and agricultural sprays. Zinc sulfate, like many zinc compounds, can be used to control moss growth on roofs.
Zinc sulfate can be used to supplement zinc in the brewing process. Zinc is a necessary nutrient for optimal yeast health and performance, although it is not a necessary supplement for low-gravity beers, as the grains commonly used in brewing already provide adequate zinc. It is a more common practice when pushing yeast to their limit by increasing alcohol content beyond their comfort zone. Before modern stainless steel, brew Kettles, fermenting vessels and after wood, zinc was slowly leached by the use of copper kettles. A modern copper immersion chiller is speculated to provide trace elements of zinc; thus care must be taken when adding supplemental zinc so as not to cause excess. Side effects include "...increased acetaldehyde and fusel alcohol production due to high yeast growth when zinc concentrations exceed 5 ppm. Excess zinc can also cause soapy or goaty flavors." 
Zinc sulfate powder is an eye irritant. Ingestion of trace amounts is considered safe, and zinc sulfate is added to animal feed as a source of essential zinc, at rates of up to several hundred milligrams per kilogram of feed. Excess ingestion results in acute stomach distress, with nausea and vomiting appearing at 2–8 mg/Kg of body weight.
Zinc sulfate is produced by treating virtually any zinc-containing material (metal, minerals, oxides) with sulfuric acid.
Specific reactions include the reaction of the metal with aqueous sulfuric acid:
Pharmaceutical-grade zinc sulfate is produced by treating high-purity zinc oxide with sulfuric acid:
In aqueous solution, all forms of zinc sulfate behave identically. These aqueous solutions consist of the metal aquo complex [Zn(H2O)6]2+ and SO42− ions. Barium sulfate forms when these solutions are treated with solutions of barium ions:
With a reduction potential of -0.76, zinc(II) reduces only with difficulty.
When heated above 680 °C, zinc sulfate decomposes into sulfur dioxide gas and zinc oxide fume, both of which are hazardous.
As a mineral, ZnSO4•7H2O is known as goslarite. Zinc sulfate occurs as several other minor minerals, such as zincmelanterite, (Zn,Cu,Fe)SO4•7H2O (structurally different from goslarite). Lower hydrates of zinc sulfate are rarely found in nature: (Zn,Fe)SO4•6H2O (bianchite), (Zn,Mg)SO4•4H2O (boyleite), and (Zn,Mn)SO4•H2O (gunningite).