Air data computer
Air data computer

An air data computer (ADC) or central air data computer (CADC) computes altitude, vertical speed, air speed, and Mach number from pressure and temperature inputs.[1] It is an essential avionics component found in modern aircraft. This computer, rather than individual instruments, can determine the calibrated airspeed, Mach number, altitude, and altitude trend data from an aircraft's pitot-static system.[2][3] In some very high speed aircraft such as the Space Shuttle, equivalent airspeed is calculated instead of calibrated airspeed.

Air data computers usually also have an input of total air temperature. This enables computation of static air temperature and true airspeed.

In Airbus aircraft the air data computer is combined with altitude, heading and navigation sources in a single unit known as the Air Data Inertial Reference Unit (ADIRU) this has now been replaced by the Global Navigation Air Data Inertial Reference System (GNADIRS).

On the Embraer Embraer E-Jet family the concept has been refined further by splitting air data acquisition and measuring - performed by combined pitot/static "air data smart probes" with integrated sensors - and computation of parameters performed by "air data applications" (ADA) executed on non-dedicated processing units. As all information from the sensors is transmitted electrically, routing of pitot and static pressure lines through the aircraft and associated maintenance tasks can be avoided.[4]

In simpler aircraft including helicopters the Air Data Computers, generally two in number, and smaller, lighter and simpler than an ADIRU, may be called Air Data Units, although their internal computational power is still significant. They commonly have the pitot and static pressure inputs, as well as outside air temperature from a platinum resistance thermometer and may control heating of the pitot tube and static vent to prevent blockage due to ice. As on simpler aircraft there is usually not a fly by wire system, the outputs are typically to the cockpit altimeters or display system, flight data recorder and autopilot system. Output interfaces typically are ARINC 429, Gillham or even IEEE1394 (Firewire). The data provided may be true airspeed, pressure altitude, density altitude and Outside Air Temperature (OAT), but with no involvement in aircraft attitude or heading, as there are no gyroscopes or accelerometers fitted internally. These devices are usually autonomous and do not require pilot input, merely sending continuously updated data to the recipient systems while the aircraft is powered up. Some, like the Enhanced Software Configurable Air Data Unit (ESCADU)[5] are software configurable to suit many different aircraft applications.

Apart from commercial ADCs implementation, there are available do-it-yourself, and Open implementations.[6]

History

The Bendix Central Air Data Computer contains complex electromechanical mechanisms.
The Bendix Central Air Data Computer contains complex electromechanical mechanisms.

Electrical-mechanical air data computers were developed in the early 1950s to provide a central source of airspeed, altitude, and other signals to avionic systems that needed this data. A central air data computer avoided duplication of sensing equipment and could be more sophisticated and accurate.[7] The first air data computer was built by Kollsman Instruments for the B-52 bomber.[8] Bendix started producing a central air data computer in 1956 for use on US Air Force jet fighters. [9] Garrett AiResearch developed early central air data computer systems that integrated pneumatic, electrical, and electronic components.[10]

From the late 1980s much of the USAF and USN aircraft fleets were retrofitted with the GEC Avionics Rochester developed Standard Central Air Data Computer (SCADC).[11][12] Aircraft fitted included the A-4 Skyhawk, A-6 Intruder, A-7 Corsair, C-5A/B Galaxy, EA-6B Prowler, F-111 Aardvark, F-4 Phantom, S-3 Viking, C-141 Starlifter, C-135 Stratolifter, C-2 Greyhound, and E-2 Hawkeye,[13] for which the company received the Queens Award for Technological Achievement.[14]

See also

References

  1. ^ United States Joint Chiefs of Staff (1988). The official dictionary of military terms. Science Information Resource Center, Hemisphere Publishing. p. 63. ISBN 0-89116-792-7.
  2. ^ Air Data Computer, Avionics News, Kim Wiolland, 2015-01
  3. ^ What Is an Air Data Computer?, Wisegeek.com, Retrieved 2015-06-25
  4. ^ Embraer 195 Airplane Operations Manual, Volume 2, chapter 14
  5. ^ ESCADU
  6. ^ Asgard: the Open Source Air Data Computer, HACKADAY, Tom Nardi, 2018-01
  7. ^ Klass, Philip (28 Sep 1953). "Single Computer Combines Flight Data". Aviation Week: 45–48.
  8. ^ "From the first to the latest". Air Force Magazine (Nov 1985): 115.
  9. ^ Hamlin, Fred; Miller, Eleanor (1957). The Aircraft Year Book for 1956 (PDF). Washington, DC: The Lincoln Press. p. 171.
  10. ^ "Air Data Computer System". Aviation Week: 5. 2 May 1955.
  11. ^ "New Avionics Standardization Initiative - Standard Central Air Data Computer (SCADC)". Feedback. Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. II (1): 3. 1979.
  12. ^ Standard Central Air Data Computer (PDF). GEC Avionics. 1985.
  13. ^ "Standard Central Air Data Computer [SCADC, 1987] :: Rochester Avionic Archives".
  14. ^ "ISD Queen's Award Ceremony :: Rochester Avionic Archives".