|Embraer E-Jet family|
E170 / E175 / E190 / E195
|Embraer 190 operated by JetBlue|
|First flight||19 February 2002|
|Introduction||17 March 2004 with LOT Polish Airlines|
|Primary users||SkyWest Airlines|
|Number built||1,671 as of 30 June 2023[update]|
|Variants||Embraer Lineage 1000|
|Developed into||Embraer E-Jet E2 family|
The Embraer E-Jet family is a series of four-abreast, narrow-body, short- to medium-range, twin-engined jet airliners designed and produced by Brazilian aerospace manufacturer Embraer.
The E-Jet was designed as a complement to the preceding ERJ family, Embraer's first jet-powered regional jet. Designed to carry between 66 and 124 passengers, it was larger than any prior aircraft built by the company. The project's existence was revealed in early 1997 and was formally introduced at the Paris Air Show two years later. On 19 February 2002, the first prototype E-Jet conducted its maiden flight; later that year, quantity production of the type commenced. In early March 2004, the first E170 deliveries were made to LOT Polish Airlines. Larger versions of the aircraft, the E190 and E190, debuted later in 2004, while a slightly stretched version of the E170 was introduced in mid-2005 as the E175.
The E-Jet series has been a commercial success primarily due to its ability to efficiently serve lower-demand routes while offering many of the same amenities and features of larger jets. Initial teething issues were quickly overcome and Embraer rapidly expanded product support for better global coverage. The E-Jet family is commonly used by both mainline and regional airlines around the world and has become particularly popular with regional airlines in the United States. It has also served as the basis for the Embraer Lineage 1000 business jet. During the 2010s, Embraer developed a second generation, the E-Jet E2 family, with more fuel-efficient engines. However, as of 2023[update], the first generation E175 remains in production, to fulfill demand from regional airlines in the United States, which cannot use the newer generation due to scope clause restrictions.
During the 1990s, the Brazilian aerospace manufacturer Embraer had introduced the ERJ family, its first jet-powered regional jet. As demand for the ERJ series proved strong even early on, the company decided that it could not rely on one family of aircraft alone and examined its options for producing a complementary regional jet, including designs that would be larger and more advanced than its preceding aircraft.
During March 1997, Embraer made its first public disclosure that it was studying a new 70-seat aircraft, which was initially referred to as the EMB 170; this reveal was issued concurrently with the announcement of the development of the ERJ 135. As originally conceived, the EMB 170 was to feature a new wing and larger-diameter fuselage mated to the nose and cockpit of the ERJ 145. The proposed derivative would have cost $450 million to develop. While Alenia, Aerospatiale and British Aerospace through AI(R) were studying the Airjet 70 based on the ATR 42/72 fuselage for a 2,200 km (1,200 nmi; 1,400 mi) range, AI(R) and Embraer were studying a joint development of a 70-seater jet since their separate projects were not yet launched.
In February 1999, Embraer announced it had abandoned the derivative approach in favour of an all-new design. On 14 June 1999, the E-Jet family was formally launched at the Paris Air Show, initially using the twin designations ERJ-170 and ERJ-190; these were subsequently changed to Embraer 170 and Embraer 190 respectively. The launch customers for the airliner were the French airline Régional, which placed ten orders and five options for the E170, and the Swiss airline Crossair, which had ordered 30 E170s and 30 E190s.
During July 2000, production of components for the construction of both the prototype and test airframes began. Difficulties with the advanced avionics selected for the aircraft, supplied by the American company Honeywell, led to delays in the development schedule; originally, the first flight had been set to take place during 2000. On 29 October 2001, the first prototype PP-XJE was rolled out at São José dos Campos, Brazil.
On 19 February 2002, the first prototype performed its maiden flight, marking the beginning of a multi-year flight test campaign involving a total of six prototypes. In May 2002, the aircraft was displayed to the public at the Regional Airline Association convention. During that same year, full-rate production of the E-Jet commenced; this activity was centred around a recently-completed factory built by Embraer at its São José dos Campos base.
After a positive response from the airline community, Embraer launched the E175, which stretched the fuselage of the E170 by 1.78 metres (5.8 ft). During June 2003, the first flight of the E175 took place. In April 2003, jetBlue placed an order for 100 Embraer 190s, the deliveries of which commenced two years later.
Following several delays in the certification process, the E170 received type certification from the civil aviation authorities of Brazil, Europe and the United States in February 2004.
In 2008, the 400th E-jet was delivered to Republic Airways in the United States. In September 2009, the 600th E-jet was delivered to LOT Polish Airlines. On 10 October 2012, Embraer delivered the 900th E-Jet to Kenya Airways, its 12th E-Jet. On 13 September 2013, the delivery of the 1,000th E-Jet, an E175 to Republic Airways for American Eagle, was marked by a ceremony held at the Embraer factory in São José dos Campos, with a special "1,000th E-Jet" decal above the cabin windows.
On 6 December 2017, the 1,400th E-Jet was delivered, an E175; it had a backlog of over 150 firm orders on 30 September 2017.
On 18 December 2018, Embraer delivered the 1,500th E-Jet, an E175 to Alaska Air subsidiary Horizon Air, as Embraer claims an 80% market share of the North American 76-seaters. By this point, the fleet had completed 25 million flight hours in 18 million cycles (an average of 1.4 h) with a 99.9% dependability.
Main article: Embraer E-Jet E2 family
In November 2011, Embraer announced that it would develop revamped versions of the E-Jet to be called the E-Jet E2 family. The new jets would feature improved engines that would be more fuel efficient and take advantage of new technologies. Beyond the new engines, the E2 family would also feature new wings, improved avionics, and other improvements to the aircraft. The move came amid a period of high global fuel costs and better positions Embraer as competitors introduced new and more fuel efficient jets, including the Mitsubishi Regional Jet. The new aircraft family also includes a much larger variant, the E195-E2 capable of carrying between 120 and 146 passengers. This jet better positions Embraer against the competing Airbus A220 aircraft. The PW1000G was previously selected for use on competing aircraft.
In January 2013, Embraer selected the Pratt & Whitney PW1000G geared turbofan engine to power the E2 family. On 28 February 2018, The E190-E2 received its type certificate from the ANAC, FAA and EASA. It was scheduled to enter service in the second quarter of 2018.
The Embraer E-Jet family is composed of two main commercial families and a business jet variant. The smaller E170 and E175 make up the base model aircraft, while the E190 and E195 are stretched versions, being powered by different engines and furnished with larger wing, horizontal stabilizer and landing gear structures. From the onset, the E-Jet had been designed to be stretched. The E170 and E175 share 95% commonality, as do the E190 and E195; the two families share near 89% commonality, maintaining identical fuselage cross-sections and avionics fitouts. The E190 and E195 possess capacities similar to the initial versions of the McDonnell Douglas DC-9 and Boeing 737. All members of the E-Jet family are available in baseline, long range (LR), and advanced range (AR) models, the latter being intended for long routes with limited passenger numbers.
The smaller members of the E-Jet family are powered by the General Electric CF34-8E turbofan engine, each capable of generating up to 14,200 lbf (63 kN) of thrust, while the stretched aircraft are outfitted with the more powerful General Electric CF34-10E, capable of producing a maximum of 20,000 lbf (89 kN) thrust. These engines have been designed to minimise noise and emission outputs, exceeding the requirements established by the International Civil Aviation Organization; the relatively low acoustic signature has enabled the E-Jet to be operated from airports that have imposed strict noise restrictions, such as London City Airport. The type is also equipped with winglets that reduce fuel burn and thereby improve operational efficiency.
The E-Jet family is equipped with advanced avionics, which includes a fly-by-wire flight control system. The flight deck is furnished with the Honeywell Primus Epic Electronic flight instrument system (EFIS) suite and has been designed to facilitate a common type rating, enabling flight crews to be readily moved between different members of the family without the need for any retraining/recertifying and providing greater flexibility to operators. Early operations of the E-Jet were frequently troubled by avionics issues; by September 2008, Honeywell had issued software updates that sought to rectify the encountered issues.
The main cabin is configured with four-abreast seating (2+2) as standard, and features a "double-bubble" design that Embraer has purpose-developed for its commercial passenger jets to provide stand-up headroom. The dimensions of the cabin were intentionally comparable to the narrowbody airliners of Airbus and Boeing to permit greater comfort levels than most regional aircraft. Considerable attention to detail was reportedly paid by Embraer to elevating the type's passenger appeal. Many operators have chosen to outfit their aircraft with amenities such as Wi-Fi and at-seat power outlets. The windows of the E-Jet family are relatively large at 185 sq in (0.119 m2) in comparison to most contemporary airliners, such as the 175 sq in (0.113 m2) windows of the Boeing 787.
In early March 2004, the first E170 deliveries were made to LOT Polish Airlines, other customers to receive early deliveries were Alitalia and US Airways-subsidiary MidAtlantic Airways. On 17 March 2004, LOT operated the first commercial flight of an E-Jet, which flew from Warsaw to Vienna. Within four years, LOT was sufficiently pleased with the type to order 12 additional E175s. Launch customer Crossair had in the meantime ceased to exist after its takeover of Swissair, leading to the cancellation of these orders. Furthermore, fellow launch customer Régional chose to defer its order, not receiving its first E-jet—an E190LR—until 2006.
During July 2005, the first E175 was delivered to Air Canada, entering revenue service with the airline that same month. In April 2013, Air Canada begun the transfer of its 15-strong E175 fleet to subsidiary Sky Regional Airlines, this reorganisation was completed during September 2013. By July 2020, approximately 25 million passengers had flown on the Canadian fleet over a cumulative 650,000 flight hours, while a total of 25 E175s were in service on both domestic and transborder flights into the US, which were then being flown under the Air Canada Express branding. In March 2021, Air Canada announced its intention to consolidate all regional flying under the Jazz branding, thereby ending its affiliation between Sky Regional Airlines and Air Canada; accordingly, all of the E175s were transferred to Jazz.
Early operations of the E-Jet were not problem-free: the American operator JetBlue reported engine troubles with its fleet, while cold start hydraulic issues were experienced by Air Canada. Embraer had to undertake a rapid expansion of its product support network in order to satisfy the needs of its mainline operators; by October 2014, the company had two directly-owned service centers, alongside nine authorized centers and 26 independent MRO organizations around the globe, while directly employing 1,200 staff for product support alone. In response to customer demands, the company also developed web-based support.
BA CityFlyer, a subsidiary of British Airways, operates a fleet of 21 E190s, typically flying routes from London City Airport to various destinations both within the United Kingdom and continental Europe. CityFlyer has publicly stated that a key factor in it opting for the E-Jet over competitors such as the De Havilland Canada Dash 8 was due to its greater speed. The procurement of E-Jets by CityFlier led to other competing British regional airliners taking interest in the type; on 20 July 2010, Flybe ordered 35 E175s valued at US$1.3 billion (£850 million), along with options for 65 more (valued at $2.3 bn/£1.5 bn) and purchase rights for a further 40 (valued at $1.4 bn/£0.9 bn), deliveries of which commenced in November 2011.
On 6 November 2008, the longest flight of an E190 was flown by JetBlue from Anchorage Airport to Buffalo International Airport over 2,694 nmi (4,989 km; 3,100 mi), a re-positioning flight after a two-month charter for vice presidential candidate Sarah Palin.[importance?]
On 14 October 2017, an Airlink E190-100IGW with 78 passengers aboard inaugurated the first scheduled commercial airline service in history to Saint Helena in the South Atlantic Ocean, arriving at Saint Helena Airport after a flight of about six hours from Johannesburg, South Africa, with a stop at Windhoek, Namibia. The flight began a once-per-week scheduled service by Airlink between Johannesburg and Saint Helena using E190 aircraft. The inaugural flight was only the second commercial flight to Saint Helena in the island's history, and the first since a chartered Airlink Avro RJ85 landed at Saint Helena Airport on 3 May 2017.
The E170 is the smallest aircraft in the E-Jet family and was the first to enter revenue service in March 2004. As of 2017, the E170 is out of production. The E170 typically seats around 72 passengers in a typical single class configuration, 66 in a dual class configuration, and up to 78 in a high-density configuration. The E170 directly competed with the Bombardier CRJ700 and loosely with the turboprop Bombardier Q400.
The jet is powered with General Electric CF34-8E engines of 14,200 pounds (62.28 kN) thrust each.
The E175 is a slightly stretched version of the E170 and first entered revenue service with launch customer Air Canada in July 2005. The E175 typically seats around 78 passengers in a typical single class configuration, 76 in a dual-class configuration, and up to 88 in a high-density configuration. Like the E170, it is powered with General Electric CF34-8E engines of 14,200 pounds (62.28 kN) of thrust each. It competed with the Bombardier CRJ900 in the market segment previously occupied by the earlier BAe 146 and Fokker 70. As of 2023[update], it is the only aircraft currently produced in this market segment.
The E175 was initially equipped with the same style of winglets as the rest of the E-Jet family. This was changed starting in 2014 to wider, angled winglets as part of an efficiency improvement package. The angled winglets increase the wingspan from 26 m (85 ft 4 in) to 28.65 m (93 ft 11 in). This winglet change was only made available to the E175 and no other models in the family.
In late 2017, Embraer announced the E175SC (special configuration), limited to 70 seats like the E170 to take advantage of the E175 performance improvements, but still comply with US airline scope clauses limiting operators to 70 seats. Embraer is marketing the E175SC as a replacement for the older 70-seat Bombardier CRJ700 with better efficiency and a larger first class.
In 2018, a new E175 has a value of US$27 million, projected to fall to US$3–8 million 13 years later due to their concentration in the US with more than 450 in service out of 560, with Republic and SkyWest operating over 120 each, Compass 35 and Envoy Air 90, after the similar experience with the CRJ200 and ERJ 145 demonstrates the limited remarketing opportunities.
As of 2023[update], the E175 remains in production, with strong demand from regional airlines in the United States, which cannot order the newer, but heavier E175-E2 due to scope clause restrictions on maximum takeoff weight.
The E190/195 models are larger stretches of the E170/175 models fitted with a new, larger wing, a larger horizontal stabilizer, two emergency overwing exits, and a new engine. The E190/195 is fitted with two underwing-mounted GE CF34-10E turbofan engines, rated at 82.29 kN (18,500 lbf). The engines and engine nacelles are supplied by General Electric. The engines are equipped with full authority digital engine control (FADEC). The fully redundant, computerized management system continuously optimizes the engine performance resulting in reduced fuel consumption and maintenance requirements. The aircraft carries 13,000 kg of fuel and is fitted with a Parker Hannifin fuel system.
Two slightly different versions of the E190 and the E195 exist: LR and AR.
The aircraft is equipped with a Hamilton Sundstrand auxiliary power unit and electrical system. The GE CF34-10E, rated at 18,500 lb (82.30 kN), is the only powerplant offered for the aircraft. These aircraft compete with the Bombardier CRJ-1000 and Airbus A220-100, the Boeing 717, 737-500, and 737-600, and the Airbus A318. It can carry up to 100 passengers in a two-class configuration or up to 124 in the single-class high-density configuration.
On 12 March 2004, the first flight of the E190 took place, while the first flight of the E195 occurred on 7 December of that year. The launch customer of the E190 was New York-based low-cost carrier JetBlue with 100 orders options in 2003 and took its first delivery in 2005. British low-cost carrier Flybe was the first operator of the E195, had 14 orders and 12 options, and started E195 operations on 22 September 2006. Flybe have since decided that they would remove the aircraft from their fleet in favour of the Dash 8 Q400 and Embraer 175, in an effort to reduce costs, by 2020.
Air Canada operated 45 E190 aircraft fitted with 9 business-class and 88 economy-class seats as part of its primary fleet. They were retired in May 2020. American Airlines operated E190s until 2020. JetBlue and Georgian Airways operate the E190 as part of their own fleet. Austrian Airlines have 17 E195 aircraft in their mainline fleet.
By 2018, early E190s were valued at under US$10 million and could be leased for less than US$100,000 per month, while the most recent aircraft were worth US$30 million and could be leased for less than US$200,000 per month.
On 7 March 2022, Embraer confirmed their intent to enter the cargo market, offering conversions of E190 and E195 aircraft to freighters. These will make their first flights in 2024.
Main article: Embraer Lineage 1000
On 2 May 2006, Embraer announced plans for the business jet variant of the E190, the Embraer Lineage 1000. It has the same structure as the E190, but with an extended range of up to 4,200 nmi (7,800 km; 4,800 mi), and luxury seating for up to 19. It was certified by the US Federal Aviation Administration on 7 January 2009. The first two production aircraft were delivered in December 2008.
Embraer considered producing an aircraft which was known as the E195X, a stretched version of the E195. It would have seated approximately 130 passengers. The E195X was apparently a response to an American Airlines request for an aircraft to replace its McDonnell Douglas MD-80s. Embraer abandoned plans for the 195X in May 2010, following concerns that its flight range would be too short.
The commercial names used for the E170 and E190 families differ from the official model designations, as used (for instance) with the Type-Certificates, and in national registries.
|Marketing designation||Official model designation|
|Embraer 170LR||ERJ 170-100 LR|
|Embraer 170STD||ERJ 170-100 STD|
|Embraer 175LR||ERJ 170-200 LR|
|Embraer 175STD||ERJ 170-200 STD|
|Lineage 1000||ERJ 190-100 ECJ|
|Embraer 190AR||ERJ 190-100 IGW|
|Embraer 190LR||ERJ 190-100 LR|
|Embraer 190SR||ERJ 190-100 SR|
|Embraer 190STD||ERJ 190-100 STD|
|Embraer 195AR||ERJ 190-200 IGW|
|Embraer 195LR||ERJ 190-200 LR|
|Embraer 195STD||ERJ 190-200 STD|
Main article: List of Embraer E-Jet operators
See also: Embraer E-Jet E2 family
As of December 2022[update], the four largest operators of E-Jet family were SkyWest Airlines (236), Republic Airways (230), Envoy Air (116), and Mesa Airlines (80).
List of Embraer's E-Jet family deliveries and orders:
|E170||191||191||—||Republic Airways (56), Envoy Air (21), J-Air (18), S7 Airlines (17)|
|E175||847||746||101||SkyWest Airlines (236), Republic Airways (174), Envoy Air (101), Mesa Airlines (80)|
|E190||568||568||—||JetBlue (48), Aeroméxico Connect (46), KLM Cityhopper (32), Tianjin Airlines (31)|
|E195||172||172||—||Azul Brazilian Airlines (51), Tianjin Airlines (20), Austrian Airlines (17), LOT Polish Airlines (15)|
|Envoy Air||United States||7|
|Horizon Air||United States||9|
|Republic Airlines||United States||51|
|SkyWest Airlines||United States||23|
The E-Jet has been involved in 21 incidents, including eight hull losses:
See also: Embraer E-Jet E2 specifications
|Flight crew||2 pilots|
|Single-class seats||72@32" - 78@30-33"||78@32" - 88@29"||100@31/32" - 114@29/30"||116@31/32" - 124@29-31"|
|Dual-class seats||66 (6F'40", 60Y@32")||76 (12F@36", 64Y@31")||96 (8F@38", 88@31")||100 (12F@42", 88Y@33")|
|Height × width||2.00 m × 2.74 m (6 ft 7 in × 9 ft 0 in)|
|Length||29.90 m (98 ft 1 in)||31.67 m (103 ft 11 in)||36.25 m (118 ft 11 in)||38.66 m (126 ft 10 in)|
|Wingspan||26.01 m (84 ft 4 in) (E170/E75S) / 28.65 m (94 ft) (E75L)||28.73 m (94 ft 3 in)|
|Wing area||72.72 m2 (783 sq ft)||92.53 m2 (996 sq ft)|
|Height||9.83 m (32 ft 3 in)||9.86 m (32 ft 4 in)||10.57 m (34 ft 8 in)||10.54 m (34 ft 7 in)|
|Maximum takeoff (AR)||38,600 kg (85,098 lb)||40,370 kg (89,000 lb)||51,800 kg (114,199 lb)||52,290 kg (115,280 lb)|
|Basic operating||21,141 kg (46,608 lb)||21,890 kg (48,259 lb)||27,837 kg (61,370 lb)||28,667 kg (63,200 lb)|
|Max payload||9,759 kg (21,515 lb)||10,110 kg (22,289 lb)||13,063 kg (28,800 lb)||13,933 kg (30,716 lb)|
|Max fuel||9,335 kg (20,580 lb)||12,971 kg (28,596 lb)|
|Powerplant||E170 / E175||E190 / E195|
|Turbofans (2×)||GE CF34-8E||GE CF34-10E|
|Thrust||14,200 lbf (63 kN)||20,000 lbf (89 kN)|
|Max. speed||Mach .82 (470 kn; 871 km/h; 541 mph) @ 41,000 ft (12,000 m)|
|Cruise||Mach .75 (430 kn; 797 km/h; 495 mph)||Mach .78 (447 kn; 829 km/h; 515 mph)|
|Range[a]||2,150 nmi (3,982 km; 2,470 mi)||2,200 nmi (4,074 km; 2,500 mi)||2,450 nmi (4,537 km; 2,820 mi)||2,300 nmi (4,260 km; 2,600 mi)|
|Takeoff (MTOW, ISA, SL)||1,644 m (5,394 ft)||2,244 m (7,363 ft)||2,100 m (6,890 ft)||2,179 m (7,149 ft)|
|Landing (MLW, ISA, SL)||1,241 m (4,072 ft)||1,261 m (4,137 ft)||1,244 m (4,081 ft)||1,275 m (4,183 ft)|
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