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Brazil (Portuguese: Brasil; Brazilian Portuguese: [bɾaˈziw]), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3,300,000 sq mi) and with over 211 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the sixth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, and its most populous city is São Paulo. The federation is composed of the union of the 26 states and the Federal District. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas; it is also one of the most multicultural and ethnically diverse nations, due to over a century of mass immigration from around the world; as well as the most populous Roman Catholic-majority country.

Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers (4,655 mi). It borders all other countries in South America except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, and extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats. This unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, and is the subject of significant global interest, as environmental degradation through processes like deforestation has direct impacts on global issues like climate change and biodiversity loss.

Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808 when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system. The ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

Brazil is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in South America. It is considered an advanced emerging economy, having the twelfth largest GDP in the world by nominal, and eighth by PPP measures. It is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. Brazil is a regional and middle power, and is also classified as an emerging power. However, the country maintains high amounts of corruption, crime and social inequality. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Mercosul, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries. (Full article...)

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  • Princess Dona Maria Amélia around age 17, c. 1849
    Princess Dona Maria Amélia around age 17, c. 1849
  • Image 2Sonic: After the Sequel is a 2013 platform video game created by Brazilian student Felipe Daneluz (LakeFeperd). It is an unofficial game based on the Sonic the Hedgehog series and set between the official games Sonic the Hedgehog 2 and Sonic the Hedgehog 3. Daneluz's second Sonic game, it follows Sonic: Before the Sequel, which is set between the original Sonic the Hedgehog and Sonic the Hedgehog 2. Like its predecessor, After the Sequel stars Sonic the Hedgehog and his sidekick Tails in a quest to retrieve the Chaos Emeralds from Doctor Eggman.After the Sequel was inspired by Sonic Heroes and other games both inside and outside the Sonic series, and it was developed with Sonic Worlds, an engine based in Multimedia Fusion 2 that reduces the amount of computer programming involved in game creation. It was released as a free download for Microsoft Windows personal computers on June 15, 2013. The game was very well received by video game journalists, who lauded its preservation of retro Sonic gameplay and its electric, 1990s-style soundtrack. The trilogy of Before the Sequel, After the Sequel, and their successor Sonic: Chrono Adventure performed unusually well for fangames, having been downloaded 120,000 times by March 2014. (Full article...)
    Sonic: After the Sequel is a 2013 platform video game created by Brazilian student Felipe Daneluz (LakeFeperd). It is an unofficial game based on the Sonic the Hedgehog series and set between the official games Sonic the Hedgehog 2 and Sonic the Hedgehog 3. Daneluz's second Sonic game, it follows Sonic: Before the Sequel, which is set between the original Sonic the Hedgehog and Sonic the Hedgehog 2. Like its predecessor, After the Sequel stars Sonic the Hedgehog and his sidekick Tails in a quest to retrieve the Chaos Emeralds from Doctor Eggman.

    After the Sequel was inspired by Sonic Heroes and other games both inside and outside the Sonic series, and it was developed with Sonic Worlds, an engine based in Multimedia Fusion 2 that reduces the amount of computer programming involved in game creation. It was released as a free download for Microsoft Windows personal computers on June 15, 2013. The game was very well received by video game journalists, who lauded its preservation of retro Sonic gameplay and its electric, 1990s-style soundtrack. The trilogy of Before the Sequel, After the Sequel, and their successor Sonic: Chrono Adventure performed unusually well for fangames, having been downloaded 120,000 times by March 2014. (Full article...)
  • Photomicrograph of Giemsa-stained Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes in human blood.
    Photomicrograph of Giemsa-stained Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes in human blood.
  • The gun trials of the Brazilian dreadnought Minas Geraes, the ship that began the dreadnought race. Here, all guns capable of training to the port side were fired, forming what was at that time the heaviest broadside ever fired off a warship.
    The gun trials of the Brazilian dreadnought Minas Geraes, the ship that began the dreadnought race. Here, all guns capable of training to the port side were fired, forming what was at that time the heaviest broadside ever fired off a warship.
  • Cuiaba River, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil
    Cuiaba River, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil
  • The Count of Porto Alegre around age 61, c. 1865
    The Count of Porto Alegre around age 61, c. 1865
  • São Paulo on its sea trials, 1910
    São Paulo on its sea trials, 1910
  • Teresa Cristina at age 66, 1888
    Teresa Cristina at age 66, 1888
  • The Viscount of Inhaúma around the age of 56, c. 1864
    The Viscount of Inhaúma around the age of 56, c. 1864
  • Location of Fernando de Noronha, the island group to which Noronhomys was endemic.
    Location of Fernando de Noronha, the island group to which Noronhomys was endemic.
  • Bahia sometime before her mid-1920s modernization, as indicated by her two funnels
    Bahia sometime before her mid-1920s modernization, as indicated by her two funnels
  • Minas Geraes at speed during its sea trials
    Minas Geraes at speed during its sea trials
  • Prince Pedro Afonso seated on his mother's lap while surrounded by his sisters, 1849
    Prince Pedro Afonso seated on his mother's lap while surrounded by his sisters, 1849
  • Honório Hermeto Carneiro Leão, Marquis of Paraná, at age 55, 1856
    Honório Hermeto Carneiro Leão, Marquis of Paraná, at age 55, 1856
  • Viscount of Rio Branco, in 1879
    Viscount of Rio Branco, in 1879
  • Reconstructed T. sethi skeleton (the postcranium is hypothetical) with Anhanguera behind, National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo
    Reconstructed T. sethi skeleton (the postcranium is hypothetical) with Anhanguera behind, National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo
  • Afonso at age 2 wearing the blue band of the Order of the Southern Cross, 1846
    Afonso at age 2 wearing the blue band of the Order of the Southern Cross, 1846
  • Range (in green).
    Range (in green).
  • USS Orizaba (ID–1536) departing New York via the North River for France in World War I (1918)
    USS Orizaba (ID–1536) departing New York via the North River for France in World War I (1918)

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Fittipaldi Automotive, sometimes called Copersucar after its first major sponsor, was the only Formula One motor racing team and constructor ever to be based in Brazil. It was formed during 1974 by racing driver Wilson Fittipaldi and his younger brother, double world champion Emerson, with money from the Brazilian sugar and alcohol cooperative Copersucar. The team raced under a Brazilian licence. In 1976, Emerson surprised the motor racing world by leaving the title-winning McLaren team to drive for the unsuccessful family outfit. Future world champion Keke Rosberg took his first podium finish in Formula One with the team.

The team was based in São Paulo, almost 6,000 miles (10,000 km) away from the centre of the world motor racing industry in the UK, before moving to Reading, UK during 1977. It participated in 119 Grands Prix between 1975 and 1982, entering a total of 156 cars. It achieved three podiums and scored 44 championship points. (Full article...)
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Brazil has rediscovered itself, and this rediscovery is being expressed in its people's enthusiasm and their desire to mobilize to face the huge problems that lie ahead of us. — Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva
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Mechanized harvesting of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum), Piracicaba, São Paulo.
Mechanized harvesting of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum), Piracicaba, São Paulo.
The history of ethanol fuel in Brazil dates from the 1970s and relates to Brazil's sugarcane-based ethanol fuel program, which allowed the country to become the world's second largest producer of ethanol, and the world's largest exporter. Several important political and technological developments led Brazil to become the world leader in the sustainable use of bioethanol, and a policy model for other developing countries in the tropical zone of Latin America, the Caribbean, and Africa. Government policies and technological advances also allowed the country to achieve a landmark in ethanol consumption, when ethanol retail sales surpassed 50% market share of the gasoline-powered vehicle fleet in early 2008. This level of ethanol fuel consumption had only been reached in Brazil once before, at the peak of the Pró-Álcool Program near the end of the 1980s. (Full article...)

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1903 portrait of Plácido de Castro
1903 portrait of Plácido de Castro
José Plácido de Castro (9 September 1873 – 11 August 1908) was a Brazilian soldier, surveyor, rubber producer and politician who led the armed revolt during the Acre War of 1902–3, when the Republic of Acre broke away from Bolivia. He was the president of the state of Acre just before and after it was purchased by Brazil. After the war he became extremely wealthy as a rubber producer, and made many enemies. He was assassinated in 1908. He is considered a hero of Brazil. (Full article...)

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Iguazu Falls, Iguassu Falls, or Iguaçu Falls are waterfalls of the Iguazu River located on the border of the Brazilian state of Paraná and the Argentine province of Misiones. The falls divide the river into the upper and lower Iguazu.

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2008 Brazilian Grand PrixAfonso, Prince Imperial of BrazilLuís Alves de Lima e Silva, Duke of CaxiasMário de AndradeBrazilian cruiser BahiaEmpire of Brazil1937 Brazilian coup d'étatPedro Álvares CabralChagas diseaseDrymoreomysEuryoryzomys emmonsaeFôrça BrutaGol Transportes Aéreos Flight 1907Joaquim José Inácio, Viscount of InhaúmaJaguarLundomysPrincess Maria Amélia of BrazilMaster SystemBrazilian battleship Minas GeraesMinas Geraes-class battleshipNoronha skinkNoronhomysUSS OrizabaHonório Hermeto Carneiro Leão, Marquis of ParanáJosé Paranhos, Viscount of Rio BrancoPedro I of BrazilPedro II of BrazilPedro Afonso, Prince Imperial of BrazilManuel Marques de Sousa, Count of Porto AlegreBrazilian battleship São PauloSonic: After the SequelSouth American dreadnought raceThalassodromeusTeresa Cristina of the Two SiciliesUruguayan War2014 FIFA World Cup FinalGiant otterHawksbill sea turtle

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List of municipalities in Rio Grande do NorteSepultura discography

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1995 Brazilian Grand Prix2000 Brazilian Grand Prix2000 Rio 2002010 Brazilian Grand Prix2010 São Paulo Indy 3002012 Brazilian Grand Prix2014 Brazilian Grand Prix2015 Brazilian Grand PrixA Puro DolorArchaeological interest of Pedra da GáveaArena CorinthiansArise (Sepultura album)Clube Atlético MineiroDisappearance of Bruno BorgesBrainstorm (2000 film)Brazil v Germany (2014 FIFA World Cup)Brazil at the 1994 Winter OlympicsBrazil at the 1998 Winter OlympicsBrazil at the 2014 Winter ParalympicsBrazilian military junta of 1930Gisele BündchenCapybaraHélio CastronevesDorival CaymmiCésar CieloClube Atlético Mineiro in international club footballCavalera ConspiracyDiego CostaFlexible-fuel vehicles in BrazilFortress of HumaitáFruta FrescaGanga BrutaGilberto GilMaurício GugelminHistory of ethanol fuel in BrazilHurricane CatarinaJorge Ben (album)Mitsuyo MaedaRMS Magdalena (1948)Mango YellowMarquinhosThe Naturalist on the River AmazonsLegacy of Pedro II of BrazilDecline and fall of Pedro II of BrazilEarly life of Pedro II of BrazilPeléBrazilian monitor PiauíPlatine WarMarie RennotteRevolt of the LashRio de Janeiro bid for the 2016 Summer OlympicsSamba rockSarcófagoState University of CampinasTAM Airlines Flight 3054TectoyAmon TobinVinicius and TomMartha Watts

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  • Amanhecer no Hercules --
    Amanhecer no Hercules --
  • Bananaquits
    Bananaquits
  • Bare-faced curassow (Crax fasciolata) female head
    Bare-faced curassow (Crax fasciolata) female head
  • Basilica of the National Shrine of Our Lady of Aparecida, 2007
    Basilica of the National Shrine of Our Lady of Aparecida, 2007
  • Bertha Lutz 1925
    Bertha Lutz 1925
  • Black skimmer (Rynchops niger) in flight
    Black skimmer (Rynchops niger) in flight
  • Campo flicker (Colaptes campestris) female
    Campo flicker (Colaptes campestris) female
  • Cobra-papagaio - Bothrops bilineatus - Ilhéus - Bahia
    Cobra-papagaio - Bothrops bilineatus - Ilhéus - Bahia
  • Dilma Rousseff - foto oficial 2011-01-09
    Dilma Rousseff - foto oficial 2011-01-09
  • Discovery of the Land1
    Discovery of the Land1
  • ESTADOS UNIDOS LEVAM OURO NA GINÁSTICA FEMININA POR EQUIPES DOS JOGOS OLÍMPICOS RIO 2016 (28849586476) (cropped)
    ESTADOS UNIDOS LEVAM OURO NA GINÁSTICA FEMININA POR EQUIPES DOS JOGOS OLÍMPICOS RIO 2016 (28849586476) (cropped)
  • Fernanda Lima in 2012
    Fernanda Lima in 2012
  • Gibão de couro
    Gibão de couro
  • Jabiru (Jabiru mycteria) 2
    Jabiru (Jabiru mycteria) 2
  • Jaguar (Panthera onca palustris) male Three Brothers River 2
    Jaguar (Panthera onca palustris) male Three Brothers River 2
  • Lençóis Maranhenses 2018
    Lençóis Maranhenses 2018
  • Maria I, Queen of Portugal - Giuseppe Troni, atribuído (Turim, 1739-Lisboa, 1810) - Google Cultural Institute
    Maria I, Queen of Portugal - Giuseppe Troni, atribuído (Turim, 1739-Lisboa, 1810) - Google Cultural Institute
  • Oil platform P-51 (Brazil)
    Oil platform P-51 (Brazil)
  • Pedro II of Brazil - Brady-Handy
    Pedro II of Brazil - Brady-Handy
  • Proclamação da República by Benedito Calixto 1893
    Proclamação da República by Benedito Calixto 1893
  • Red-and-green macaw (Ara chloropterus) juvenile
    Red-and-green macaw (Ara chloropterus) juvenile
  • Red-legged seriema (Cariama cristata) head
    Red-legged seriema (Cariama cristata) head
  • Roadside hawk (Rupornis magnirostris) immature 2
    Roadside hawk (Rupornis magnirostris) immature 2
  • Saffron finch (Sicalis flaveola) male
    Saffron finch (Sicalis flaveola) male
  • Savanna hawk (Buteogallus meridionalis)
    Savanna hawk (Buteogallus meridionalis)
  • Southern rough-winged swallow (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis ruficollis)
    Southern rough-winged swallow (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis ruficollis)
  • Teatro Municipal de São Paulo 8
    Teatro Municipal de São Paulo 8
  • Tropical kingbird (Tyrannus melancholicus)
    Tropical kingbird (Tyrannus melancholicus)
  • Yacare caiman (Caiman yacare) 2
    Yacare caiman (Caiman yacare) 2
  • Yellow-billed cardinal (Paroaria capitata) juvenile
    Yellow-billed cardinal (Paroaria capitata) juvenile
  • Yellow-billed cardinal (Paroaria capitata)
    Yellow-billed cardinal (Paroaria capitata)

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