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Brazil (Portuguese: Brasil; Brazilian Portuguese: [bɾaˈziw]), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: República Federativa do Brasil), is a country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3,300,000 sq mi) and with over 214 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the sixth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, and its most populous city is São Paulo. The federation is composed of the union of the 26 states and the Federal District. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas; it is also one of the most multicultural and ethnically diverse nations, due to over a century of mass immigration from around the world; as well as the most populous Roman Catholic-majority country.

Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers (4,655 mi). It borders all other countries and territories in South America except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, and extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats. This unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, and is the subject of significant global interest, as environmental degradation through processes like deforestation has direct impacts on global issues like climate change and biodiversity loss.

Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808 when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system. The ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

Brazil is a regional and middle power, and is also classified as an emerging power. It is considered an advanced emerging economy, having the twelfth largest GDP in the world by nominal, and eighth by PPP measures, the largest in Latin America. As an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, Brazil has the largest share of global wealth in South America and it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. However, the country maintains noticeable amounts of corruption, crime and social inequality. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Mercosul, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries. (Full article...)

More about Brazil, its history and inhabitants

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  • Mário de Andrade at age 35, 1928
    Mário de Andrade at age 35, 1928
  • Reconstructed T. sethi skeleton (the postcranium is hypothetical) with Anhanguera behind, National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo
    Reconstructed T. sethi skeleton (the postcranium is hypothetical) with Anhanguera behind, National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo
  • USS Orizaba (ID–1536) departing New York via the North River for France in World War I (1918)
    USS Orizaba (ID–1536) departing New York via the North River for France in World War I (1918)
  • São Paulo on its sea trials, 1910
    São Paulo on its sea trials, 1910
  • Dom Pedro II around age 61, c. 1887
    Dom Pedro II around age 61, c. 1887
  • Portrait by Nadar, c. 1888
    Portrait by Nadar, c. 1888
  • Image 10The 1937 Brazilian coup d'état (Portuguese: Golpe de Estado no Brasil em 1937), also known as the Estado Novo coup (Portuguese: Golpe do Estado Novo), was a military coup led by President Getúlio Vargas with the support of the Armed Forces on 10 November 1937. Vargas had risen to power in 1930 with the backing of the military, following a revolution that ended a decades-old oligarchy. Vargas ruled as provisional president until the National Constituent Assembly election in 1934. Under a new constitution, Vargas became the constitutional president of Brazil, but following a 1935 communist uprising, speculation grew over a potential self-coup. Candidates for the 1938 presidential election appeared as early as late 1936. Vargas could not seek re-election, but he and his allies were unwilling to abandon power. Despite loosening political repression after the communist revolt, strong sentiment for a dictatorial government remained, and increasing federal intervention in state governments would pave the way for a coup to take place.With preparations beginning officially on 18 September 1937, senior military officers used the Cohen Plan [pt], a fraudulent document, to provoke the National Congress into declaring a state of war. After his state's militia was incorporated into the federal forces by a state of war commission in his state, Rio Grande do Sul Governor Flores da Cunha [pt], who was opposed to Vargas, went into exile in mid-October 1937. State governors of Bahia and Pernambuco were also attacked by commissions in their states. Francisco Campos [pt] drafted a new, ambitious constitution for Vargas to become a dictator. By November, the President held most of the power in the country, and there was little to stop the plan. On the morning of 10 November 1937, the military surrounded the National Congress. The cabinet expressed approval for the new corporatist constitution, and a radio address by Vargas proclaimed the new regime, the Estado Novo (New State). (Full article...)
    The 1937 Brazilian coup d'état (Portuguese: Golpe de Estado no Brasil em 1937), also known as the Estado Novo coup (Portuguese: Golpe do Estado Novo), was a military coup led by President Getúlio Vargas with the support of the Armed Forces on 10 November 1937. Vargas had risen to power in 1930 with the backing of the military, following a revolution that ended a decades-old oligarchy. Vargas ruled as provisional president until the National Constituent Assembly election in 1934. Under a new constitution, Vargas became the constitutional president of Brazil, but following a 1935 communist uprising, speculation grew over a potential self-coup. Candidates for the 1938 presidential election appeared as early as late 1936. Vargas could not seek re-election, but he and his allies were unwilling to abandon power. Despite loosening political repression after the communist revolt, strong sentiment for a dictatorial government remained, and increasing federal intervention in state governments would pave the way for a coup to take place.

    With preparations beginning officially on 18 September 1937, senior military officers used the Cohen Plan [pt], a fraudulent document, to provoke the National Congress into declaring a state of war. After his state's militia was incorporated into the federal forces by a state of war commission in his state, Rio Grande do Sul Governor Flores da Cunha [pt], who was opposed to Vargas, went into exile in mid-October 1937. State governors of Bahia and Pernambuco were also attacked by commissions in their states. Francisco Campos [pt] drafted a new, ambitious constitution for Vargas to become a dictator. By November, the President held most of the power in the country, and there was little to stop the plan. On the morning of 10 November 1937, the military surrounded the National Congress. The cabinet expressed approval for the new corporatist constitution, and a radio address by Vargas proclaimed the new regime, the Estado Novo (New State). (Full article...)
  • Honório Hermeto Carneiro Leão, Marquis of Paraná, at age 55, 1856
    Honório Hermeto Carneiro Leão, Marquis of Paraná, at age 55, 1856
  • Afonso at age 2 wearing the blue band of the Order of the Southern Cross, 1846
    Afonso at age 2 wearing the blue band of the Order of the Southern Cross, 1846
  • The Viscount of Inhaúma around the age of 56, c. 1864
    The Viscount of Inhaúma around the age of 56, c. 1864
  • Minas Geraes at sea, probably in 1909
    Minas Geraes at sea, probably in 1909
  • Germany's Mario Götze scores the match-winning goal in the 113th minute
    Germany's Mario Götze scores the match-winning goal in the 113th minute
  • Range (in green).
    Range (in green).
  • Princess Dona Maria Amélia around age 17, c. 1849
    Princess Dona Maria Amélia around age 17, c. 1849
  • Bahia sometime before its mid-1920s modernization, as indicated by its two funnels
    Bahia sometime before its mid-1920s modernization, as indicated by its two funnels
  • The Duke of Caxias at age 75, 1878
    The Duke of Caxias at age 75, 1878
  • Cuiaba River, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil
    Cuiaba River, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil
  • Viscount of Rio Branco, in 1879
    Viscount of Rio Branco, in 1879
  • Location of Fernando de Noronha, the island group to which Noronhomys was endemic.
    Location of Fernando de Noronha, the island group to which Noronhomys was endemic.

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German Colonel Kleiber in preliminary discussions with Brazilian Major Franco Ferreira, in Fornovo di Taro, about the surrender of the German 148. Infanterie-Division (plus remnants of the 90. Grenadier-Division), ending the Battle of Collecchio, in 29 April 1945.
German Colonel Kleiber in preliminary discussions with Brazilian Major Franco Ferreira, in Fornovo di Taro, about the surrender of the German 148. Infanterie-Division (plus remnants of the 90. Grenadier-Division), ending the Battle of Collecchio, in 29 April 1945.

The Battle of Collecchio-Fornovo (26–29 April 1945) was a battle of the Second World War between the Brazilian Expeditionary Force (Força Expedicionária Brasileira – FEB), along with Italian partisans and units from the American 1st Armored and 92nd Infantry Divisions, against the Wehrmacht's 148th Infantry Division, 90th Panzergrenadier Divisions and the fascist National Republican Army's 1st Bersaglieri "Italia" and the 4th Mountain "Monterosa" Divisions. The battle was fought around the town of Fornovo di Taro, about 8 miles (13 km) to the southwest of Parma, Italy. The Allies defeated the Axis forces, which were attempting to break through to the north.

On 28 April, the Brazilian 6th RCT followed up with an attack on Fornovo, with German General Otto Fretter-Pico surrendering the 148th Division, with almost 15,000 German and Fascist Italian troops at the morning of 29 April. (Full article...)
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Here I can work and make money. In Brazil all I would do is study. — Raica Oliveira

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The decline and fall of Pedro II of Brazil took place over the course of the 1880s. Paradoxically, it coincided with a period of unparalleled economic and social stability and progress for the Empire of Brazil, with the nation achieving a prominent place as an emerging power in the international arena.

The roots of the collapse of the monarchy can be traced as far back as 1850, when Pedro II's youngest male child died. From that point onward, the Emperor himself ceased to believe in the monarchy as a viable form of government for Brazil's future, as his remaining heir was a daughter. Although constitutionally permitted, a female ruler was considered unacceptable by both Pedro II and the ruling circles. This issue was deferred for decades, while the country became more powerful and prosperous. So long as the Emperor was in good health, the question of succession could be ignored. (Full article...)

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Daniela Mercury in 2010.
Daniela Mercury in 2010.

Daniela Mercury (born Daniela Mercuri de Almeida on July 28, 1965) is a Brazilian singer, songwriter, dancer, producer, actress and television host. In her solo career, Mercury has sold over 20 million records worldwide and had 24 Top 10 singles in the country, with 14 of them reached No. 1. Winner of a Latin Grammy for her album Balé Mulato – Ao Vivo, she also received six Brazilian Music Award, an APCA award, three Multishow Brazilian Music Awards and two awards at VMB: Best Music Video and Photography.

In 1991, Mercury released her self-titled album, which was followed by O Canto da Cidade a year later, boosting her career as a national artist and taking the axé music to the evidence. Over the years, Mercury released several albums, generating great singles like "Swing da Cor", "O Canto da Cidade", "À Primeira Vista", "Rapunzel", "Nobre Vagabundo", "Ilê Pérola Negra", "Mutante", "Maimbê Dandá", "Levada Brasileira", "Oyá Por Nós", among others. She recorded a commemorative DVD of Cirque du Soleil's 25th anniversary, and was part of the Montreal Jazz Festival. In addition, Mercury was invited to participate in the Alejandro Sanz's DVD, and sing with Paul McCartney in Oslo, Norway, during the delivery of the Nobel Peace Prize. (Full article...)

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Juscelino Kubitschek bridge
Credit: Sting

The Juscelino Kubitschek Bridge also known as the President JK Bridge or just the JK Bridge, crosses Lake Paranoá in Brasília, D.F. It is named for Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliveira, former president of Brazil, who in the late 1950s decided to build Brasília as the new capital of the country. It was designed by architect Alexandre Chan and structural engineer Mário Vila Verde.

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2008 Brazilian Grand PrixAfonso, Prince Imperial of BrazilMário de AndradeBrazilian cruiser BahiaEmpire of Brazil1937 Brazilian coup d'étatPedro Álvares CabralChagas diseaseDrymoreomysEuryoryzomys emmonsaeFôrça BrutaGol Transportes Aéreos Flight 1907Joaquim José Inácio, Viscount of InhaúmaJaguarHonório Hermeto Carneiro Leão, Marquis of ParanáLundomysPrincess Maria Amélia of BrazilMaster SystemBrazilian battleship Minas GeraesMinas Geraes-class battleshipNoronha skinkNoronhomysUSS OrizabaJosé Paranhos, Viscount of Rio BrancoPedro I of BrazilPedro II of BrazilPedro Afonso, Prince Imperial of BrazilBrazilian battleship São PauloLuís Alves de Lima e Silva, Duke of CaxiasSonic: After the SequelManuel Marques de Sousa, Count of Porto AlegreSouth American dreadnought raceThalassodromeusTeresa Cristina of the Two SiciliesUruguayan War2014 FIFA World Cup FinalGiant otter

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List of municipalities in Rio Grande do NorteSepultura discography

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1995 Brazilian Grand Prix2000 Brazilian Grand Prix2000 Rio 2002010 Brazilian Grand Prix2010 São Paulo Indy 3002012 Brazilian Grand Prix2014 Brazilian Grand Prix2015 Brazilian Grand PrixA Puro DolorRebeca AndradeArchaeological interest of Pedra da GáveaArena CorinthiansArise (Sepultura album)Clube Atlético MineiroDisappearance of Bruno BorgesBrainstorm (2000 film)Brazil v Germany (2014 FIFA World Cup)Brazil at the 1994 Winter OlympicsBrazil at the 1998 Winter OlympicsBrazil at the 2014 Winter ParalympicsBrazilian military junta of 1930Gisele BündchenCapybaraHélio CastronevesDorival CaymmiCésar CieloClube Atlético Mineiro in international club footballCavalera ConspiracyDiego CostaPhilippe CoutinhoDiptychophora galvaniFortress of HumaitáFruta FrescaGanga BrutaGilberto GilMaurício GugelminHurricane CatarinaJorge Ben (album)Mitsuyo MaedaRMS Magdalena (1948)Mango YellowMarquinhosThe Naturalist on the River AmazonsLegacy of Pedro II of BrazilEarly life of Pedro II of BrazilPeléBrazilian monitor PiauíPlatine WarMarie RennotteRevolt of the LashRio de Janeiro bid for the 2016 Summer OlympicsSamba rockSarcófagoState University of CampinasTAM Airlines Flight 3054TectoyAmon TobinVinicius and TomMartha Watts

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  • Amanhecer no Hercules --
    Amanhecer no Hercules --
  • Bananaquits
    Bananaquits
  • Bare-faced curassow (Crax fasciolata) female head
    Bare-faced curassow (Crax fasciolata) female head
  • Basilica of the National Shrine of Our Lady of Aparecida, 2007
    Basilica of the National Shrine of Our Lady of Aparecida, 2007
  • Bertha Lutz 1925
    Bertha Lutz 1925
  • Black skimmer (Rynchops niger) in flight
    Black skimmer (Rynchops niger) in flight
  • Campo flicker (Colaptes campestris) female
    Campo flicker (Colaptes campestris) female
  • Cobra-papagaio - Bothrops bilineatus - Ilhéus - Bahia
    Cobra-papagaio - Bothrops bilineatus - Ilhéus - Bahia
  • Dilma Rousseff - foto oficial 2011-01-09
    Dilma Rousseff - foto oficial 2011-01-09
  • Discovery of the Land1
    Discovery of the Land1
  • ESTADOS UNIDOS LEVAM OURO NA GINÁSTICA FEMININA POR EQUIPES DOS JOGOS OLÍMPICOS RIO 2016 (28849586476) (cropped)
    ESTADOS UNIDOS LEVAM OURO NA GINÁSTICA FEMININA POR EQUIPES DOS JOGOS OLÍMPICOS RIO 2016 (28849586476) (cropped)
  • Fernanda Lima in 2012
    Fernanda Lima in 2012
  • Gibão de couro
    Gibão de couro
  • Green kingfisher (Chloroceryle americana) male 3
    Green kingfisher (Chloroceryle americana) male 3
  • Jabiru (Jabiru mycteria) 2
    Jabiru (Jabiru mycteria) 2
  • Jaguar (Panthera onca palustris) male Three Brothers River 2
    Jaguar (Panthera onca palustris) male Three Brothers River 2
  • Lençóis Maranhenses 2018
    Lençóis Maranhenses 2018
  • Maria I, Queen of Portugal - Giuseppe Troni, atribuído (Turim, 1739-Lisboa, 1810) - Google Cultural Institute
    Maria I, Queen of Portugal - Giuseppe Troni, atribuído (Turim, 1739-Lisboa, 1810) - Google Cultural Institute
  • Oil platform P-51 (Brazil)
    Oil platform P-51 (Brazil)
  • Pedro II of Brazil - Brady-Handy
    Pedro II of Brazil - Brady-Handy
  • Proclamação da República by Benedito Calixto 1893
    Proclamação da República by Benedito Calixto 1893
  • Red-and-green macaw (Ara chloropterus) juvenile
    Red-and-green macaw (Ara chloropterus) juvenile
  • Red-legged seriema (Cariama cristata) head
    Red-legged seriema (Cariama cristata) head
  • Roadside hawk (Rupornis magnirostris) immature 2
    Roadside hawk (Rupornis magnirostris) immature 2
  • Saffron finch (Sicalis flaveola) male
    Saffron finch (Sicalis flaveola) male
  • Savanna hawk (Buteogallus meridionalis)
    Savanna hawk (Buteogallus meridionalis)
  • Schopfkarakara
    Schopfkarakara
  • Southern rough-winged swallow (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis ruficollis)
    Southern rough-winged swallow (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis ruficollis)
  • Teatro Municipal de São Paulo 8
    Teatro Municipal de São Paulo 8
  • Tropical kingbird (Tyrannus melancholicus)
    Tropical kingbird (Tyrannus melancholicus)
  • Yacare caiman (Caiman yacare) 2
    Yacare caiman (Caiman yacare) 2
  • Yellow-billed cardinal (Paroaria capitata) juvenile
    Yellow-billed cardinal (Paroaria capitata) juvenile
  • Yellow-billed cardinal (Paroaria capitata)
    Yellow-billed cardinal (Paroaria capitata)

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