Summary of major biodiversity-related environmental-change categories expressed as a percentage of human-driven change (in red) relative to baseline (blue). Red indicates the percentage of the category that is damaged, lost, or otherwise affected, whereas blue indicates the percentage that is intact, remaining, or otherwise unaffected.[1]

Biodiversity loss happens when various species disappear completely from Earth (extinction) or when there is a decrease or disappearance of species in a specific area. This in turn leads to a reduction in biological diversity in that area. The decrease can be temporary or permanent. It is temporary if the damage that has led to the loss is reversible in time, for example through ecological restoration. If this is not possible then the decrease is permanent. This ongoing global extinction (also called the holocene extinction or sixth mass extinction) is a biodiversity crisis. The cause for most of the biodiversity loss are those human activities that push the planetary boundaries too far.[1][2][3]

The causes for current biodiversity loss are habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation;[4] land use intensification (and ensuing land loss/habitat loss), often for commercial and agricultural uses (specifically monoculture farming).[5][6] Further causes include nutrient pollution and other forms of pollution (air and water pollution), over-exploitation and unsustainable use (related to human overpopulation), invasive species[7] and climate change.[4]

Many scientists, along with the Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, say that the main reasons for biodiversity loss are the growing human population and excessive consumption.[8][9][10][11][12] However other scientists have criticized this, saying that loss of habitat is caused mainly by "the growth of commodities for export". They also state that population has very little to do with overall consumption due to country wealth disparities.[13]

Climate change is another threat to global biodiversity.[14][15] For example, coral reefs – which are biodiversity hotspots – will be lost within the century if global warming continues at the current rate.[16][17] However, habitat destruction (often for the expansion of agriculture), is currently the more significant driver of biodiversity loss, not climate change.[18][19] Invasive species and other disturbances have become more common in forests in the last several decades. These tend to be directly or indirectly connected to climate change and have negative consequences for forest ecosystems.[20][21]

Groups that care about the environment have been working for many years to stop the decrease in biodiversity. Now, preventing biodiversity loss is often included in global policies. It can be part of the response to the triple planetary crisis. For example, the UN Convention on Biological Diversity aims to prevent biodiversity loss and to conserve wilderness areas. However, a report of the United Nations Environment Programme in 2020 found that most of these efforts had failed to meet their international goals.[22] For example, of the 20 biodiversity goals laid out by the Aichi Biodiversity Targets in 2010, only six were "partially achieved" by the deadline of 2020.[23][24]

Global estimates across all species

See also: Global biodiversity

Red list categories of the IUCN
Demonstrator against biodiversity loss, at Extinction Rebellion (2018).

The current rate of global biodiversity loss is estimated to be 100 to 1000 times higher than the (naturally occurring) background extinction rate, faster than at any other time in human history,[25][26] and expected to still grow in the upcoming years.[27][28][29] The fast-growing extinction trends of various animal groups like mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish have led scientists to declare a current biodiversity crisis in both land and ocean ecosystems.[30][31]

In 2006, many more species were formally classified as rare or endangered or threatened; moreover, scientists have estimated that millions more species are at risk which have not been formally recognized.[32]

In 2021, about 28 percent of the 134,400 species assessed using the IUCN Red List criteria are now listed as threatened with extinction—a total of 37,400 species compared to 16,119 threatened species in 2006.[33]

A 2022 study, which surveyed more than 3,000 experts, states that "global biodiversity loss and its impacts may be greater than previously thought", and estimates that roughly 30% of species "have been globally threatened or driven extinct since the year 1500."[34][35]

Research published in 2023 found that out of 70,000 species, about 48% are facing decreasing populations due to human activities, while only 3% are seeing an increase in populations.[36][37][38]

Methods to quantify loss

See also: Measurement of biodiversity and alpha diversity

Biologists define biodiversity as the "totality of genes, species and ecosystems of a region".[39][40] To measure biodiversity loss rates for a particular location, scientists record the species richness and its variation over time in that area. In ecology, local abundance is the relative representation of a species in a particular ecosystem.[41] It is usually measured as the number of individuals found per sample. The ratio of abundance of one species to one or multiple other species living in an ecosystem is referred to as relative species abundances.[41] Both indicators are relevant for computing biodiversity.

There are many different biodiversity indexes.[42] These investigate different scales and time spans.[43] Biodiversity has various scales and subcategories (e.g. phylogenetic diversity, species diversity, genetic diversity, nucleotide diversity).[43]

The question of net loss in confined regions is often a matter of debate.[44]

Observations by type of life

Wildlife in general

The World Wildlife Fund’s Living Planet Report 2022 found that wildlife populations declined by an average 69% since 1970.[45][46][47]

Main article: Wildlife § Loss and extinction

An October 2020 analysis by Swiss Re found that one-fifth of all countries are at risk of ecosystem collapse as the result of anthropogenic habitat destruction and increased wildlife loss.[48] If these losses are not reversed, this could trigger a total ecosystem collapse.[49]

The World Wildlife Fund in 2022[50] reports an average population decline of 68% between 1970 and 2016 for 4,400 animal species around the world encompassing nearly 21,000 monitored populations.[51]

Terrestrial invertebrates

Insects

Main articles: Decline in insect populations and Insect biodiversity

An annual decline of 5.2% in flying insect biomass found in nature reserves in Germany – about 75% loss in 26 years[52]

Insects are the most numerous and widespread class in the animal kingdom, accounting for up to 90% of all animal species.[53][54] In the 2010s, reports emerged about the widespread decline in insect populations across multiple insect orders. The reported severity shocked many observers, even though there had been earlier findings of pollinator decline. There has also been anecdotal reports of greater insect abundance earlier in the 20th century. Many car drivers know this anecdotal evidence through the windscreen phenomenon, for example.[55][56] Causes for the decline in insect population are similar to those driving other biodiversity loss. They include habitat destruction, such as intensive agriculture, the use of pesticides (particularly insecticides), introduced species, and – to a lesser degree and only for some regions – the effects of climate change.[57] An additional cause that may be specific to insects is light pollution (research in that area is ongoing).[58][59][60]

Most commonly, the declines involve reductions in abundance, though in some cases entire species are going extinct. The declines are far from uniform. In some localities, there have been reports of increases in overall insect population, and some types of insects appear to be increasing in abundance across the world.[61] Not all insect orders are affected in the same way; most affected are bees, butterflies, moths, beetles, dragonflies and damselflies. Many of the remaining insect groups have received less research to date. Also, comparative figures from earlier decades are often not available.[61] In the few major global studies, estimates of the total number of insect species at risk of extinction range between 10% and 40%,[62][57][63][64] though all of these estimates have been fraught with controversy.[65][66][67][68]

Earthworms

Scientists have studied loss of earthworms from several long-term agronomic trials. They found that relative biomass losses of minus 50–100% (with a mean of minus 83 %) match or exceed those reported for other faunal groups.[69] Thus it is clear that earthworms are similarly depleted in the soils of fields used for intensive agriculture.[69] Earthworms play an important role in ecosystem function.[69] For example, they help with biological processing in soil, water, and even green house gas balancing.[70] The decline of earthworm diversity is due to five reasons: "(1) soil degradation and habitat loss, (2) climate change, (3) excessive nutrient and other forms of contamination load, (4) over-exploitation and unsustainable management of soil, and (5) invasive species".[71]: 26  Factors like tillage practices and intensive land use decimate the soil and plant roots that earthworms use to create their biomass. This interferes with carbon and nitrogen cycles.

Knowledge of earthworm species diversity is quite limited as not even 50% of them have been described.[71] Sustainable agriculture methods could help prevent earthworm diversity decline, for example reduced tillage.[71]: 32  The Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity is trying to take action and promote the restoration and maintenance of the many diverse species of earthworms.[71]

Amphibians

The Golden toad of Monteverde, Costa Rica, was among the first casualties of amphibian declines. Formerly abundant, it was last seen in 1989.

Since the 1980s, decreases in amphibian populations, including population decline and localized mass extinctions, have been observed in locations all over the world. This type of biodiversity loss is known as one of the most critical threats to global biodiversity. The possible causes include habitat destruction and modification, diseases, exploitation, pollution, pesticide use, introduced species, and ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B). However, many of the causes of amphibian declines are still poorly understood, and the topic is currently a subject of ongoing research.

Modeling results found that the current extinction rate of amphibians could be 211 times greater than the background extinction rate. This estimate even goes up to 25,000–45,000 times if endangered species are also included in the computation.[72]

Wild mammals

Biomass of mammals on Earth as of 2018[73][74]

  Livestock, mostly cattle and pigs (60%)
  Humans (36%)
  Wild mammals (4%)

The decline of wild mammal populations globally has been an occurrence spanning over the past 50,000 years, at the same time as the populations of humans and livestock have increased. Nowadays, the total biomass of wild mammals on land is believed to be seven times lower than its prehistoric values, while the biomass of marine mammals had declined fivefold. At the same time, the biomass of humans is "an order of magnitude higher than that of all wild mammals", and the biomass of livestock mammals like pigs and cattle is even larger than that. Even as wild mammals had declined, the growth in the numbers of humans and livestock had increased total mammal biomass fourfold. Only 4% of that increased number are wild mammals, while livestock and humans amount to 60% and 36%. Alongside the simultaneous halving of plant biomass, these striking declines are considered part of the prehistoric phase of the Holocene extinction.[74][73]

Since the second half of the 20th century, a range of protected areas and other wildlife conservation efforts (such as the Repopulation of wolves in Midwestern United States) have been implemented. These have had some impact on preserving wild mammal numbers.[75] There is still some debate over the total extent of recent declines in wild mammals and other vertebrate species.[76][77] In any case, many species are now in a worse state than decades ago.[78] Hundreds of species are critically endangered.[79][80] Climate change also has negative impacts on land mammal populations.[75]

Birds

Main article: Bird conservation § Threats to birds

Some pesticides, like insecticides, likely play a role in reducing the populations of specific bird species.[81] A study funded by BirdLife International confirms that 51 species of birds are critically endangered and eight could be classified as extinct or in danger of extinction. Nearly 30% of extinction is due to hunting and trapping for the exotic pet trade. Deforestation, caused by unsustainable logging and agriculture, could be the next extinction driver, because birds lose their habitat and their food.[82][83]

Plants

See also: Effects of climate change on plant biodiversity

Trees

While plants are essential for human survival, they have not received the same attention as the conservation of animals.[84] It is estimated that a third of all land plant species are at risk of extinction and 94% have yet to be evaluated in terms of their conservation status.[84] Plants existing at the lowest trophic level require increased conservation in order to reduce negative impacts at higher trophic levels.[85]

Scientists have warned in 2022 that a third of tree species are threatened with extinction. This will significantly alter the world's ecosystems because their carbon, water and nutrient cycles will be affected.[86][87] The GTA (global tree assessment) has determined that "17,510 (29.9%) tree species are considered threatened with extinction. In addition, there are 142 tree species recorded as Extinct or Extinct in the Wild."[87]

Possible solutions can be found in some silvicultural methods of forest management which promote tree biodiversity, such as selective logging, thinning or crop tree management, and clear cutting and coppicing.[88]

Flowering plants

Viola calcarata, a species highly vulnerable to climate change.[89]

Human impact on the environment has driven a range of species extinct and is threatening even more today. Multiple organizations such as IUCN and Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew suggest that around 40% of plant species are threatened with extinction.[90] The majority are threatened by habitat loss, but activities such as logging of wild timber trees and collection of medicinal plants, or the introduction of non-native invasive species, also play a role.[91]

Relatively few plant diversity assessments currently consider climate change,[90] yet it is starting to impact plants as well. About 3% of flowering plants are very likely to be driven extinct within a century at 2 °C (3.6 °F) of global warming, and 10% at 3.2 °C (5.8 °F).[92] In worst-case scenarios, half of all tree species may be driven extinct by climate change over that timeframe.[90]

Freshwater species

Main article: Freshwater ecosystem § Threats

Freshwater ecosystems ranging from swamps, deltas, to rivers make up to 1% of earths surface. Although making up such little proportion of the earth, freshwater ecosystems are important because these kind of habitats are home to approximately one third of vertebrate species.[93] Freshwater species are beginning to decline at twice the rate of other species such as those located on land or within the ocean. This rapid loss has already placed 27% of 29,500 species dependent on freshwater upon the IUCN Red List.[93]

Global populations of freshwater fish are collapsing due to water pollution and overfishing. Migratory fish populations have declined by 76% since 1970, and large "megafish" populations have fallen by 94% with 16 species declared extinct in 2020.[94]

Marine species

Main articles: Human impact on marine life and Marine life § Biodiversity and extinction events

Marine biodiversity encompasses any living organism which resides in the ocean or in estuaries.[95] By 2018, approximately 240,000 marine species had been documented.[96] But many marine species - estimates range between 178,000 and 10 million oceanic species - remain to be described.[95] It is therefore likely that a number of rare species (not seen for decades in the wild) have already disappeared or are on the brink of extinction, unnoticed.[97]

Human activities have a strong and detrimental influence on marine biodiversity. The main drivers of marine species extinction is habitat loss, pollution, invasive species, and overexploitation.[98][99] Greater pressure is placed on marine ecosystems near coastal areas because of the human settlements in those areas.[100]

Overexploitation has resulted in the extinction of over 25 marine species. This includes seabirds, marine mammals, algae, and fish.[95][101] Examples of extinct marine species include the Steller's sea cow (Hydrodamalis gigas) and the Caribbean monk seal (Monachus tropicalis). Not all extinctions are because of humans. For example, in the 1930s, the eelgrass limpet (Lottia alveus) became extinct in the NW Atlantic area once the Zostera marina seagrass population declined upon exposure to a disease.[102] The Lottia alveus were greatly impacted because the Zostera marina were their sole habitats.[95]

Causes

The main causes of current biodiversity loss are listed below:

  1. Habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation;[4] for example habitat fragmentation for commercial and agricultural uses (specifically monoculture farming).[5]
  2. Land use intensification (and ensuing land loss/habitat loss); a significant factor in loss of ecological services due to direct effects as well as biodiversity loss.[6]
  3. Nutrient pollution and other forms of pollution (air and water pollution)
  4. Overexploitation and unsustainable use (for example unsustainable fishing methods, overfishing, overconsumption and human overpopulation)
  5. Invasive species that effectively compete for a niche, replacing indigenous species[7]
  6. Climate change (e.g. extinction risk from climate change, effects of climate change on plant biodiversity)[4]

Jared Diamond describes an "Evil Quartet" of habitat destruction, overkill, introduced species and secondary extinctions.[103] Edward O. Wilson suggested the acronym HIPPO for the main causes of biodiversity loss. HIPPO stands for Habitat destruction, Invasive species, Pollution, human over-Population and Over-harvesting.[104][105]

Habitat destruction

Earth's 25 terrestrial hot spots of biodiversity. These regions contain a high number of plant and animal species and have been subjected to high levels of habitat destruction by human activity, leading to biodiversity loss.
Deforestation and increased road-building in the Amazon Rainforest in Bolivia cause significant concern because of increased human encroachment upon wild areas, increased resource extraction and further threats to biodiversity.

Habitat destruction (also termed habitat loss and habitat reduction) occurs when a natural habitat is no longer able to support its native species. The organisms once living there have either moved to elsewhere or are dead, leading to a decrease in biodiversity and species numbers.[106][107] Habitat destruction is in fact the leading cause of biodiversity loss and species extinction worldwide.[108]

Humans contribute to habitat destruction through the use of natural resources, agriculture, industrial production and urbanization (urban sprawl). Other activities include mining, logging and trawling. Environmental factors can contribute to habitat destruction more indirectly. Geological processes, climate change,[107] introduction of invasive species, ecosystem nutrient depletion, water and noise pollution are some examples. Loss of habitat can be preceded by an initial habitat fragmentation. Fragmentation and loss of habitat have become one of the most important topics of research in ecology as they are major threats to the survival of endangered species.[109]

For example, habitat loss is one of the causes in the decline of insect populations (see the section below on insects).

Urban growth and habitat fragmentation

Further information: Habitat fragmentation

The direct effects of urban growth on habitat loss are well understood: building construction often results in habitat destruction and fragmentation.[110] This leads to selection for species that are adapted to urban environments.[111] Small habitat patches are unable to support the same level of genetic or taxonomic diversity as they formerly could while some of the more sensitive species may become locally extinct.[112] Species abundance populations are reduced due to the reduced fragmented area of habitat. This causes an increase of species isolation and forces species towards edge habitats and adapt to foraging elsewhere.[110]

Infrastructure development in Key Biodiversity Areas (KBA) is a major driver of biodiversity loss, with infrastructure being present in roughly 80% of KBAs.[113] Infrastructure development leads to conversion and fragmentation of natural habitat, pollution and disturbance. There can also be direct harm of animals through collisions with vehicles and structures. This can have impacts beyond the infrastructure site.[113]

Land use intensification

See also: Land use, land-use change, and forestry and Nature conservation

Humans are changing the uses of land in various ways, and each can lead to habitat destruction and biodiversity loss. The 2019 Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services found that industrial agriculture is the primary driver leading to a collapse in biodiversity.[114][8] The UN's Global Biodiversity Outlook 2014 estimated that 70 percent of the projected loss of terrestrial biodiversity are caused by agriculture use.[needs update] A publication from 2005 said that "Cultivated systems [...] cover 24% of Earth’s surface".[115]: 51  The same publication explained cultivated areas to be "areas in which at least 30% of the landscape is in croplands, shifting cultivation, confined livestock production, or freshwater aquaculture in any particular year".[115]: 51 

More than 17,000 species are at risk of losing habitat by 2050 as agriculture continues to expand to meet future food needs (as of 2020).[116] A global shift towards largely plant-based diets would free up land to allow for the restoration of ecosystems and biodiversity.[117] In the 2010s over 80% of all global farmland was used to rear animals.[117]

As of 2022, 44% of Earth's land area required conservation attention, which may include declaring protected areas and following land-use policies.[118]

Nutrient pollution and other forms of pollution

Further information: Nutrient pollution

Air pollution

Industrial processes contributing to air pollution through the emission of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrous oxide.

Air pollution adversely affects biodiversity.[119] Pollutants are emitted into the atmosphere for example by the burning of fossil fuels and biomass. Industrial and agricultural activity release the pollutants sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.[120] Once sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide are introduced into the atmosphere, they can react with cloud droplets (cloud condensation nuclei), raindrops, or snowflakes, forming sulfuric acid and nitric acid. With the interaction between water droplets and sulfuric and nitric acids, wet deposition occurs and creates acid rain.[121][122]

A review from 2009 studied four air pollutants (sulfur, nitrogen, ozone, and mercury) and several types of ecosystems. [123] Air pollution affects the functioning and biodiversity of terrestrial as well as aquatic ecosystems.[123] For example, "air pollution causes or contributes to acidification of lakes, eutrophication of estuaries and coastal waters, and mercury bioaccumulation in aquatic food webs".[123]

Noise pollution

Further information: Noise pollution § Impacts

Noise generated by traffic, ships, vehicles, and aircraft can affect the survivability of wildlife species and can reach undisturbed habitats.[124] Noise pollution is common in marine ecosystems, affecting at least 55 marine species.[125] One study discovered that as seismic noises and naval sonar increases in marine ecosystems, cetacean, such as whales and dolphins, diversity decreases.[126] Multiple studies have noticed that fewer fishes, such as cod, haddock, rockfish, herring, sand seal, and blue whiting, have been spotted in areas with seismic noises, with catch rates declining by 40–80%.[125][127][128][129]

Noise pollution has also altered avian communities and diversity. Noises can reduce reproductive success, minimize nesting areas, increase stress response, and reduce species abundances.[130][125] Noise pollution can alter the distribution and abundance of prey species, which can then impact predator populations.[131]

Pollution from fossil fuel extraction

Potential for biodiversity loss from future fossil fuel extraction: Proportions of oil and gas field area overlapping with Protected Areas (PAs) (gray polygons) of different IUCN Protected Area management categories by UN regions: North America (a), Europe (b), West Asia (c), LAC (d), Africa (e), and Asia Pacific (f). Absolute area of overlap across all IUCN management categories is shown above histograms. Location of fields overlapping with PAs are shown in (g). Shading is used so that points can be visualized even where their spatial locations coincide, so darker points indicate higher densities of fields overlapping PAs.[132]

Fossil fuel extraction and associated oil and gas pipelines have major impacts on the biodiversity of many biomes due to land conversion, habitat loss and degradation, and pollution. An example is the Western Amazon region.[133] Exploitation of fossil fuels there has had significant impacts on biodiversity.[132] Many of the protected areas with rich biodiversity are in fact located in areas containing unexploited fossil fuel reserves worth between 3 and 15 trillion USD (2018).[132] The protected areas may well be under threat in future.

Overexploitation

Further information: Overexploitation

Continued overexploitation can lead to the destruction of the resource, as it will be unable to replenish. The term applies to natural resources such as water aquifers, grazing pastures and forests, wild medicinal plants, fish stocks and other wildlife.

Overfishing

Main article: Overfishing

Mass fishing of Pacific jack mackerel (with possible bycatch) with a Chilean purse seiner.
Atlantic cod stocks were severely overexploited in the 1970s and 1980s, leading to their abrupt collapse in 1992.[134]

A report in 2019 by the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services report found that overfishing is the main driver of mass species extinction in the oceans.[135][136] Overfishing has reduced fish and marine mammal biomass by 60% since the 1800s.[137] It is currently pushing over one-third of sharks and rays towards extinction.[138]

Many commercial fishes have been overharvested: a 2020 report by FAO classified as overfished 34% of the fish stocks of the world's marine fisheries.[139] By the same period, global fish populations were reduced by 38% compared to 1970.[96]

Many regulatory measures are available for controlling overfishing. These measures include fishing quotas, bag limits, licensing, closed seasons, size limits and the creation of marine reserves and other marine protected areas.

Human overpopulation and overconsumption

The changing distribution of the world's land mammals in tonnes of carbon. The biomass of wild land mammals has declined by 85% since the emergence of humans.[140]

The world's population numbered nearly 7.6 billion as of mid-2017 and is forecast to peak towards the end of the 21st century at between 10–12 billion people.[141] Scholars have argued that population size and growth, along with overconsumption, are significant factors in biodiversity loss and soil degradation.[142][143][1][11] Review articles, including the 2019 IPBES report, have also noted that human population growth and overconsumption are significant drivers of species decline.[8][9] A 2022 study warned that conservation efforts will continue to fail if the primary drivers of biodiversity loss continue to be ignored, including population size and growth.[10]

However, other scientists have criticized the assertion that population growth is a key driver for biodiversity loss.[13] They argue that the main driver is the loss of habitat which is caused by "the growth of commodities for export, particularly soybean and oil-palm, primarily for livestock feed or biofuel consumption in higher income economies."[13] Because of the wealth disparities between countries, there is a negative correlation between a country's total population and its per capita footprint. On the other hand, the correlation between a country's GDP and its footprint is strong.[13] The study argues that population as a metric is unhelpful and counterproductive for tackling environmental challenges.[13]

Invasive species

Main article: Invasive species

The term invasive is poorly defined and often very subjective.[144] The European Union defines invasive alien species as those that are, firstly, outside their natural distribution area, and secondly, threaten biological diversity.[145][146] Biotic invasion is considered one of the five top drivers for global biodiversity loss and is increasing because of tourism and globalization.[147][148] This may be particularly true in poorly regulated fresh water systems, though quarantines and ballast water rules have improved the situation.[115]

Invasive species may drive local native species to extinction via competitive exclusion, niche displacement, or hybridisation with related native species. Therefore, alien invasions may result in extensive changes in the structure, composition and global distribution of the biota at sites of introduction. This leads ultimately to the homogenisation of the world's fauna and flora and the loss of biodiversity.[149][150]

Climate change

The relationship between the magnitude of climate variability and change (including both large increases and decreases in global temperature) and the extinction rate, over the past 450 million years.[151] This graph does not include the recent human made climate change.

Climate change is another threat to global biodiversity.[14][15] However, habitat destruction e.g. for the expansion of agriculture, is currently the more significant driver of contemporary biodiversity loss, not climate change.[18][19]

A 2021 collaborative report by scientists from the IPBES and the IPCC says that biodiversity loss and climate change must be addressed simultaneously, as they are inexorably linked and have similar effects on human well-being.[152] Frans Timmermans, Vice-President of the European Commission, stated in 2022 that people are less aware of the threat of biodiversity loss than they are of the threat of climate change.[153]

The interaction between climate change and invasive species is complex and not easy to assess. Climate change is likely to favour some invasive species and harm others,[154] but few authors have identified specific consequences of climate change for invasive species.[155]

Invasive species and other disturbances have become more common in forests in the last several decades. These tend to be directly or indirectly connected to climate change and have negative consequences for forest ecosystems.[20][21]

Decline in arctic sea ice extent (area) from 1979 to 2022
Decline in arctic sea ice volume from 1979 to 2022

Climate change contributes to destruction of some habitats, endangering various species. For example:

Extinction risks

The impact of three different climate change scenarios on local biodiversity and risk of extinction of vertebrate species.[166]

There are several plausible pathways that could lead to an increased extinction risk from climate change. Every plant and animal species has evolved to exist within a certain ecological niche.[167] But climate change leads to changes of temperature and average weather patterns.[168][169] These changes can push climatic conditions outside of the species' niche, and ultimately render it extinct.[170] Normally, species faced with changing conditions can either adapt in place through microevolution or move to another habitat with suitable conditions. However, the speed of recent climate change is very fast. Due to this rapid change, for example cold-blooded animals (a category which includes amphibians, reptiles and all invertebrates) may struggle to find a suitable habitat within 50 km of their current location at the end of this century (for a mid-range scenario of future global warming).[171]

Climate change also increases both the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events,[172] which can directly wipe out regional populations of species.[173] Those species occupying coastal and low-lying island habitats can also become extinct by sea level rise. This has already happened with Bramble Cay melomys in Australia.[174] Finally, climate change has been linked with the increased prevalence and global spread of certain diseases affecting wildlife. This includes Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a fungus that is one of the main drivers of the worldwide decline in amphibian populations.[175]

Impacts

On ecosystems

See also: Ecological effects of biodiversity

Biodiversity loss has negative impacts on the functioning of ecosystems. This in turn has many impacts on humans.[42] The reason is that affected ecosystems can no longer provide the same quality of ecosystem services as they would otherwise. Examples for ecosystem services are crop pollination, cleaning air and water, decomposing waste, and providing forest products as well as areas for recreation and tourism.[115]

Two key statements of a comprehensive review in 2012 of the last twenty years of research include:[42]

Permanent global species loss (extinction) is a more dramatic and tragic phenomenon than regional changes in species composition. However, even minor changes from a healthy stable state can have a dramatic influence on the food web and the food chain. This is because reductions in only one species can adversely affect the entire chain (coextinction). This can lead to an overall reduction in biodiversity, unless alternative stable states of the ecosystem are possible.[176]

For example, a study on grasslands used manipulated grassland plant diversity and found that those ecosystems which have a higher biodiversity show more resistance of their productivity to climate extremes.[177]

On food and agriculture

An infographic describing the relationship between biodiversity and food.

In 2019, the UN's Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) produced its first report on The State of the World's Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture. It warned that "Many key components of biodiversity for food and agriculture at genetic, species and ecosystem levels are in decline."[178][179]

The report states that "Many of the drivers that have negative impacts on BFA (biodiversity for food and agriculture), including overexploitation, overharvesting, pollution, overuse of external inputs, and changes in land and water management, are at least partially caused by inappropriate agricultural practices."[180]: 6  It further explains that "transition to intensive production of a reduced number of species, breeds and varieties, remain major drivers of loss of BFA and ecosystem services."[180]: 6 

To reduce biodiversity loss related to agricultural practices, FAO encourages the use of "biodiversity-friendly management practices in crop and livestock production, forestry, fisheries and aquaculture".[180]: 13 

On health and medicines

The WHO has analyzed how biodiversity and human health are connected: "Biodiversity and human health, and the respective policies and activities, are interlinked in various ways. First, biodiversity gives rise to health benefits. For example, the variety of species and genotypes provide nutrients and medicines."[181]

Medicinal and aromatic plants are widely used in traditional medicine as well as in cosmetic and food industries.[181]: 12  The WHO estimated in 2015 that about "60,000 species are used for their medicinal, nutritional and aromatic properties".[181]: 12  There is a global trade in plants for medicinal purposes.[181]: 12 

Biodiversity contributes to the development of pharmaceuticals. A significant proportion of medicines are derived from natural products, either directly or indirectly. Many of these natural products come from marine ecosystems.[182] However, unregulated and inappropriate over-harvesting (bioprospecting) could potentially lead to overexploitation, ecosystem degradation and loss of biodiversity.[183][184] Users and traders harvest plants for traditional medicine either by planting them or by collecting them in the wild. In both cases, sustainable medicinal resource management is important.[181]: 13 

Proposed solutions

Further information: Conservation movement, Environmental protection, and Wildlife conservation

Red List Index (2019): The Red List Index (RLI) defines the conservation status of major species groups, and measures trends in the proportion of species expected to remain extant in the near future without additional conservation action. An RLI value of 1.0 equates to all species being categorised as 'Least Concern', and hence that none are expected to go extinct in the near future. A value of 0 indicates that all species have gone extinct.[185]

Scientists are investigating what can be done to address the two global crises together: biodiversity loss and climate change. For both of these crises there is a need to "conserve enough nature and in the right places".[186] A study in 2020 found that "beyond the 15% land area currently protected, 35% of land area is needed to conserve additional sites of particular importance for biodiversity and stabilize the climate."[186]

Additional measures for protecting biodiversity, which go beyond just environmental protection, are important. Such measures include: addressing drivers of land use change, increasing efficiency in agriculture and reducing the need for animal agriculture. The latter could be achieved by increasing the shares of plant-based diets.[187][188]

Convention on Biological Diversity

See also: 2022 United Nations Biodiversity Conference

Many governments have conserved portions of their territories under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), a multilateral treaty signed in 1992–3. The 20 Aichi Biodiversity Targets are part of the CBD's Strategic Plan 2011–2020 and were published in 2010.[189] Aichi Target Number 11 aimed to protect 17 percent of terrestrial and inland water areas, and 10 percent of coastal and marine areas by 2020 .[190]

Of the 20 biodiversity goals laid out by the Aichi Biodiversity Targets in 2010, only six were partially achieved by the deadline of 2020.[23][24] The report by CBD in 2020 highlighted that if the status quo is not changed, biodiversity will continue to decline due to "currently unsustainable patterns of production and consumption, population growth and technological developments".[191][192] The report also singled out Australia, Brazil, Cameroon and the Galapagos Islands (Ecuador) for having had one of its animals lost to extinction in the past ten years.[193]

Following this, the leaders of 64 nations and the European Union pledged to halt environmental degradation and restore the natural world. The pledge was not signed by leaders from some of the world's biggest polluters, namely China, India, Russia, Brazil and the United States.[194] Some experts contend that the refusal of the United States to ratify the Convention on Biological Diversity is harming global efforts to halt the extinction crisis.[195]

Scientists say that even if the targets for 2020 had been met, it likely would not have resulted in any substantive reductions of current extinction rates.[143][1] Others have raised concerns that the Convention on Biological Diversity does not go far enough, and argue the goal should be zero extinctions by 2050, along with cutting the impact of unsustainable food production on nature by half. That the targets are not legally binding has also been subject to criticism.[196]

In December 2022, all countries on earth, except the United States and the Holy See,[197] signed onto the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework at the 2022 United Nations Biodiversity Conference. This framework calls for protecting 30% of land and oceans by 2030 (30 by 30). It also has 22 other targets intended to reduce biodiversity loss. At the time of signing the agreement, only 17% of land territory and 10% of ocean territory were protected. The agreement includes protecting the rights of Indigenous peoples and changing the current subsidy policy to one better for biodiversity protection. However, it makes a step backward in protecting species from extinction in comparison to the Aichi Targets.[198][199] Critics said the agreement does not go far enough to protect biodiversity, and that the process was rushed.[198]

Other international and national action

In 2019 the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) published the Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services. This report said that up to a million plant and animal species are facing extinction because of human activities.[8] The IPBES is an international organization since 2012 that serves a similar role to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC),[200] only that it focuses on biodiversity and ecosystem services, not on climate change.

The United Nation's Sustainable Development Goal 15 (SDG 15) "Life on Land" includes targets for biodiversity. The fifth target of SDG 15 is: "Take urgent and significant action to reduce the degradation of natural habitats, halt the loss of biodiversity and, by 2020, protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species."[201] This target has one indicator: the Red List Index.[202]

Nearly three-quarters of bird species, two thirds of mammals and more than half of hard corals have been recorded at World Heritage Sites, even though they cover less than 1% of the planet. Countries with World Heritage Sites can include them in their national biodiversity strategies and action plans.[203][204]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d Bradshaw, Corey J. A.; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Beattie, Andrew; Ceballos, Gerardo; Crist, Eileen; Diamond, Joan; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Ehrlich, Anne H.; Harte, John; Harte, Mary Ellen; Pyke, Graham; Raven, Peter H.; Ripple, William J.; Saltré, Frédérik; Turnbull, Christine; Wackernagel, Mathis; Blumstein, Daniel T. (2021). "Underestimating the Challenges of Avoiding a Ghastly Future". Frontiers in Conservation Science. 1. doi:10.3389/fcosc.2020.615419.
  2. ^ Ripple WJ, Wolf C, Newsome TM, Galetti M, Alamgir M, Crist E, Mahmoud MI, Laurance WF (November 13, 2017). "World Scientists' Warning to Humanity: A Second Notice". BioScience. 67 (12): 1026–1028. doi:10.1093/biosci/bix125. hdl:11336/71342. Moreover, we have unleashed a mass extinction event, the sixth in roughly 540 million years, wherein many current life forms could be annihilated or at least committed to extinction by the end of this century.
  3. ^ Cowie RH, Bouchet P, Fontaine B (April 2022). "The Sixth Mass Extinction: fact, fiction or speculation?". Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society. 97 (2): 640–663. doi:10.1111/brv.12816. PMC 9786292. PMID 35014169. S2CID 245889833.
  4. ^ a b c d "Global Biodiversity Outlook 3". Convention on Biological Diversity. 2010.
  5. ^ a b Kehoe L, Romero-Muñoz A, Polaina E, Estes L, Kreft H, Kuemmerle T (August 2017). "Biodiversity at risk under future cropland expansion and intensification". Nature Ecology & Evolution. 1 (8): 1129–1135. doi:10.1038/s41559-017-0234-3. ISSN 2397-334X. PMID 29046577. S2CID 3642597.
  6. ^ a b Allan E, Manning P, Alt F, Binkenstein J, Blaser S, Blüthgen N, et al. (August 2015). "Land use intensification alters ecosystem multifunctionality via loss of biodiversity and changes to functional composition". Ecology Letters. 18 (8): 834–843. doi:10.1111/ele.12469. PMC 4744976. PMID 26096863.
  7. ^ a b Walsh JR, Carpenter SR, Vander Zanden MJ (April 2016). "Invasive species triggers a massive loss of ecosystem services through a trophic cascade". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 113 (15): 4081–5. Bibcode:2016PNAS..113.4081W. doi:10.1073/pnas.1600366113. PMC 4839401. PMID 27001838.
  8. ^ a b c d Stokstad, Erik (May 6, 2019). "Landmark analysis documents the alarming global decline of nature". Science. doi:10.1126/science.aax9287. For the first time at a global scale, the report has ranked the causes of damage. Topping the list, changes in land use—principally agriculture—that have destroyed habitat. Second, hunting and other kinds of exploitation. These are followed by climate change, pollution, and invasive species, which are being spread by trade and other activities. Climate change will likely overtake the other threats in the next decades, the authors note. Driving these threats are the growing human population, which has doubled since 1970 to 7.6 billion, and consumption. (Per capita of use of materials is up 15% over the past 5 decades.)
  9. ^ a b Pimm SL, Jenkins CN, Abell R, Brooks TM, Gittleman JL, Joppa LN, et al. (May 2014). "The biodiversity of species and their rates of extinction, distribution, and protection". Science. 344 (6187): 1246752. doi:10.1126/science.1246752. PMID 24876501. S2CID 206552746. The overarching driver of species extinction is human population growth and increasing per capita consumption.
  10. ^ a b Cafaro, Philip; Hansson, Pernilla; Götmark, Frank (August 2022). "Overpopulation is a major cause of biodiversity loss and smaller human populations are necessary to preserve what is left" (PDF). Biological Conservation. 272. 109646. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2022.109646. ISSN 0006-3207. S2CID 250185617. Conservation biologists standardly list five main direct drivers of biodiversity loss: habitat loss, overexploitation of species, pollution, invasive species, and climate change. The Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services found that in recent decades habitat loss was the leading cause of terrestrial biodiversity loss, while overexploitation (overfishing) was the most important cause of marine losses (IPBES, 2019). All five direct drivers are important, on land and at sea, and all are made worse by larger and denser human populations.
  11. ^ a b Crist, Eileen; Mora, Camilo; Engelman, Robert (April 21, 2017). "The interaction of human population, food production, and biodiversity protection". Science. 356 (6335): 260–264. Bibcode:2017Sci...356..260C. doi:10.1126/science.aal2011. PMID 28428391. S2CID 12770178. Retrieved January 2, 2023. Research suggests that the scale of human population and the current pace of its growth contribute substantially to the loss of biological diversity. Although technological change and unequal consumption inextricably mingle with demographic impacts on the environment, the needs of all human beings—especially for food—imply that projected population growth will undermine protection of the natural world.
  12. ^ Ceballos, Gerardo; Ehrlich, Paul R. (2023). "Mutilation of the tree of life via mass extinction of animal genera". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 120 (39): e2306987120. Bibcode:2023PNAS..12006987C. doi:10.1073/pnas.2306987120. PMC 10523489. PMID 37722053. Current generic extinction rates will likely greatly accelerate in the next few decades due to drivers accompanying the growth and consumption of the human enterprise such as habitat destruction, illegal trade, and climate disruption.
  13. ^ a b c d e Hughes, Alice C.; Tougeron, Kévin; Martin, Dominic A.; Menga, Filippo; Rosado, Bruno H. P.; Villasante, Sebastian; Madgulkar, Shweta; Gonçalves, Fernando; Geneletti, Davide; Diele-Viegas, Luisa Maria; Berger, Sebastian; Colla, Sheila R.; de Andrade Kamimura, Vitor; Caggiano, Holly; Melo, Felipe (January 1, 2023). "Smaller human populations are neither a necessary nor sufficient condition for biodiversity conservation". Biological Conservation. 277: 109841. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2022.109841. ISSN 0006-3207. Through examining the drivers of biodiversity loss in highly biodiverse countries, we show that it is not population driving the loss of habitats, but rather the growth of commodities for export, particularly soybean and oil-palm, primarily for livestock feed or biofuel consumption in higher income economies.
  14. ^ a b "Climate change and biodiversity" (PDF). Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 5, 2018. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  15. ^ a b Kannan, R.; James, D. A. (2009). "Effects of climate change on global biodiversity: a review of key literature" (PDF). Tropical Ecology. 50 (1): 31–39. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 15, 2021. Retrieved May 21, 2014.
  16. ^ "Climate change, reefs and the Coral Triangle". wwf.panda.org. Retrieved November 9, 2015.
  17. ^ Aldred, Jessica (July 2, 2014). "Caribbean coral reefs 'will be lost within 20 years' without protection". The Guardian. Retrieved November 9, 2015.
  18. ^ a b Ketcham, Christopher (December 3, 2022). "Addressing Climate Change Will Not "Save the Planet"". The Intercept. Retrieved December 8, 2022.
  19. ^ a b Caro, Tim; Rowe, Zeke; et al. (2022). "An inconvenient misconception: Climate change is not the principal driver of biodiversity loss". Conservation Letters. 15 (3): e12868. doi:10.1111/conl.12868. S2CID 246172852.
  20. ^ a b Bank, European Investment (December 8, 2022). Forests at the heart of sustainable development: Investing in forests to meet biodiversity and climate goals. European Investment Bank. ISBN 978-92-861-5403-4.
  21. ^ a b Finch, Deborah M.; Butler, Jack L.; Runyon, Justin B.; Fettig, Christopher J.; Kilkenny, Francis F.; Jose, Shibu; Frankel, Susan J.; Cushman, Samuel A.; Cobb, Richard C. (2021), Poland, Therese M.; Patel-Weynand, Toral; Finch, Deborah M.; Miniat, Chelcy Ford (eds.), "Effects of Climate Change on Invasive Species", Invasive Species in Forests and Rangelands of the United States: A Comprehensive Science Synthesis for the United States Forest Sector, Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 57–83, doi:10.1007/978-3-030-45367-1_4, ISBN 978-3-030-45367-1, S2CID 234260720
  22. ^ United Nations Environment Programme (2021). Making Peace with Nature: A scientific blueprint to tackle the climate, biodiversity and pollution emergencies. Nairobi: United Nations.
  23. ^ a b Cohen L (September 15, 2020). "More than 150 countries made a plan to preserve biodiversity a decade ago. A new report says they mostly failed". CBS News. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  24. ^ a b "Global Biodiversity Outlook 5". Convention on Biological Diversity. Retrieved March 23, 2023.
  25. ^ Carrington D (February 2, 2021). "Economics of biodiversity review: what are the recommendations?". The Guardian. Retrieved February 8, 2021.
  26. ^ Dasgupta P (2021). "The Economics of Biodiversity: The Dasgupta Review Headline Messages" (PDF). UK government. p. 1. Retrieved December 16, 2021. Biodiversity is declining faster than at any time in human history. Current extinction rates, for example, are around 100 to 1,000 times higher than the baseline rate, and they are increasing.
  27. ^ Ceballos G, Ehrlich PR, Barnosky AD, García A, Pringle RM, Palmer TM (June 2015). "Accelerated modern human-induced species losses: Entering the sixth mass extinction". Science Advances. 1 (5): e1400253. Bibcode:2015SciA....1E0253C. doi:10.1126/sciadv.1400253. PMC 4640606. PMID 26601195.
  28. ^ De Vos JM, Joppa LN, Gittleman JL, Stephens PR, Pimm SL (April 2015). "Estimating the normal background rate of species extinction" (PDF). Conservation Biology. 29 (2): 452–62. doi:10.1111/cobi.12380. PMID 25159086. S2CID 19121609.
  29. ^ Ceballos G, Ehrlich PR, Raven PH (June 2020). "Vertebrates on the brink as indicators of biological annihilation and the sixth mass extinction". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 117 (24): 13596–13602. Bibcode:2020PNAS..11713596C. doi:10.1073/pnas.1922686117. PMC 7306750. PMID 32482862.
  30. ^ Andermann T, Faurby S, Turvey ST, Antonelli A, Silvestro D (September 2020). "The past and future human impact on mammalian diversity". Science Advances. 6 (36): eabb2313. Bibcode:2020SciA....6.2313A. doi:10.1126/sciadv.abb2313. PMC 7473673. PMID 32917612.
  31. ^ CIESM 2013. Marine extinctions - patterns and processes. CIESM Workshop Monograph n° 45 [F. Briand ed.], 188 p., CIESM Publisher, Monaco.
  32. ^ Cardinale, Bradley J.; Duffy, J. Emmett; Gonzalez, Andrew; Hooper, David U.; Perrings, Charles; Venail, Patrick; Narwani, Anita; Mace, Georgina M.; Tilman, David; Wardle, David A.; Kinzig, Ann P. (June 6, 2012). "Biodiversity loss and its impact on humanity". Nature. 486 (7401): 59–67. Bibcode:2012Natur.486...59C. doi:10.1038/nature11148. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 22678280. S2CID 4333166.
  33. ^ "The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved April 30, 2021.
  34. ^ Melillo, Gianna (July 19, 2022). "Threat of global extinction may be greater than previously thought, study finds". The Hill. Retrieved July 20, 2022.
  35. ^ Isbell, Forest; Balvanera, Patricia; et al. (2022). "Expert perspectives on global biodiversity loss and its drivers and impacts on people". Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 21 (2): 94–103. doi:10.1002/fee.2536. hdl:10852/101242. S2CID 250659953.
  36. ^ "Biodiversity: Almost half of animals in decline, research shows". BBC. May 23, 2023. Retrieved May 25, 2023.
  37. ^ Finn, Catherine; Grattarola, Florencia; Pincheira-Donoso, Daniel (2023). "More losers than winners: investigating Anthropocene defaunation through the diversity of population trends". Biological Reviews. 98 (5): 1732–1748. doi:10.1111/brv.12974. PMID 37189305. S2CID 258717720.
  38. ^ Paddison, Laura (May 22, 2023). "Global loss of wildlife is 'significantly more alarming' than previously thought, according to a new study". CNN. Retrieved May 25, 2023.
  39. ^ Tor-Björn Larsson (2001). Biodiversity evaluation tools for European forests. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 178. ISBN 978-87-16-16434-6. Retrieved June 28, 2011.
  40. ^ Davis. Intro To Env Engg (Sie), 4E. McGraw-Hill Education (India) Pvt Ltd. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-07-067117-1. Retrieved June 28, 2011.
  41. ^ a b Preston, F.W. (July 1948). "The Commonness, and Rarity, of Species" (PDF). Ecology. 29 (3): 254–283. doi:10.2307/1930989. JSTOR 1930989. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 22, 2014. Retrieved February 12, 2019 – via Ben-Gurion University of the Negev.
  42. ^ a b c Cardinale BJ, Duffy JE, Gonzalez A, Hooper DU, Perrings C, Venail P, et al. (June 2012). "Biodiversity loss and its impact on humanity" (PDF). Nature. 486 (7401): 59–67. Bibcode:2012Natur.486...59C. doi:10.1038/nature11148. PMID 22678280. S2CID 4333166.
  43. ^ a b Tagliapietra D, Sigovini M (2010). "Biological diversity and habitat diversity: a matter of Science and perception". Terre et Environnement (PDF). Vol. 88. Institut Forel, Département de Minéraologie, Département de Géologie et Paléontologie, Section Sciences de la Terre, Université de Genève. pp. 147–155. ISBN 978-2-940153-87-9. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 2, 2017. Retrieved September 18, 2019.
  44. ^ Gonzalez A, Cardinale BJ, Allington GR, Byrnes J, Arthur Endsley K, Brown DG, et al. (August 2016). "Estimating local biodiversity change: a critique of papers claiming no net loss of local diversity". Ecology. 97 (8): 1949–1960. doi:10.1890/15-1759.1. hdl:2027.42/133578. PMID 27859190. S2CID 5920426. two recent data meta-analyses have found that species richness is decreasing in some locations and is increasing in others. When these trends are combined, these papers argued there has been no net change in species richness, and suggested this pattern is globally representative of biodiversity change at local scales
  45. ^ "Living Planet Index, World". Our World in Data. October 13, 2022. Archived from the original on October 8, 2023. Data source: World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and Zoological Society of London
  46. ^ Whiting, Kate (October 17, 2022). "6 charts that show the state of biodiversity and nature loss – and how we can go 'nature positive'". World Economic Forum. Archived from the original on September 25, 2023.
  47. ^ Regional data from "How does the Living Planet Index vary by region?". Our World in Data. October 13, 2022. Archived from the original on September 20, 2023. Data source: Living Planet Report (2022). World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and Zoological Society of London. -
  48. ^ Carrington D (October 12, 2020). "Fifth of countries at risk of ecosystem collapse, analysis finds". The Guardian. Retrieved October 12, 2020.
  49. ^ Carrington, Damian (February 24, 2023). "Ecosystem collapse 'inevitable' unless wildlife losses reversed". The Guardian. Retrieved February 25, 2023. The researchers concluded: 'A biodiversity crash may be the harbinger of a more devastating ecosystem collapse.'
  50. ^ "The 2022 Living Planet Report". livingplanet.panda.org. Retrieved March 23, 2023.
  51. ^ "Animal populations worldwide have declined nearly 70% in just 50 years, new report says". www.cbsnews.com. September 10, 2020. Retrieved March 23, 2023.
  52. ^ Hallmann, Caspar A.; Sorg, Martin; Jongejans, Eelke; Siepel, Henk; Hofland, Nick; Schwan, Heinz; Stenmans, Werner; Müller, Andreas; Sumser, Hubert; Hörren, Thomas; Goulson, Dave; de Kroon, Hans (October 18, 2017), "More than 75 percent decline over 27 years in total flying insect biomass in protected areas", PLoS ONE, 12 (10): e0185809, Bibcode:2017PLoSO..1285809H, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0185809, PMC 5646769, PMID 29045418.
  53. ^ Erwin, Terry L. (1997). Biodiversity at its utmost: Tropical Forest Beetles (PDF). pp. 27–40. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 9, 2018. Retrieved December 16, 2017. In: Reaka-Kudla, M.L.; Wilson, D. E.; Wilson, E. O., eds. (1997). Biodiversity II. Joseph Henry Press, Washington, D.C. ISBN 9780309052276.
  54. ^ Erwin, Terry L. (1982). "Tropical forests: their richness in Coleoptera and other arthropod species" (PDF). The Coleopterists Bulletin. 36: 74–75. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 23, 2015. Retrieved September 16, 2018.
  55. ^ Leather, Simon (December 20, 2017), "'Ecological Armageddon' – more evidence for the drastic decline in insect numbers" (PDF), Annals of Applied Biology, 172: 1–3, doi:10.1111/aab.12410.
  56. ^ Schwägerl, Christian (July 7, 2016). "What's Causing the Sharp Decline in Insects, and Why It Matters". Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies.
  57. ^ a b Sánchez-Bayo, Francisco; Wyckhuys, Kris A.G. (January 31, 2019), "Worldwide decline of the entomofauna: A review of its drivers", Biological Conservation, 232: 8–27, doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2019.01.020.
  58. ^ Owens, Avalon C. S.; Lewis, Sara M. (November 2018), "The impact of artificial light at night on nocturnal insects: A review and synthesis", Ecology and Evolution, 8 (22): 11337–11358, doi:10.1002/ece3.4557, PMC 6262936, PMID 30519447.
  59. ^ Light pollution is key 'bringer of insect apocalypse' The Guardian, 2019
  60. ^ Boyes, Douglas H.; Evans, Darren M.; Fox, Richard; Parsons, Mark S.; Pocock, Michael J. O. (August 2021). "Street lighting has detrimental impacts on local insect populations". Science Advances. 7 (35). Bibcode:2021SciA....7.8322B. doi:10.1126/sciadv.abi8322. PMC 8386932. PMID 34433571.
  61. ^ a b Vogel, Gretchen (May 10, 2017), "Where have all the insects gone?", Science, doi:10.1126/science.aal1160.
  62. ^ Díaz, Sandra; Settele, Josef; Brondízio, Eduardo (May 6, 2019), da Cunha, Manuela Carneiro; Mace, Georgina; Mooney, Harold (eds.), Summary for policymakers of the global assessment report on biodiversity and ecosystem services of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (PDF), Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services
  63. ^ van Klink, Roel (April 24, 2020), "Meta-analysis reveals declines in terrestrial but increases in freshwater insect abundances", Science, 368 (6489): 417–420, Bibcode:2020Sci...368..417V, doi:10.1126/science.aax9931, PMID 32327596, S2CID 216106896
  64. ^ Isbell, Forest; Balvanera, Patricia; Mori, Akira S; He, Jin-Sheng; Bullock, James M; Regmi, Ganga Ram; Seabloom, Eric W; Ferrier, Simon; Sala, Osvaldo E; Guerrero-Ramírez, Nathaly R; Tavella, Julia; Larkin, Daniel J; Schmid, Bernhard; Outhwaite, Charlotte L; Pramual, Pairot; Borer, Elizabeth T; Loreau, Michel; Crossby Omotoriogun, Taiwo; Obura, David O; Anderson, Maggie; Portales-Reyes, Cristina; Kirkman, Kevin; Vergara, Pablo M; Clark, Adam Thomas; Komatsu, Kimberly J; Petchey, Owen L; Weiskopf, Sarah R; Williams, Laura J; Collins, Scott L; Eisenhauer, Nico; Trisos, Christopher H; Renard, Delphine; Wright, Alexandra J; Tripathi, Poonam; Cowles, Jane; Byrnes, Jarrett EK; Reich, Peter B; Purvis, Andy; Sharip, Zati; O’Connor, Mary I; Kazanski, Clare E; Haddad, Nick M; Soto, Eulogio H; Dee, Laura E; Díaz, Sandra; Zirbel, Chad R; Avolio, Meghan L; Wang, Shaopeng; Ma, Zhiyuan; Liang, Jingjing Liang; Farah, Hanan C; Johnson, Justin Andrew; Miller, Brian W; Hautier, Yann; Smith, Melinda D; Knops, Johannes MH; Myers, Bonnie JE; Harmáčková, Zuzana V; Cortés, Jorge; Harfoot, Michael BJ; Gonzalez, Andrew; Newbold, Tim; Oehri, Jacqueline; Mazón, Marina; Dobbs, Cynnamon; Palmer, Meredith S (July 18, 2022). "Expert perspectives on global biodiversity loss and its drivers and impacts on people". Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 21 (2): 94–103. doi:10.1002/fee.2536. hdl:10852/101242. S2CID 250659953.
  65. ^ Komonen, Atte; Halme, Panu; Kotiaho, Janne S. (March 19, 2019). "Alarmist by bad design: Strongly popularized unsubstantiated claims undermine credibility of conservation science". Rethinking Ecology. 4: 17–19. doi:10.3897/rethinkingecology.4.34440.
  66. ^ Thomas, Chris D.; Jones, T. Hefin; Hartley, Sue E. (March 18, 2019). "'Insectageddon': A call for more robust data and rigorous analyses". Invited letter to the editor. Global Change Biology. 25 (6): 1891–1892. Bibcode:2019GCBio..25.1891T. doi:10.1111/gcb.14608. PMID 30821400.
  67. ^ Desquilbet, Marion; Gaume, Laurence; Grippa, Manuela; Céréghino, Régis; Humbert, Jean-François; Bonmatin, Jean-Marc; Cornillon, Pierre-André; Maes, Dirk; Dyck, Hans Van; Goulson, David (December 18, 2020). "Comment on 'Meta-analysis reveals declines in terrestrial but increases in freshwater insect abundances'". Science. 370 (6523): eabd8947. doi:10.1126/science.abd8947. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 33335036.
  68. ^ Jähnig, Sonja C.; et., al. (2021). "Revisiting global trends in freshwater insect biodiversity". Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Water. 8 (2). doi:10.1002/wat2.1506. hdl:1885/275614.
  69. ^ a b c Blakemore RJ (2018). "Critical Decline of Earthworms from Organic Origins under Intensive, Humic SOM-Depleting Agriculture". Soil Systems. 2 (2): 33. doi:10.3390/soilsystems2020033. Text was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
  70. ^ Dewi WS, Senge M (2015). "Earthworm diversity and ecosystem services under threat". Reviews in Agricultural Science. 3: 25–35. doi:10.7831/ras.3.0_25.
  71. ^ a b c d Dewi WS, Senge M (2015). "Earthworm Diversity and Ecosystem Services under Threat". Reviews in Agricultural Science. 3: 25–35. doi:10.7831/ras.3.0_25.
  72. ^ McCallum, M. L. (2007). "Amphibian Decline or Extinction? Current Declines Dwarf Background Extinction Rate" (PDF). Journal of Herpetology. 41 (3): 483–491. doi:10.1670/0022-1511(2007)41[483:ADOECD]2.0.CO;2. S2CID 30162903. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 17, 2008.
  73. ^ a b Carrington, Damian (May 21, 2018). "Humans just 0.01% of all life but have destroyed 83% of wild mammals – study". The Guardian. Retrieved May 25, 2018.
  74. ^ a b Bar-On, Yinon M.; Phillips, Rob; Milo, Ron (2018). "The biomass distribution on Earth". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 115 (25): 6506–6511. Bibcode:2018PNAS..115.6506B. doi:10.1073/pnas.1711842115. PMC 6016768. PMID 29784790.
  75. ^ a b "Media Release: Nature's Dangerous Decline 'Unprecedented'; Species Extinction Rates 'Accelerating'". IPBES. May 5, 2019. Retrieved June 21, 2023.
  76. ^ Lewis, Sophie (September 9, 2020). "Animal populations worldwide have declined by almost 70% in just 50 years, new report says". CBS News. Retrieved October 22, 2020.
  77. ^ Leung, Brian; Hargreaves, Anna L.; Greenberg, Dan A.; McGill, Brian; Dornelas, Maria; Freeman, Robin (December 2020). "Clustered versus catastrophic global vertebrate declines". Nature. 588 (7837): 267–271. Bibcode:2020Natur.588..267L. doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2920-6. hdl:10023/23213. ISSN 1476-4687. PMID 33208939. S2CID 227065128.
  78. ^ Ceballos, Gerardo; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Dirzo, Rodolfo (May 23, 2017). "Biological annihilation via the ongoing sixth mass extinction signaled by vertebrate population losses and declines". PNAS. 114 (30): E6089–E6096. Bibcode:2017PNAS..114E6089C. doi:10.1073/pnas.1704949114. PMC 5544311. PMID 28696295. Much less frequently mentioned are, however, the ultimate drivers of those immediate causes of biotic destruction, namely, human overpopulation and continued population growth, and overconsumption, especially by the rich. These drivers, all of which trace to the fiction that perpetual growth can occur on a finite planet, are themselves increasing rapidly
  79. ^ "IUCN Red List version 2022.2". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). Retrieved June 21, 2023.
  80. ^ Ceballos, Gerardo; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Raven, Peter H. (June 1, 2020). "Vertebrates on the brink as indicators of biological annihilation and the sixth mass extinction". PNAS. 117 (24): 13596–13602. Bibcode:2020PNAS..11713596C. doi:10.1073/pnas.1922686117. PMC 7306750. PMID 32482862.
  81. ^ Pennisi E (September 12, 2019). "Common pesticide makes migrating birds anorexic". Science. Retrieved September 19, 2019.
  82. ^ "These 8 Bird Species Have Disappeared This Decade". Environment. September 5, 2018. Archived from the original on September 5, 2018. Retrieved September 25, 2020.
  83. ^ de Moraes KF, Santos MP, Gonçalves GS, de Oliveira GL, Gomes LB, Lima MG (July 17, 2020). "Climate change and bird extinctions in the Amazon". PLOS ONE. 15 (7): e0236103. Bibcode:2020PLoSO..1536103D. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0236103. PMC 7367466. PMID 32678834.
  84. ^ a b Corlett RT (February 2016). "Plant diversity in a changing world: Status, trends, and conservation needs". Plant Diversity. 38 (1): 10–16. doi:10.1016/j.pld.2016.01.001. PMC 6112092. PMID 30159445.
  85. ^ Krauss J, Bommarco R, Guardiola M, Heikkinen RK, Helm A, Kuussaari M, et al. (May 2010). "Habitat fragmentation causes immediate and time-delayed biodiversity loss at different trophic levels". Ecology Letters. 13 (5): 597–605. doi:10.1111/j.1461-0248.2010.01457.x. PMC 2871172. PMID 20337698.
  86. ^ "Prevent tree extinctions or face global ecological catastrophe, scientists warn". The Guardian. September 2, 2022. Retrieved September 15, 2022.
  87. ^ a b Rivers, Malin; Newton, Adrian C.; Oldfield, Sara; Global Tree Assessment Contributors (August 31, 2022). "Scientists' warning to humanity on tree extinctions". Plants, People, Planet. 5 (4): 466–482. doi:10.1002/ppp3.10314. ISSN 2572-2611. S2CID 251991010.
  88. ^ Latterini, Francesco; Mederski, Piotr; Jaeger, Dirk; Venanzi, Rachele; Tavankar, Farzam; Picchio, Rodolfo (February 28, 2023). "The Influence of Various Silvicultural Treatments and Forest Operations on Tree Species Biodiversity". Current Forestry Reports. 9 (1): 59–71. doi:10.1007/s40725-023-00179-0. S2CID 257320452. Retrieved April 29, 2023.
  89. ^ Block, Sebastián; Maechler, Marc-Jacques; Levine, Jacob I.; Alexander, Jake M.; Pellissier, Loïc; Levine, Jonathan M. (August 26, 2022). "Ecological lags govern the pace and outcome of plant community responses to 21st-century climate change". Ecology Letters. 25 (10): 2156–2166. Bibcode:2022EcolL..25.2156B. doi:10.1111/ele.14087. PMC 9804264. PMID 36028464.
  90. ^ a b c Lughadha, Eimear Nic; Bachman, Steven P.; Leão, Tarciso C. C.; et al. (September 29, 2020). "Extinction risk and threats to plants and fungi". Plants People Planet. 2 (5): 389–408. doi:10.1002/ppp3.10146. hdl:10316/101227. S2CID 225274409.
  91. ^ "Botanic Gardens and Plant Conservation". Botanic Gardens Conservation International. Retrieved July 19, 2023.
  92. ^ Parmesan, C., M.D. Morecroft, Y. Trisurat et al. (2022) Chapter 2: Terrestrial and Freshwater Ecosystems and Their Services in "Terrestrial and Freshwater Ecosystems and Their Services". Climate Change 2022 – Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Cambridge University Press. 2023. pp. 197–378. doi:10.1017/9781009325844.004. ISBN 978-1-009-32584-4.
  93. ^ a b Tickner D, Opperman JJ, Abell R, Acreman M, Arthington AH, Bunn SE, et al. (April 2020). "Bending the Curve of Global Freshwater Biodiversity Loss: An Emergency Recovery Plan". BioScience. 70 (4): 330–342. doi:10.1093/biosci/biaa002. PMC 7138689. PMID 32284631.
  94. ^ Harvey F (February 23, 2021). "Global freshwater fish populations at risk of extinction, study finds". The Guardian. Retrieved February 24, 2021.
  95. ^ a b c d Sala E, Knowlton N (2006). "Global Marine Biodiversity Trends". Annual Review of Environment and Resources. 31 (1): 93–122. doi:10.1146/annurev.energy.31.020105.100235.
  96. ^ a b Luypaert T, Hagan JG, McCarthy ML, Poti M (2020). "Status of Marine Biodiversity in the Anthropocene". In Jungblut S, Liebich V, Bode-Dalby M (eds.). YOUMARES 9 – The Oceans: Our Research, Our Future: Proceedings of the 2018 conference for YOUng MArine RESearcher in Oldenburg, Germany. Cham: Springer International Publishing. pp. 57–82. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-20389-4_4. ISBN 978-3-030-20389-4. S2CID 210304421.
  97. ^ Briand, F. (October 2012). "Species Missing in Action – Rare or Already Extinct?". National Geographic.
  98. ^ Worm B, Barbier EB, Beaumont N, Duffy JE, Folke C, Halpern BS, et al. (November 2006). "Impacts of biodiversity loss on ocean ecosystem services". Science. 314 (5800): 787–90. Bibcode:2006Sci...314..787W. doi:10.1126/science.1132294. JSTOR 20031683. PMID 17082450. S2CID 37235806.
  99. ^ Gamfeldt L, Lefcheck JS, Byrnes JE, Cardinale BJ, Duffy JE, Griffin JN (2015). "Marine biodiversity and ecosystem functioning: what's known and what's next?". Oikos. 124 (3): 252–265. doi:10.1111/oik.01549.
  100. ^ Halpern BS, Frazier M, Potapenko J, Casey KS, Koenig K, Longo C, et al. (July 2015). "Spatial and temporal changes in cumulative human impacts on the world's ocean". Nature Communications. 6 (1): 7615. Bibcode:2015NatCo...6.7615H. doi:10.1038/ncomms8615. PMC 4510691. PMID 26172980.
  101. ^ Georgian, Samuel; Hameed, Sarah; Morgan, Lance; Amon, Diva J.; Sumaila, U. Rashid; Johns, David; Ripple, William J. (2022). "Scientists' warning of an imperiled ocean". Biological Conservation. 272: 109595. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2022.109595. S2CID 249142365.
  102. ^ Carlton, J. T.; Vermeij, G. J.; Lindberg, D. R.; Carlton, D. A.; Dubley, E. C. (1991). "The First Historical Extinction of a Marine Invertebrate in an Ocean Basin: The Demise of the Eelgrass Limpet Lottia alveus". The Biological Bulletin. 180 (1): 72–80. doi:10.2307/1542430. ISSN 0006-3185. JSTOR 1542430. PMID 29303643.
  103. ^ Moulton, Michael P.; Sanderson, James (September 1, 1998). Wildlife Issues in a Changing World. CRC-Press. ISBN 978-1-56670-351-2.
  104. ^ Chen, Jim (2003). "Across the Apocalypse on Horseback: Imperfect Legal Responses to Biodiversity Loss". The Jurisdynamics of Environmental Protection: Change and the Pragmatic Voice in Environmental Law. Environmental Law Institute. p. 197. ISBN 978-1-58576-071-8.
  105. ^ "Hippo dilemma". Windows on the Wild. New Africa Books. 2005. ISBN 978-1-86928-380-3.
  106. ^ Calizza, Edoardo; Costantini, Maria Letizia; Careddu, Giulio; Rossi, Loreto (June 17, 2017). "Effect of habitat degradation on competition, carrying capacity, and species assemblage stability". Ecology and Evolution. Wiley. 7 (15): 5784–5796. Bibcode:2017EcoEv...7.5784C. doi:10.1002/ece3.2977. ISSN 2045-7758. PMC 5552933. PMID 28811883.
  107. ^ a b Sahney, S; Benton, Michael J.; Falcon-Lang, Howard J. (December 1, 2010). "Rainforest collapse triggered Pennsylvanian tetrapod diversification in Euramerica" (PDF). Geology. 38 (12): 1079–1082. Bibcode:2010Geo....38.1079S. doi:10.1130/G31182.1. Archived from the original on October 11, 2011. Retrieved November 29, 2010 – via GeoScienceWorld.
  108. ^ Marvier, Michelle; Kareiva, Peter; Neubert, Michael G. (2004). "Habitat Destruction, Fragmentation, and Disturbance Promote Invasion by Habitat Generalists in a Multispecies Metapopulation". Risk Analysis. 24 (4): 869–878. Bibcode:2004RiskA..24..869M. doi:10.1111/j.0272-4332.2004.00485.x. ISSN 0272-4332. PMID 15357806. S2CID 44809930. Archived from the original on July 23, 2021. Retrieved March 18, 2021.
  109. ^ WIEGAND, THORSTEN; REVILLA, ELOY; MOLONEY, KIRK A. (February 2005). "Effects of Habitat Loss and Fragmentation on Population Dynamics". Conservation Biology. 19 (1): 108–121. Bibcode:2005ConBi..19..108W. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2005.00208.x. ISSN 0888-8892. S2CID 33258495.
  110. ^ a b Haddad NM, Brudvig LA, Clobert J, Davies KF, Gonzalez A, Holt RD, et al. (March 2015). "Habitat fragmentation and its lasting impact on Earth's ecosystems". Science Advances. 1 (2): e1500052. Bibcode:2015SciA....1E0052H. doi:10.1126/sciadv.1500052. PMC 4643828. PMID 26601154.
  111. ^ Otto, Sarah P. (November 21, 2018). "Adaptation, speciation and extinction in the Anthropocene". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 285 (1891): 20182047. doi:10.1098/rspb.2018.2047. ISSN 0962-8452. PMC 6253383. PMID 30429309.
  112. ^ Tomimatsu H, Ohara M (2003). "Genetic diversity and local population structure of fragmented populations of Trillium camschatcense (Trilliaceae)". Biological Conservation. 109 (2): 249–258. doi:10.1016/S0006-3207(02)00153-2.
  113. ^ a b Simkins, Ashley T.; Beresford, Alison E.; et al. (March 23, 2023). "A global assessment of the prevalence of current and potential future infrastructure in Key Biodiversity Areas". Biological Conservation. 281: 109953. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2023.109953. S2CID 257735200. Text was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
  114. ^ Vidal J (March 15, 2019). "The Rapid Decline Of The Natural World Is A Crisis Even Bigger Than Climate Change". The Huffington Post. Retrieved March 16, 2019.
  115. ^ a b c d Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005). "Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Biodiversity Synthesis" (PDF). World Resources Institute. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 14, 2019. Retrieved September 18, 2007.
  116. ^ Dunne D (December 22, 2020). "More than 17,000 species worldwide to lose part of habitat if agriculture continues to expand". The Independent. Retrieved January 17, 2021.
  117. ^ a b Carrington D (February 3, 2021). "Plant-based diets crucial to saving global wildlife, says report". The Guardian. Retrieved February 6, 2021.
  118. ^ Allan, James R.; Possingham, Hugh P.; Atkinson, Scott C.; Waldron, Anthony; Di Marco, Moreno; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Adams, Vanessa M.; Kissling, W. Daniel; Worsdell, Thomas; Sandbrook, Chris; Gibbon, Gwili; Kumar, Kundan; Mehta, Piyush; Maron, Martine; Williams, Brooke A. (2022). "The minimum land area requiring conservation attention to safeguard biodiversity". Science. 376 (6597): 1094–1101. doi:10.1126/science.abl9127. hdl:11573/1640006. ISSN 0036-8075.
  119. ^ Barker, Jerry R. (1992). Air Pollution Effects on Biodiversity. David T. Tingey. Boston, MA: Springer US. ISBN 978-1-4615-3538-6. OCLC 840285207.
  120. ^ Sabljic A (2009). Environmental and Ecological Chemistry – Volume I. EOLSS Publications. ISBN 978-1-84826-186-0.[page needed]
  121. ^ Singh A, Agrawal M (January 2008). "Acid rain and its ecological consequences". Journal of Environmental Biology. 29 (1): 15–24. PMID 18831326.
  122. ^ Payne RJ, Dise NB, Field CD, Dore AJ, Caporn SJ, Stevens CJ (October 2017). "Nitrogen deposition and plant biodiversity: past, present, and future" (PDF). Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 15 (8): 431–436. doi:10.1002/fee.1528. S2CID 54972418.
  123. ^ a b c Lovett, Gary M.; Tear, Timothy H.; Evers, David C.; Findlay, Stuart E.G.; Cosby, B. Jack; Dunscomb, Judy K.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Weathers, Kathleen C. (2009). "Effects of Air Pollution on Ecosystems and Biological Diversity in the Eastern United States". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1162 (1): 99–135. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04153.x. ISSN 0077-8923.
  124. ^ Sordello R, De Lachapelle FF, Livoreil B, Vanpeene S (2019). "Evidence of the environmental impact of noise pollution on biodiversity: a systematic map protocol". Environmental Evidence. 8 (1): 8. doi:10.1186/s13750-019-0146-6.
  125. ^ a b c Weilgart LS (2008). The Impact of Ocean Noise Pollution on Marine Biodiversity (PDF) (Thesis). CiteSeerX 10.1.1.542.534. S2CID 13176067.
  126. ^ Fernández A, Edwards JF, Rodríguez F, Espinosa de los Monteros A, Herráez P, Castro P, et al. (July 2005). "'Gas and fat embolic syndrome' involving a mass stranding of beaked whales (family Ziphiidae) exposed to anthropogenic sonar signals". Veterinary Pathology. 42 (4): 446–57. doi:10.1354/vp.42-4-446. PMID 16006604. S2CID 43571676.
  127. ^ Engås A, Løkkeborg S, Ona E, Soldal AV (2011). "Effects of seismic shooting on local abundance and catch rates of cod ((Gadus morhua) and haddock )(Melanogrammus aeglefinus)". Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 53 (10): 2238–2249. doi:10.1139/f96-177. hdl:11250/108647.
  128. ^ Skalski JR, Pearson WH, Malme CI (2011). "Effects of Sounds from a Geophysical Survey Device on Catch-per-Unit-Effort in a Hook-and-Line Fishery for Rockfish (Sebastes spp.)". Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 49 (7): 1357–1365. doi:10.1139/f92-151.
  129. ^ Slotte A, Hansen K, Dalen J, Ona E (2004). "Acoustic mapping of pelagic fish distribution and abundance in relation to a seismic shooting area off the Norwegian west coast". Fisheries Research. 67 (2): 143–150. doi:10.1016/j.fishres.2003.09.046.
  130. ^ Francis CD, Ortega CP, Cruz A (August 2009). "Noise pollution changes avian communities and species interactions". Current Biology. 19 (16): 1415–9. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2009.06.052. PMID 19631542. S2CID 15985432.
  131. ^ Barber, Jesse R.; Crooks, Kevin R.; Fristrup, Kurt M. (March 1, 2010). "The costs of chronic noise exposure for terrestrial organisms". Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 25 (3): 180–189. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2009.08.002. ISSN 0169-5347. PMID 19762112.
  132. ^ a b c Harfoot, Michael B. J.; Tittensor, Derek P.; Knight, Sarah; Arnell, Andrew P.; Blyth, Simon; Brooks, Sharon; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Hutton, Jon; Jones, Matthew I.; Kapos, Valerie; Scharlemann, Jӧrn P.W.; Burgess, Neil D. (2018). "Present and future biodiversity risks from fossil fuel exploitation". Conservation Letters. 11 (4): e12448. doi:10.1111/conl.12448. S2CID 74872049. Text was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
  133. ^ Butt N, Beyer HL, Bennett JR, Biggs D, Maggini R, Mills M, et al. (October 2013). "Conservation. Biodiversity risks from fossil fuel extraction" (PDF). Science. 342 (6157): 425–6. Bibcode:2013Sci...342..425B. doi:10.1126/science.1237261. JSTOR 42619941. PMID 24159031. S2CID 206548697.
  134. ^ Frank, Kenneth T.; Petrie, Brian; Choi, Jae S.; Leggett, William C. (2005). "Trophic Cascades in a Formerly Cod-Dominated Ecosystem". Science. 308 (5728): 1621–1623. Bibcode:2005Sci...308.1621F. doi:10.1126/science.1113075. PMID 15947186. S2CID 45088691.
  135. ^ Pacoureau N, Rigby CL, Kyne PM, Sherley RB, Winker H, Carlson JK, et al. (January 2021). "Half a century of global decline in oceanic sharks and rays". Nature. 589 (7843): 567–571. Bibcode:2021Natur.589..567P. doi:10.1038/s41586-020-03173-9. hdl:10871/124531. PMID 33505035. S2CID 231723355.
  136. ^ Borenstein S (May 6, 2019). "UN report: Humans accelerating extinction of other species". AP News. Retrieved March 17, 2021.
  137. ^ Hatton IA, Heneghan RF, Bar-On YM, Galbraith ED (November 2021). "The global ocean size spectrum from bacteria to whales". Science Advances. 7 (46): eabh3732. Bibcode:2021SciA....7.3732H. doi:10.1126/sciadv.abh3732. PMC 8580314. PMID 34757796.
  138. ^ Dulvy NK, Pacoureau N, Rigby CL, Pollom RA, Jabado RW, Ebert DA, et al. (November 2021). "Overfishing drives over one-third of all sharks and rays toward a global extinction crisis". Current Biology. 31 (21): 4773–4787.e8. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2021.08.062. PMID 34492229. S2CID 237443284.
  139. ^ The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2020. FAO. 2020. doi:10.4060/ca9229en. hdl:10535/3776. ISBN 978-92-5-132692-3. S2CID 242949831.
  140. ^ Ritchie, Hannah (April 20, 2021). "Wild mammals have declined by 85% since the rise of humans, but there is a possible future where they flourish". Our World in Data. Retrieved April 18, 2023.
  141. ^ "World Population Prospects 2022, Graphs / Profiles". United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. 2022.
  142. ^ Ceballos, Gerardo; Ehrlich, Paul R; Dirzo, Rodolfo (May 23, 2017). "Biological annihilation via the ongoing sixth mass extinction signaled by vertebrate population losses and declines". PNAS. 114 (30): E6089–E6096. Bibcode:2017PNAS..114E6089C. doi:10.1073/pnas.1704949114. PMC 5544311. PMID 28696295. Much less frequently mentioned are, however, the ultimate drivers of those immediate causes of biotic destruction, namely, human overpopulation and continued population growth, and overconsumption, especially by the rich. These drivers, all of which trace to the fiction that perpetual growth can occur on a finite planet, are themselves increasing rapidly.
  143. ^ a b Weston, Phoebe (January 13, 2021). "Top scientists warn of 'ghastly future of mass extinction' and climate disruption". The Guardian. Archived from the original on January 13, 2021. Retrieved August 4, 2021.
  144. ^ Colautti, Robert I.; MacIsaac, Hugh J. (February 24, 2004). "A neutral terminology to define 'invasive' species: Defining invasive species". Diversity and Distributions. 10 (2): 135–141. doi:10.1111/j.1366-9516.2004.00061.x. S2CID 18971654.
  145. ^ "Communication From The Commission To The Council, The European Parliament, The European Economic And Social Committee And The Committee Of The Regions Towards An EU Strategy On Invasive Species" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on March 5, 2016. Retrieved May 17, 2011.
  146. ^ Lakicevic, Milena; Mladenovic, Emina (2018). "Non-native and invasive tree species – their impact on biodiversity loss". Zbornik Matice Srpske Za Prirodne Nauke (134): 19–26. doi:10.2298/ZMSPN1834019L.
  147. ^ National Research Council (US) Committee on the Scientific Basis for Predicting the Invasive Potential of Nonindigenous Plants Plant Pests in the United States (2002). Predicting Invasions of Nonindigenous Plants and Plant Pests. doi:10.17226/10259. ISBN 978-0-309-08264-8. PMID 25032288. Archived from the original on November 17, 2019. Retrieved November 17, 2019.
  148. ^ Lewis, Simon L.; Maslin, Mark A. (2015). "Defining the Anthropocene". Nature. 519 (7542): 171–180. Bibcode:2015Natur.519..171L. doi:10.1038/nature14258. PMID 25762280. S2CID 205242896.
  149. ^ Baiser, Benjamin; Olden, Julian D.; Record, Sydne; Lockwood, Julie L.; McKinney, Michael L. (2012). "Pattern and process of biotic homogenization in the New Pangaea". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 279 (1748): 4772–4777. doi:10.1098/rspb.2012.1651. PMC 3497087. PMID 23055062.
  150. ^ Odendaal, L. J.; Haupt, T. M.; Griffiths, C. L. (2008). "The alien invasive land snail Theba pisana in the West Coast National Park: Is there cause for concern?". Koedoe. 50 (1): 93–98. doi:10.4102/koedoe.v50i1.153.
  151. ^ Song, Haijun; Kemp, David B.; Tian, Li; Chu, Daoliang; Song, Huyue; Dai, Xu (August 4, 2021). "Thresholds of temperature change for mass extinctions". Nature Communications. 12 (1): 4694. Bibcode:2021NatCo..12.4694S. doi:10.1038/s41467-021-25019-2. PMC 8338942. PMID 34349121.
  152. ^ Kapoor K (June 10, 2021). "Climate change and biodiversity loss must be tackled together – report". Reuters. Retrieved June 12, 2021.
  153. ^ Rankin, Jennifer; Harvey, Fiona (July 21, 2022). "Destruction of nature as threatening as climate crisis, EU deputy warns". The Guardian. Retrieved August 1, 2022.
  154. ^ Dukes JS, Mooney HA (April 1999). "Does global change increase the success of biological invaders?". Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 14 (4): 135–139. doi:10.1016/s0169-5347(98)01554-7. PMID 10322518.
  155. ^ Hellmann JJ, Byers JE, Bierwagen BG, Dukes JS (June 2008). "Five potential consequences of climate change for invasive species". Conservation Biology. 22 (3): 534–543. Bibcode:2008ConBi..22..534H. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2008.00951.x. PMID 18577082. S2CID 16026020.
  156. ^ Baker, Jason D.; Littnan, Charles L.; Johnston, David W. (May 24, 2006). "Potential effects of sea level rise on the terrestrial habitats of endangered and endemic megafauna in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands". Endangered Species Research. 2: 21–30. doi:10.3354/esr002021. ISSN 1863-5407.
  157. ^ Galbraith, H.; Jones, R.; Park, R.; Clough, J.; Herrod-Julius, S.; Harrington, B.; Page, G. (June 1, 2002). "Global Climate Change and Sea Level Rise: Potential Losses of Intertidal Habitat for Shorebirds". Waterbirds. 25 (2): 173–183. doi:10.1675/1524-4695(2002)025[0173:GCCASL]2.0.CO;2. ISSN 1524-4695. S2CID 86365454.
  158. ^ Constable, A.J., S. Harper, J. Dawson, K. Holsman, T. Mustonen, D. Piepenburg, and B. Rost, 2022: Cross-Chapter Paper 6: Polar Regions. In: Climate Change 2022: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [H.-O. Pörtner, D.C. Roberts, M. Tignor, E.S. Poloczanska, K. Mintenbeck, A. Alegría, M. Craig, S. Langsdorf, S. Löschke, V. Möller, A. Okem, B. Rama (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, USA, pp. 2319–2368, doi:10.1017/9781009325844.023
  159. ^ Huang, Yiyi; Dong, Xiquan; Bailey, David A.; Holland, Marika M.; Xi, Baike; DuVivier, Alice K.; Kay, Jennifer E.; Landrum, Laura L.; Deng, Yi (June 19, 2019). "Thicker Clouds and Accelerated Arctic Sea Ice Decline: The Atmosphere-Sea Ice Interactions in Spring". Geophysical Research Letters. 46 (12): 6980–6989. Bibcode:2019GeoRL..46.6980H. doi:10.1029/2019gl082791. hdl:10150/634665. ISSN 0094-8276. S2CID 189968828.
  160. ^ Senftleben, Daniel; Lauer, Axel; Karpechko, Alexey (February 15, 2020). "Constraining Uncertainties in CMIP5 Projections of September Arctic Sea Ice Extent with Observations". Journal of Climate. 33 (4): 1487–1503. Bibcode:2020JCli...33.1487S. doi:10.1175/jcli-d-19-0075.1. ISSN 0894-8755. S2CID 210273007.
  161. ^ Yadav, Juhi; Kumar, Avinash; Mohan, Rahul (May 21, 2020). "Dramatic decline of Arctic sea ice linked to global warming". Natural Hazards. 103 (2): 2617–2621. Bibcode:2020NatHa.103.2617Y. doi:10.1007/s11069-020-04064-y. ISSN 0921-030X. S2CID 218762126.
  162. ^ Durner, George M.; Douglas, David C.; Nielson, Ryan M.; Amstrup, Steven C.; McDonald, Trent L.; Stirling, Ian; Mauritzen, Mette; Born, Erik W.; Wiig, Øystein; Deweaver, Eric; Serreze, Mark C.; Belikov, Stanislav E.; Holland, Marika M.; Maslanik, James; Aars, Jon; Bailey, David A.; Derocher, Andrew E. (2009). "Predicting 21st-century polar bear habitat distribution from global climate models". Ecological Monographs. 79 (1): 25–58. Bibcode:2009EcoM...79...25D. doi:10.1890/07-2089.1. S2CID 85677324.
  163. ^ Riebesell, Ulf; Körtzinger, Arne; Oschlies, Andreas (2009). "Sensitivities of marine carbon fluxes to ocean change". PNAS. 106 (49): 20602–20609. doi:10.1073/pnas.0813291106. PMC 2791567. PMID 19995981.
  164. ^ Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Jacob, D.; Taylor, M.; Bindi, M.; Brown, S.; Camilloni, I.; Diedhiou, A.; Djalante, R.; Ebi, K.L.; Engelbrecht, F.; Guiot, J.; Hijioka, Y.; Mehrotra, S.; Payne, A.; Seneviratne, S.I.; Thomas, A.; Warren, R.; Zhou, G. (2022). "Impacts of 1.5°C Global Warming on Natural and Human Systems" (PDF). In Masson-Delmotte, V.; Zhai, P.; Pörtner, H.-O.; Roberts, D.; Skea, J.; Shukla, P.R.; Pirani, A.; Moufouma-Okia, W.; Péan, C.; Pidcock, R.; Connors, S.; Matthews, J.B.R.; Chen, Y.; Zhou, X.; Gomis, M.I.; Lonnoy, E.; Maycock, T.; Tignor, M.; Waterfield, T. (eds.). Global Warming of 1.5°C: An IPCC Special Report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways, in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development, and efforts to eradicate poverty. Cambridge, UK and New York City: Cambridge University Press. pp. 175–312. doi:10.1017/9781009157940.005. ISBN 978-1-009-15794-0.
  165. ^ Aldred, Jessica (July 2, 2014). "Caribbean coral reefs 'will be lost within 20 years' without protection". The Guardian. Retrieved November 9, 2015.
  166. ^ Strona, Giovanni; Bradshaw, Corey J.A. (December 16, 2022). "Coextinctions dominate future vertebrate losses from climate and land use change". Science Advances. 8 (50): eabn4345. Bibcode:2022SciA....8N4345S. doi:10.1126/sciadv.abn4345. PMC 9757742. PMID 36525487.
  167. ^ Pocheville, Arnaud (2015). "The Ecological Niche: History and Recent Controversies". In Heams, Thomas; Huneman, Philippe; Lecointre, Guillaume; et al. (eds.). Handbook of Evolutionary Thinking in the Sciences. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 547–586. ISBN 978-94-017-9014-7.
  168. ^ "Climate Change". National Geographic. March 28, 2019. Retrieved November 1, 2021.
  169. ^ Witze, Alexandra. "Why extreme rains are gaining strength as the climate warms". Nature. Retrieved July 30, 2021.
  170. ^ Van der Putten, Wim H.; Macel, Mirka; Visser, Marcel E. (July 12, 2010). "Predicting species distribution and abundance responses to climate change: why it is essential to include biotic interactions across trophic levels". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 365 (1549): 2025–2034. doi:10.1098/rstb.2010.0037. PMC 2880132. PMID 20513711.
  171. ^ Buckley, Lauren B.; Tewksbury, Joshua J.; Deutsch, Curtis A. (August 22, 2013). "Can terrestrial ectotherms escape the heat of climate change by moving?". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 280 (1765): 20131149. doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.1149. ISSN 0962-8452. PMC 3712453. PMID 23825212.
  172. ^ "Summary for Policymakers". Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis. Working Group I contribution to the WGI Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (PDF). Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. August 9, 2021. p. SPM-23; Fig. SPM.6. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 4, 2021.
  173. ^ Maxwell, Sean L.; Butt, Nathalie; Maron, Martine; McAlpine, Clive A.; Chapman, Sarah; Ullmann, Ailish; Segan, Dan B.; Watson, James E. M. (2019). "Conservation implications of ecological responses to extreme weather and climate events". Diversity and Distributions. 25 (4): 613–625. doi:10.1111/ddi.12878. ISSN 1472-4642.
  174. ^ Smith L (June 15, 2016). "Extinct: Bramble Cay melomys". Australian Geographic. Retrieved June 17, 2016.
  175. ^ Pounds, Alan (January 12, 2006). "Widespread Amphibian Extinctions from Epidemic Disease Driven by Global Warming". Nature. 439 (7073): 161–167. Bibcode:2006Natur.439..161A. doi:10.1038/nature04246. PMID 16407945. S2CID 4430672.
  176. ^ Dirzo, Rodolfo; Raven, Peter H. (November 2003). "Global State of Biodiversity and Loss". Annual Review of Environment and Resources. 28 (1): 137–167. doi:10.1146/annurev.energy.28.050302.105532. ISSN 1543-5938.
  177. ^ Isbell F, Craven D, Connolly J, Loreau M, Schmid B, Beierkuhnlein C, et al. (2015). "Biodiversity increases the resistance of ecosystem productivity to climate extremes". Nature. 526 (7574): 574–577. Bibcode:2015Natur.526..574I. doi:10.1038/nature15374. hdl:11299/184546. PMID 26466564. S2CID 4465811.
  178. ^ Bélanger J, Pilling D, eds. (2019), The State of the World's Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture, Rome: FAO Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture
  179. ^ McGrath M (February 22, 2019), UN: Growing threat to food from decline in biodiversity, BBC
  180. ^ a b c In brief – The State of the World's Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture (PDF). Rome: FAO. 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 4, 2019. Alt URL, text has been copied from this publication and a Wikipedia-specific license statement is available.
  181. ^ a b c d e World Health Organization; Convention on Biological Diversity (2015). Connecting global priorities: biodiversity and human health: a state of knowledge review. Geneva: World Health Organization. ISBN 978-92-4-150853-7.
  182. ^ Roopesh, J.; et al. (2008). "Marine organisms: Potential Source for Drug Discovery" (PDF). Current Science. 94 (3): 292.
  183. ^ Dhillion, S. S.; Svarstad, H.; Amundsen, C.; Bugge, H. C. (September 2002). "Bioprospecting: Effects on Environment and Development". Ambio. 31 (6): 491–493. doi:10.1639/0044-7447(2002)031[0491:beoead]2.0.co;2. JSTOR 4315292. PMID 12436849.
  184. ^ Cole, Andrew (2005). "Looking for new compounds in sea is endangering ecosystem". BMJ. 330 (7504): 1350. doi:10.1136/bmj.330.7504.1350-d. PMC 558324. PMID 15947392.
  185. ^ "Red List Index". Our World in Data. Retrieved February 7, 2024.
  186. ^ a b Dinerstein E, Joshi AR, Vynne C, Lee AT, Pharand-Deschênes F, França M, et al. (September 2020). "A "Global Safety Net" to reverse biodiversity loss and stabilize Earth's climate". Science Advances. 6 (36): eabb2824. Bibcode:2020SciA....6.2824D. doi:10.1126/sciadv.abb2824. PMC 7473742. PMID 32917614.
  187. ^ "Bending the curve of biodiversity loss". phys.org. Retrieved October 8, 2020.
  188. ^ Leclère, David; Obersteiner, Michael; Barrett, Mike; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Chaudhary, Abhishek; De Palma, Adriana; DeClerck, Fabrice A. J.; Di Marco, Moreno; Doelman, Jonathan C.; Dürauer, Martina; Freeman, Robin; Harfoot, Michael; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Hellweg, Stefanie; Hilbers, Jelle P.; Hill, Samantha L. L.; Humpenöder, Florian; Jennings, Nancy; Krisztin, Tamás; Mace, Georgina M.; Ohashi, Haruka; Popp, Alexander; Purvis, Andy; Schipper, Aafke M.; Tabeau, Andrzej; Valin, Hugo; van Meijl, Hans; van Zeist, Willem-Jan; Visconti, Piero; Alkemade, Rob; Almond, Rosamunde; Bunting, Gill; Burgess, Neil D.; Cornell, Sarah E.; Di Fulvio, Fulvio; Ferrier, Simon; Fritz, Steffen; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Grooten, Monique; Harwood, Thomas; Havlík, Petr; Herrero, Mario; Hoskins, Andrew J.; Jung, Martin; Kram, Tom; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Matsui, Tetsuya; Meyer, Carsten; Nel, Deon; Newbold, Tim; Schmidt-Traub, Guido; Stehfest, Elke; Strassburg, Bernardo B. N.; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Ware, Chris; Watson, James E. M.; Wu, Wenchao; Young, Lucy (September 2020). "Bending the curve of terrestrial biodiversity needs an integrated strategy" (PDF). Nature. 585 (7826): 551–556. Bibcode:2020Natur.585..551L. doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2705-y. hdl:2066/228862. PMID 32908312. S2CID 221624255.
  189. ^ "Aichi Biodiversity Targets". Convention on Biological Diversity. May 11, 2018. Retrieved September 17, 2020.
  190. ^ "Convention on Biological Diversity". Convention on Biological Diversity. Retrieved March 23, 2023.
  191. ^ Yeung J (September 16, 2020). "The world set a 2020 deadline to save nature but not a single target was met, UN report says". CNN. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  192. ^ Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (2020) Global Biodiversity Outlook 5. Montreal.
  193. ^ Kilvert N (September 16, 2020). "Australia singled out for mammal extinction in UN's dire global biodiversity report". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  194. ^ Niranjan A (September 28, 2020). "Countries pledge to reverse destruction of nature after missing biodiversity targets". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved October 4, 2020.
  195. ^ Jones B (May 20, 2021). "Why the US won't join the single most important treaty to protect nature". Vox. Retrieved May 21, 2021.
  196. ^ Cox L (July 23, 2021). "Nature's Paris moment: does the global bid to stem wildlife decline go far enough?". The Guardian. Retrieved July 24, 2021.
  197. ^ Einhorn, Catrin (December 19, 2022). "Nearly Every Country Signs On to a Sweeping Deal to Protect Nature". The New York Times. Retrieved December 27, 2022. The United States is just one of two countries in the world that are not party to the Convention on Biological Diversity, largely because Republicans, who are typically opposed to joining treaties, have blocked United States membership. That means the American delegation was required to participate from the sidelines. (The only other country that has not joined the treaty is the Holy See.)
  198. ^ a b Paddison, Laura (December 19, 2022). "More than 190 countries sign landmark agreement to halt the biodiversity crisis". CNN. Retrieved December 20, 2022.
  199. ^ Curry, Tierra (December 24, 2022). "COP15 biodiversity summit: Paving the road to extinction with good intentions". The Hill. Retrieved December 27, 2022.
  200. ^ "Biodiversity crisis is worse than climate change, experts say". ScienceDaily. January 20, 2012. Retrieved May 21, 2021.
  201. ^ "Work of the Statistical Commission pertaining to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development". Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 6 July 2017 (Report). United Nations. 2017.
  202. ^ "Goal 15: Life on Land – SDG Tracker". Our World in Data. Retrieved September 5, 2020. Text was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
  203. ^ Greenfield, Patrick (August 31, 2023). "Fifth of known species on Earth found in Unesco world heritage sites – survey". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved September 7, 2023.
  204. ^ "New research underscores the vital role played by the World Heritage Convention in protecting biodiversity | UNESCO". www.unesco.org. Retrieved September 7, 2023.