Maitreya
Maetri.jpg
Statue of Maitreya Bodhisattva in the form of Deva (before becoming the next Buddha) from Thailand.
Sanskritमैत्रेय
(Maitreya)
Pāliमेत्तेय्य
(Metteyya)
Burmeseအရိမေတ္တေယျဘုရား
(MLCTS: a.ri. metteyya bhu.ra:)
(IPA: ʔəjḭmjɪʔtèja̰ pʰəjá)
Chinese彌勒菩薩
弥勒菩萨
(Pinyin: Mílè Púsa)
CyrillicМайдар, Асралт
(Mayidar, Asaraltu)
Japanese弥勒菩薩みろくぼさつ
(romaji: Miroku Bosatsu)
Karenမဲၣ်တယါ ဘူးဒး
(Mehtuhyah Boodah)
Khmerសិអារ្យមេត្រី, អរិយមេត្តយ្យ
Korean미륵보살
彌勒菩薩
(RR: Mireuk Bosal)
Mongolian scriptᠮᠠᠢᠢᠳᠠᠷᠢ
ᠠᠰᠠᠷᠠᠯᠲᠤ
Shanဢရီႉမိတ်ႈတေႇယႃႉ
Sinhalaමෛත්‍රී බුදුන්
(Maithri Budun)
Thaiพระศรีอริยเมตไตรย
(RTGSPhra Si Ariya Mettrai)
Tibetanབྱམས་པ་
(Wylie: byams pa)
(THL: Jampa)

བྱམས་པ་མགོན་པོ་
(Wylie: byams pa'i mgon po)
(THL: Jampé Gönpo)
Vietnamese彌勒菩薩
(Di lặc Bồ Tát)
Information
Venerated byMahayana, Theravada, Vajrayana
AttributesCompassion and Kindness
Preceded by
Gautama Buddha
Succeeded by
Rama Buddha[1]
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Maitreya (Sanskrit: मैत्रेय) or Metteyya (Pali: मेत्तेय्य), also Maitreya Buddha or Metteyya Buddha, is regarded as the future Buddha of this world in Buddhist eschatology. As the 5th and final Buddha of the current kalpa, Maitreya's teachings will be aimed at reinstating the dharma, a vital concept in Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism and Jainism. In all branches of Buddhism, he is viewed as the direct successor of Gautama Buddha. In some Buddhist literature, such as the Amitabha Sutra and the Lotus Sutra, he is referred to as Ajita. Despite many religious figures and spiritual leaders claiming to be Maitreya throughout history, all Buddhists firmly agree that these were false claims, indicating that Maitreya, the Buddha of the Future, is yet to appear.

According to Buddhist tradition, Maitreya is a bodhisattva who is prophesied to appear on Earth, achieve complete Enlightenment, and teach the Dharma. According to scriptures, Maitreya's teachings will be similar to those of Gautama Buddha (also known as Śākyamuni Buddha).[2][3] The arrival of Maitreya is prophesied to occur during an era when the teachings of Gautama Buddha have been forgotten by most of the terrestrial world.

Maitreya, in Buddhist tradition, presently resides in Tushita heaven. Maitreya is the earliest bodhisattva around whom a cult developed and is mentioned in scriptures from the 3rd century CE.[4] Maitreya has also been employed in a millenarian role by many non-Buddhist religions in the past, such as Theosophy, the White Lotus, as well as by modern new religious movements, such as Yiguandao.

Sources

The name Maitreya is derived from the Sanskrit word maitrī "friendship", which is in turn derived from the noun mitra "friend". The Pali form Metteyya is mentioned in the Cakkavatti-Sīhanāda Sutta (Digha Nikaya 26) of the Pāli Canon, and also in chapter 28 of the Buddhavamsa.[2][3] Most of the Buddha's sermons are presented as having been presented in answer to a question, or in some other appropriate context, but this sutta has a beginning and ending in which the Buddha is talking to monks about something totally different. This leads scholar Richard Gombrich to conclude that either the whole sutta is apocryphal or that it has at least been tampered with.[5]

In the Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara, in the first centuries CE in northern India, Maitreya was the most popular figure to be represented along with Gautama Buddha (often called Śākyamuni "sage of the Shakya"). In 4th to 6th-century China, "Buddhist artisans used the names Shakyamuni and Maitreya interchangeably... indicating both that the distinction between the two had not yet been drawn and that their respective iconographies had not yet been firmly set".[6] An example is the stone sculpture found in the Qingzhou cache dedicated to Maitreya in 529 CE as recorded in the inscription (currently in the Qingzhou Museum, Shandong). The religious belief of Maitreya apparently developed around the same time as that of Amitābha, as early as the 3rd century CE.[7]

Characteristics

One mention of the prophecy of Maitreya is in the Maitreyavyākaraṇa. It implies that Maitreya is a teacher of meditative trance sādhanā and states that gods, men and other beings:

Will lose their doubts, and the torrents of their cravings will be cut off: free from all misery they will manage to cross the ocean of becoming; and, as a result of Maitreya's teachings, they will lead a holy life. No longer will they regard anything as their own, they will have no possession, no gold or silver, no home, no relatives! But they will lead the holy life of oneness under Maitreya's guidance. They will have torn the net of the passions, they will manage to enter into trances, and theirs will be an abundance of joy and happiness, for they will lead a holy life under Maitreya's guidance.[8]

General description

In the Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara, Maitreya is represented as a northern Indian nobleman, holding a kumbha in his left hand. Sometimes this is a "wisdom urn" (Tibetan: Bumpa). He is flanked by his two acolytes, the brothers Asanga and Vasubandhu, who founded the Yogacara tradition.[citation needed]

The Maitreyasamiti was an extensive Buddhist play in pre-Islamic Central Asia.[9][10] The Maitreyavyakarana (in Sataka form) in Central Asia and the Anagatavamsa of South India also mention him.[11][12]

Maitreya's Tuṣita Heaven

Maitreya currently resides in the Tuṣita Heaven (Pāli: Tusita), said to be reachable through meditation. Gautama Buddha also lived here before he was born into the world as all bodhisattvas live in the Tuṣita Heaven before they descend to the human realm to become Buddhas. Although all bodhisattvas are destined to become Buddhas, the concept of a bodhisattva differs greatly in Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism. In Theravada Buddhism, a bodhisattva is one who is striving for full enlightenment (Arahantship in Pali), whereas in Mahayana Buddhism, a bodhisattva is one who vows to achieve enlightenment for the purpose of helping all sentient beings (a common misconception being that they delay their enlightenment, which is inaccurate according to the Nalanda tradition).[citation needed]

In Mahayana Buddhism, Buddhas preside over pure lands, such as Amitābha over Sukhavati. Once Maitreya becomes a buddha, he will rule over the Ketumati pure land, an earthly paradise sometimes associated with the city of Varanasi (also known as Benares) in Uttar Pradesh, India,[13] and in other descriptions, the Shambhala.[14][15]

In Theravada Buddhism, Buddhas are born as unenlightened humans, and are not rulers of any paradise or pure land. Maitreya's arising would be no different from the arising of Gautama Buddha, as he achieved full enlightenment as a human being and died, entering parinibbana (nirvana-after-death).

Eight-armed male deity (Maitreya). Provenance Vat Ampil Tok, Kg. Chhnang. 10th century. Bronze with dark patina. Green traces on the feet. H. 75 cm. Inv. 2024. National Museum of Cambodia. Phnom Penh.
Eight-armed male deity (Maitreya). Provenance Vat Ampil Tok, Kg. Chhnang. 10th century. Bronze with dark patina. Green traces on the feet. H. 75 cm. Inv. 2024. National Museum of Cambodia. Phnom Penh.

[citation needed]

Activity of Maitreya in the current age

Main article: Maitreya-nātha

In Mahayana schools, Maitreya is traditionally said to have revealed the Five Treatises of Maitreya through Asanga. These texts are the basis of the Yogacara tradition and constitute the majority of the third turning within the Three Turnings of the Wheel of Dharma.[citation needed]

Future coming of Maitreya

Further information: List of the named Buddhas

According to Buddhist tradition, each kalpa has 1,000 Buddhas.[16] The previous kalpa was the vyuhakalpa (Glorious aeon), and the present kalpa is called the bhadrakalpa (Auspicious aeon).[17] The Seven Buddhas of Antiquity (Saptatathāgata) are seven Buddhas which bridge the vyuhakalpa and the bhadrakalpa:[18]

  1. Vipassī (the 998th Buddha of the vyuhakalpa)
  2. Sikhī (the 999th Buddha of the vyuhakalpa)
  3. Vessabhū (the 1000th and final Buddha of the vyuhakalpa)
  4. Kakusandha (the first Buddha of the bhadrakalpa)
  5. Koṇāgamana (the second Buddha of the bhadrakalpa)
  6. Kassapa (the third Buddha of the bhadrakalpa)
  7. Gautama (the fourth and present Buddha of the bhadrakalpa)
A statue of the bodhisattva Maitreya, at Kōryū-ji
A statue of the bodhisattva Maitreya, at Kōryū-ji

Maitreya will be the fifth and future Buddha of the bhadrakalpa, and his arrival will occur after the teachings of Gautama Buddha are no longer practiced.[citation needed]

The coming of Maitreya will be characterized by a number of physical events. The oceans are predicted to decrease in size, allowing Maitreya to traverse them freely. Maitreya will then reintroduce true dharma to the world.[citation needed]

Maitreya's arrival will signify the end of the middle time, the time between the fourth Buddha, Gautama Buddha, and the fifth Buddha, Maitreya, which is viewed as a low point of human existence. According to the Cakkavatti Sutta: The Wheel-turning Emperor, Digha Nikaya 26 of the Sutta Pitaka of the Pāli Canon, Maitreya Buddha will be born in a time when humans will live to an age of eighty thousand years, in the city of Ketumatī (present Varanasi), whose king will be the Cakkavattī Sankha. Sankha will live in the palace where once dwelt King Mahāpanadā, but later he will give the palace away and will himself become a follower of Maitreya Buddha.[19]

The scriptures say that Maitreya will attain bodhi in seven days (which is the minimum period), by virtue of his many lives of preparation for buddhahood similar to those reported in the Jataka tales.[citation needed]

At this time a notable teaching he will start giving is that of the ten non-virtuous deeds (killing, stealing, sexual misconduct, lying, divisive speech, abusive speech, idle speech, covetousness, harmful intent and wrong views) and the ten virtuous deeds (the abandonment of: killing, stealing, sexual misconduct, lying, divisive speech, abusive speech, idle speech, covetousness, harmful intent and wrong views).

Maitreya, 13th century, Kamakura period, Tokyo National Museum, Important Cultural Property of Japan.

[citation needed]

The Arya Maitreya Mandala, an order founded by Anagarika Govinda, is based on the idea of the future coming of Maitreya.[citation needed]

Buddhist texts from several traditions say that beings in Maitreya's time will be much bigger than during the time of Sakyamuni. In one prophecy his disciples are contemptuous of Mahakasyapa, whose head is no larger than an insect to them. Buddha's robe barely covers two fingers making them wonder how tiny Buddha was. Mahākāśyapa is said to be small enough in comparison to cremate in the palm of Maitreya's hand.[20]

Foretold biography

Maitreya will be born to the Brahmanas, Tubrahmā (father) and Brahmavadi (mother) in Ketumatī, which will be ruled by King Saṅkha, a Chakravarti. Maitreya's spouse will be Princess Sandamukkhī. His son will be Brahmavaṁsa. After the birth of his son, Maitreya will leave to practice asceticism. He will practice for 7 days. After the practice, he will be awakened under a Mesua ferrea tree. The disciples of Maitreya Buddha are:

  1. Asoka, an Agraśrāvaka and the right-hand chief disciple
  2. Brahmadeva, an Agraśrāvaka and the left-hand chief disciple
  3. Sumana, the right-hand Agasāvikā
  4. Padumā, the left-hand Agasāvikā
  5. Sīha, a primary attendant.

Maitreya will be 88 cubits (132 feet, 40 meters) tall and will live for 88,000 years. Like Maṅgala Buddha, his rays will make people hard to distinguish between day and night. His teachings will preserve for the next 180,000 years. According to the commentary of Anāgatavamsa, his teaching will last for 360,000 years.[21]

Nichiren Buddhism and Maitreya as metaphor

Maitreya - 33 metre symbol of Diskit Monastery  facing facing down the Shyok River towards Nubra Valley, Ladakh
Maitreya - 33 metre symbol of Diskit Monastery facing facing down the Shyok River towards Nubra Valley, Ladakh

According to the Lotus Sutra in Nichiren Buddhism, all people possess the potential to reveal an innate Buddha nature during their own lifetimes, a concept which may appear to contradict the idea of Buddha as savior or messiah.

Although Maitreya is a significant figure in the Lotus Sutra, the explanation of Nichiren is that Maitreya is a metaphor of stewardship and aid for the Bodhisattvas of the Earth, as written in the Lotus Sutra:

Moreover... all the bodhisattvas, Bodhisattva Maitreya... will guard and protect the votaries of the Lotus Sutra, so one may indeed rest assured.[22]

In much of his writing, Nichiren mentions the traditional Buddhist views on Maitreya but explains that the propagation of the Eternal Dharma of the Lotus Sutra was entrusted by Shakyamuni to the Bodhisattvas of earth:

The Buddha did not entrust these five characters to Maitreya, Medicine King, or the others of their group. Instead he summoned forth the bodhisattvas... from the great earth of Tranquil Light and transferred the five characters to them.[23]

Thus, each individual can embody the character of the Maitreya because he is a metaphor for compassion:

The name Maitreya means ‘Compassionate One’ and designates the Votaries of the Lotus Sutra.[24]

Maitreya claimants

Main article: List of Buddha claimants

Statue of Maitreya Buddha in Patan Museum, Kathmandu, Nepal
Statue of Maitreya Buddha in Patan Museum, Kathmandu, Nepal
Close-up of a statue depicting Maitreya at the Thikse Monastery in Ladakh, India. Depictions of Maitreya vary among Buddhist sects.
Close-up of a statue depicting Maitreya at the Thikse Monastery in Ladakh, India. Depictions of Maitreya vary among Buddhist sects.

The following list is just a small selection of those people who claimed or claim to be the incarnation of Maitreya. Many have either used the Maitreya incarnation claim to form a new Buddhist sect or have used the name of Maitreya to form a new religious movement or cult.

Maitreya sects in China

Seated stone-carved Maitreya, Leshan Giant Buddha in Sichuan, China
Seated stone-carved Maitreya, Leshan Giant Buddha in Sichuan, China

Pre-Maitreyan Buddhist messianic rebellions

Southern and Northern Dynasties

Using drugs to send its members into a killing frenzy, and promoting them to Tenth-Stage Bodhisattva as soon as they killed ten enemies, the sect seized a prefecture and murdered all the government officials in it. Their slogan was "A new Buddha has entered the world; eradicate the demons of the former age", and they would kill all monks and nuns in the monasteries that they captured, also burning all the sutras and icons. After defeating a government army and growing to a size of over 50,000, the rebel army was finally crushed by another government army of 100,000. Faqing, his wife, and tens of thousands of his followers were beheaded, and Li Guibo was also captured later and publicly executed in the capital city Luoyang.
The Fozu Tongji (Comprehensive Records of the Buddha), a chronicle of Buddhist history written by the monk Zhipan in 1269, also contains an account of the Rebellion, but with significant deviations from the original account, such as dating the rebellion to 528 rather than 515.[38]

Although a "new Buddha" was mentioned, these rebellions are not considered "Maitreyan" by modern scholars.[38] However, they would be a later influence on the rebel religious leaders that made such claims. Therefore, it is important to mention these rebellions in this context.

Maitreyan rebellions

Main article: Maitreya teachings

Sui Dynasty

Tang Dynasty

Song Dynasty

Yuan and Ming Dynasty

The leader of White Lotus sect, Han Shantong called himself Ming Wang (明王 – "King of Brightness"), while his son, Han Lin'er called himself Xiao Ming Wang (小明王 – "Small King of Brightness"), both names reflecting the sect's beliefs. Zhu Yuanzhang had been a member of the White Lotus Sect, and admitted to have been a branch of the White Lotus rebel army (being at one time vice-marshal of Xiao Ming Wang). When Zhu Yuanzhang took power, he chose the dynastic name "Ming".[41]

This suggests that the Ming dynasty was named after the White Lotus figures of the "Big and Little Bright Kings".

Qing Dynasty

The Yi He Tuan (義和團), often called in English the "Society of Harmonious Fists" was a 19th-century martial-sect inspired in part by the White Lotus Society. Members of the "Harmonious Fists" became known as "Boxers" in the west because they practiced Chinese martial arts.[citation needed]

Albeit not in the name of Maitreya, both rebellions were perpetrated solely or in part by the White Lotus Society, a rebellious Maitreya sect.[citation needed]

Speculation

Some have speculated that inspiration for Maitreya may have come from Mithra, the ancient Indo-Iranian deity. The primary comparison between the two characters appears to be the similarity of their names, while a secondary comparison is that both were expected to come in the future.[43]

Paul Williams claims that some Zoroastrian ideas like Saoshyant influenced the beliefs about Maitreya, such as "expectations of a heavenly helper, the need to opt for positive righteousness, the future millennium, and universal salvation". Possible objections are that these characteristics are not unique to Zoroastrianism, nor are they necessarily characteristic of the belief in Maitreya.[citation needed]

It is also possible that Maitreya Buddha originated with the Hindu Kalki, and that its similarities with the Iranian Mithra have to do with their common Indo-Iranian origin.[citation needed]

Non-Buddhist views

Theosophy

In Theosophy, the Maitreya (or Lord Maitreya) has multiple aspects signifying not just the future Buddha, but similar concepts from other religious or spiritual traditions.[44]

In early 20th century, leading Theosophists became convinced that an appearance of the Maitreya as a "World Teacher" was imminent. A South Indian boy, Jiddu Krishnamurti, was thought to be destined as the "vehicle" of the soon-to-manifest Maitreya; however the manifestation did not happen as predicted, and did not fulfil Theosophists' expectations.[45]

Post-theosophical movements

Since the growth of the theosophical movement in the 19th century, and influenced by theosophy's articulations on the Maitreya, non-Buddhist religious and spiritual movements have adopted and reinterpreted the concept in their doctrines. Share International, which equates Maitreya with the prophesied figures of multiple religious traditions, claims that he is already present in the world, but is preparing to make an open declaration of his presence in the near future. They claim that he is here to inspire mankind to create a new era based on sharing and justice.[46]

In the beginning of the 1930s, the Ascended Master Teachings placed Maitreya in the "Office of World Teacher" until 1956, when he was described as moving on to the "Office of Planetary Buddha" and "Cosmic Christ" in their concept of a Spiritual Hierarchy.[citation needed]

In 1911, Rudolf Steiner claimed "Roughly three thousand years after our time the world will experience the Maitreya Buddha incarnation, which will be the last incarnation of Jeshu ben Pandira. This Bodhisattva, who will come as Maitreya Buddha, will also come in a physical body in our century in his reincarnation in the flesh — but not as Buddha — and he will make it his task to give humanity all the true concepts about the Christ Event." Steiner is careful to distinguish Jeshu ben Pandira as somebody entirely distinct from Jesus of Nazareth, as the Maitreya is entirely distinct from the Christ being. The Maitreya does work in support of the Christ being, as does Gautama, the current Buddha.[47]

Ahmadiyya

The Ahmadiyyas believe Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (1835–1908) fulfilled expectations regarding the Maitreya Buddha.[48] The founder has given the whole account about the truth of forthcoming of Jesus Christ and his travel via Tibet & the transformation of word “Masiha” to “Metteyya” in one of his Prolific writings “Jesus in India” (Maseeh Hindustan Mai).

Baháʼí Faith

See also: Baháʼí Faith and Buddhism

Followers of the Baháʼí Faith believe that Bahá'u'lláh is the fulfillment of the prophecy of appearance of Maitreya, the fifth Buddha.[49][50] Baháʼís believe that the prophecy that Maitreya will usher in a new society of tolerance and love has been fulfilled by Bahá'u'lláh's teachings on world peace.[49]

Islam

Islamic prophet Dhu al-Kifl has been identified with the Buddha based on Surah 95:1 of the Qur'an, which references a fig tree – a symbol that does not feature prominently in the lives of any of the other prophets mentioned in the Qur'an. It has meanwhile been suggested that the name Al-Kifl could be a reference to Kapilavastu, the home of Siddartha Gautama as a boy.[51] On the other hand, some of the preachers of Islam cite Buddhist sources to claim that "Maitreya" refers to Islamic Prophet Muhammad. The Muslim Times website, for example, cites The Gospel of Buddha by Carus with the following quote of Buddha:

I am not the first Buddha who came upon the earth, nor shall I be the last. In due time anothr Buddha will arise in the world, a holy one, a supremely enlightened one, endowed with wisdom in conduct, auspicious, knowing the universe, an incomparable leader of men, a master of angels and mortals. He will reveal to you the same eternal truths which I have taught you. He will preach his religion, glorious in its origin, glorious at the climax, and, glorious at the goal. He will proclaim a religious life, wholly perfect a pure, such as I now proclaim. His disciples will number many thousand, while mine number many hundred... he will be known Maitreya.[52]

Korean shamanism

Main article: Korean creation narratives

In many East Asian folk religions, including Korean shamanism, a deity by the name of Maitreya appears as an ancient creator god or goddess. A malevolent usurper deity by the name of Shakyamuni (the historical Buddha[clarification needed]) claims dominion over Maitreya's world, and the two engage in a flower-growing contest to decide who will rule the world. Maitreya grows the flower while Shakyamuni cannot, but the usurper steals it while the creator sleeps. Shakyamuni thus becomes the ruler of the world and brings suffering and evil to the world.[53]

Gallery

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Anāgatavamsa
  2. ^ a b Horner (1975), The minor anthologies of the Pali canon, p. 97. Regarding Metteyya, Bv XXVII, 19: "I [Gautama Buddha] at the present time am the Self-Awakened One, and there will be Metteyya...."
  3. ^ a b Buddha Dharma Education Association (2014). "Suttanta Pitaka: Khuddaka Nikāya: 14.Buddhavamsa-History of the Buddhas". Guide to Tipiṭaka. Tullera, NSW, Australia: Buddha Dharma Education Association. Retrieved 2014-12-21.
  4. ^ "Maitreya | Buddhism | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 2022-04-16.
  5. ^ Richard Gombrich, Theravada Buddhism: A Social History from Ancient Benares to Modern Colombo. Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1988, pages 83–85.
  6. ^ Angela Falco Howard et al., Chinese Sculpture, Yale University Press, 2006, p. 228
  7. ^ 中國早期的彌勒信仰 (PDF) (in Chinese), TW: TT034, archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-12-30
  8. ^ (Trans. in Conze 1959:241
  9. ^ 古代维吾尔语说唱文学《弥勒会见记》
  10. ^ "The Maitreya-samiti and Khotanese" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on November 14, 2012.
  11. ^ "网络维护中 | Under Maintenance". 202.120.224.125.
  12. ^ "The Teaching of the Elders – Thera-vada: 'Anagatavamsa Desana".
  13. ^ "《彌勒上生經》與《彌勒下生經》簡介" (PDF).
  14. ^ Arch. orient. Nakl. Ceskoslovenské akademie věd. 2003. pp. 254, 261. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
  15. ^ Roerich, Nicholas (2003). Shambhala. Vedams eBooks (P) Ltd. p. 65. ISBN 978-81-7936-012-5. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
  16. ^ "Chapter 36: The Buddhas in the three periods of time". Buddhism in a Nutshell Archives. Hong Kong: Buddhistdoor International. Retrieved 2014-12-21.
  17. ^ Buswell, RE Jr.; Lopez, DS Jr. (2014). The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism (1st ed.). Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-691-15786-3.
  18. ^ Buswell, RE Jr.; Lopez, DS Jr. (2014). The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism (1st ed.). Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. p. 776. ISBN 978-0-691-15786-3.
  19. ^ Vipassana.info, Pali Proper Names Dictionary: Metteyya
  20. ^ John S. Strong (2007). Relics of the Buddha. p. 220. ISBN 978-0-691-11764-5.
  21. ^ Stuart, Daniel M. (2017). The Stream of Deathless Nectar: The Short Recension of the Amatarasadhārā of the Elder Upatissa, A Commentary on the Chronicle of the Future Buddha Metteyya, With a Historical Introduction (PDF). Bangkok and Lumbini: The Fragile Palm Leaves Foundation and The Lumbini International Research Institute. pp. 122 and 232. ISBN 9-788880-010951.
  22. ^ "SGI Library Online – The Writings of Nichiren Daishonin". Sgilibrary.org. Archived from the original on 2012-03-18. Retrieved 2012-08-15.
  23. ^ "SGI Library Online – The Writings of Nichiren Daishonin". Sgilibrary.org. Archived from the original on 2012-03-18. Retrieved 2012-08-15.
  24. ^ The Record of Orally Transmitted Teachings p 143.Translated by Burton Watson
  25. ^ a b c Notable Maitreyan Rebellions, FYSM068—Collective Violence and Traumatic Memory in Asia. 16 October 2005. Retrieved 29 November 2006.
  26. ^ Tang Dynasty Empire 618–906, SAN-BECK. Retrieved 29 November 2006.
  27. ^ Buck, Christopher (2004). The eschatology of Globalization: The multiple-messiahship of Baha'u'llah revisited. ISBN 90-04-13904-4.
  28. ^ Carolyn Lee (2003). Adi Da: The Promised God-Man Is Here by The Ruchira Sannyasin Order of Adidam Ruchiradam. ISBN 1-57097-143-9.
  29. ^ Fitzgerald, Timothy (2003). The Ideology of Religious Studies. Oxford University Press. p. 129. ISBN 978-0-19-534715-9.
  30. ^ Bose, M.B. (2017). Tereza Kuldova and Mathew A. Varghese (ed.). Urban Utopias: Excess and Expulsion in Neoliberal South Asia. Springer. pp. 144–146. ISBN 978-3-319-47623-0.
  31. ^ Powell, Robert; Isaacson, Estelle (2013). Gautama Buddha's Successor. SteinerBooks. ISBN 978-1-58420-162-5. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  32. ^ Roerich, Elena Ivanovna (1987). Letters, 1929-1938. Agni Yoga Society. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  33. ^ Plott, John C.; Dolin, James Michael; Hatton, Russell E. (1977). Global History of Philosophy: The period of scholasticism. Motilal Banarsidass Publishe. p. 358. ISBN 978-0-89581-678-8. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  34. ^ Lawrence, Troy (1990). New Age Messiah identified: who is Lord Maitreya? : Tara Center's "mystery man" alive and living in London. Huntington House Publishers. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-910311-17-5. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
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Further reading