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Hebei
河北
Name transcription(s)
 • Chinese河北省 (Héběi Shěng)
 • AbbreviationHE / HEB / (pinyin: )
20090529 Great Wall Jinshanling 0903 8233.jpg
Beidaihe, Qinhuangdao, Hebei, China - panoramio (61).jpg
Chengde Mountain Resort 3.jpg
Fuqing Temple, Cangyan Mountain, Hebei.jpg
Puning Temple, Place in front of hall of Mahayana.jpg
Map showing the location of Hebei Province
Map showing the location of Hebei Province
Coordinates: 39°18′N 116°42′E / 39.3°N 116.7°E / 39.3; 116.7Coordinates: 39°18′N 116°42′E / 39.3°N 116.7°E / 39.3; 116.7
CountryChina
Named for —"(Yellow) River"
běi—"north"
"north of the Yellow River"
Capital
(and largest city)
Baoding (1729–1913, 1935–1937, 1946–1947, 1949–1958, 1966–1968)
Beijing (1928–1930, 1945–1946, 1947–1949)
Tianjin (1870–1902, 1913–1928, 1930–1935, 1958–1966)
Shijiazhuang (1968–present)
Divisions11 prefectures, 121 counties, 2207 townships
Government
 • TypeProvince
 • BodyHebei Provincial People's Congress
 • CCP SecretaryNi Yuefeng
 • Congress chairmanWang Dongfeng
 • GovernorWang Zhengpu
 • CPPCC chairmanYe Dongsong
Area
 • Total188,800 km2 (72,900 sq mi)
 • Rank12th
Highest elevation2,882 m (9,455 ft)
Population
 (2020)[2]
 • Total74,610,235
 • Rank6th
 • Density400/km2 (1,000/sq mi)
  • Rank11th
Demographics
 • Ethnic compositionHan: 96%
Manchu: 3%
Hui: 0.8%
Mongol: 0.3%
 • Languages and dialectsJilu Mandarin, Beijing Mandarin, Jin
ISO 3166 codeCN-HE
GDP (2020)CNY 3.620 trillion
USD 524 billion (12th)[3]
 - per capitaCNY 48,528
USD 7,033 (25th)
 • growthIncrease 3.9%
HDI (2019)Increase 0.738[4]
high · 20th
Websitewww.hebei.gov.cn
Hebei
Hebei (Chinese characters).svg
"Hebei" in Chinese characters
Chinese河北
PostalHopeh
Literal meaning"North of the (Yellow) River"
Abbreviation
Chinese
Literal meaning[an ancient province in modern southern Hebei]
Zhili Province
Traditional Chinese直隸
Simplified Chinese直隶省
Literal meaning"Directly ruled"

Hebei UK: /ˌhɜːˈb/[5] or /həˈb/,[6] UK: /ˈhʌˈb/[7] (Chinese: 河北; lit. 'River North'; alternately Hopeh) is a northern province of China. Hebei is China's sixth most populous province, with over 75 million people. Shijiazhuang is the capital city. The province is 96% Han Chinese, 3% Manchu, 0.8% Hui, and 0.3% Mongol. Three Mandarin dialects are spoken: Jilu Mandarin, Beijing Mandarin and Jin.

Hebei borders the provinces of Shanxi to the west, Henan to the south, Shandong to the southeast, Liaoning to the northeast, and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region to the north. Its economy is based on agriculture and manufacturing. The province is China's premier steel producer, although the steel industry creates serious air pollution.[8][9][10]

Five UNESCO World Heritage Sites can be found in the province, the: Great Wall of China, Chengde Mountain Resort, Grand Canal, Eastern Qing tombs, and Western Qing tombs. It is also home to five National Famous Historical and Cultural Cities: Handan, Baoding, Chengde, Zhengding and Shanhaiguan.

Historically, during the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period, the region was ruled by the Chinese Yan and Zhao states. During the Yuan dynasty, the region was called the Zhongshu Province. It was called North Zhili during the Ming dynasty, and Zhili Province during the Qing dynasty. The modern-day province of Hebei was created in 1928.

Etymology

Hebei Province received its name from its location in the North China Plain, north of the Yellow River.[11][12] Hebei means "north of the river".[13][14] Since the province is recorded in Yu Gong as Ji Province, or Jizhou, it is abbreviated as Ji (Chinese: ).

The province's nickname is Yanzhao (Chinese: ), which is the collective name of the Yan and Zhao states that controlled the region during the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period.[15] In 1421, the Yongle Emperor moved the capital from Nanjing to Beijing and the province started to be called North Zhili (Chinese: ) or Zhili (Chinese: ), which means "Directly Ruled (by the Imperial Court)".[16][17] When Nanjing became the capital of the Republic of China in 1928, the Zhili province was abolished and given its present name, Hebei.[18]

History

Pre and early history

Peking man, an early a pre-historic Homo erectus, lived on the plains of Hebei around 200,000 to 700,000 years ago. Neolithic findings at the prehistoric Beifudi site date to 7000 and 8000 BC.[19]

Many early Chinese myths are set in the province. Fuxi, one of the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors, is said to have lived in present-day Xingtai.[20] The mythical Battle of Zhuolu, won by the Yellow Emperor, Yan Emperor, and their Yanhuang tribes against the Chiyou-led Jiuli tribes, took place in Zhangjiakou and started the Huaxia civilization.

During the Spring and Autumn period (722 BC–476 BC), Hebei was under the rule of Yan in the north and Jin in the south. Also during this period, a nomadic people known as invaded the plains of northern China and established Zhongshan in central Hebei. In the Warring States period (403 BC–221 BC), Jin was partitioned and much of its territory in Hebei went to Zhao.

Qin and Han dynasties

The Qin dynasty unified China in 221 BC. The Han dynasty (206 BC–220 AD) ruled the area under two provinces, You Prefecture in the north and Ji Province in the south. At the end of the Han dynasty, most of Hebei was under the control of warlords Gongsun Zan in the north and Yuan Shao further south. Yuan Shao emerged as the victor of the two, but he was defeated by Cao Cao in the Battle of Guandu in 200. Hebei came under the rule of the Kingdom of Wei, established by the descendants of Cao Cao.

Jin through the Three Kingdoms

After the invasions of northern nomadic peoples at the end of the Western Jin dynasty, chaos ensued in the Sixteen Kingdoms and the Northern and Southern dynasties. Because of its location on the northern frontier, Hebei changed hands many times and was controlled at various times by Later Zhao, Former Yan, Former Qin, and Later Yan. The Northern Wei reunified northern China in 440 but split in 534, with Hebei coming under Eastern Wei; then the Northern Qi, with its capital at Ye near modern Linzhang, Hebei. The Sui dynasty again unified China in 589.

Tricolor Duck-Shaped Cup, Tang dynasty, unearthed from Anxin County
Tricolor Duck-Shaped Cup, Tang dynasty, unearthed from Anxin County

Tang and Five dynasties

During the Tang dynasty (618–907), the area was officially called Hebei for the first time. During the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, Hebei was fragmented among several regimes. It was eventually unified by Li Cunxu, who established the Later Tang (923–936). Emperor Gaozu of the Later Jin dynasty ceded much of northern Hebei to the Khitan Liao dynasty. This territory, called the Sixteen Prefectures of Yanyun, became a weakness in the Chinese defense against the Khitans for the next century because it lay within the Great Wall.

Song through Yuan dynasties

During the Northern Song dynasty (960–1127), the sixteen ceded prefectures continued to be an area of contention between Song China and the Liao dynasty. Later, the Southern Song dynasty abandoned all of North China, including Hebei, to the Jurchen Jin dynasty after the 1127 Jingkang Incident of the Jin–Song wars. Hebei was heavily affected by the flooding of the Yellow River; between 1048 and 1128, the river ran directly through the province rather than to its south.[21]

The Mongol Yuan dynasty divided China into provinces but did not establish Hebei as a province. Instead, the area was directly administrated by the Secretariat at the capital Dadu.

Ming and Qing dynasties

The Ming dynasty ruled Hebei as Beizhili, meaning Northern Directly Ruled because the area contained and was directly ruled by the imperial capital in Beijing. The "Northern" designation was used because there was a southern counterpart covering present-day Jiangsu and Anhui. When the Manchu Qing dynasty came to power in 1644, they abolished the southern counterpart, and Hebei became known as Zhili or Directly Ruled. During the Qing dynasty, the northern borders of Zhili extended deep into Inner Mongolia and overlapped in jurisdiction with the leagues of Inner Mongolia.

Republic of China

Hebei in 2022
Hebei in 2022

The Qing dynasty collapsed in 1912 and was replaced by the Republic of China. In a few years, China descended into a civil war, with regional warlords vying for power. Since Zhili was so close to the capital of Peking (Beijing), it was the site of the Zhiwan War, the First Zhifeng War, and the Second Zhifeng War. With the success of the Northern Expedition in 1926 and 1927 by the Kuomintang, the capital was moved from Peking to Nanking (Nanjing). As a result, the provence's name was changed to Hebei, reflecting the relocation of the capital and its standard provincial administration.

During the World War II, Hebei was under the control of the Reorganized National Government of the Republic of China, a puppet state of Imperial Japan.

People's Republic of China

The founding of the People's Republic of China saw several changes. The region around Chengde, previously part of Rehe Province (historically part of Manchuria), and the region around Zhangjiakou, previously part of Chahar Province (historically part of Inner Mongolia), were merged into Hebei. This extended its borders northwards beyond the Great Wall. Meanwhile, the city of Puyang was carved away, causing Hebei to lose access to the Yellow River. The city became part of the short-lived Pingyuan Province before eventually being annexed into Henan.[22]

The capital was also moved from Baoding to the new city of Shijiazhuang, and, for a short period, to Tianjin. On July 28, 1976, Tangshan was struck by the Tangshan earthquake, the deadliest earthquake of the 20th century, killing over 240,000 people. There were a series of smaller earthquakes in the following decade.

Today, Hebei, along with Beijing and Tianjin municipalities which it includes, make up the Jing-Jin-Ji megalopolis region. With a population of 130 million, it is about six times the size of the New York metropolitan area and is one of the largest megalopolis clusters in China.[23] Beijing had also unloaded some of its non-capital functions to the province with the establishment of the Xiong'an New Area, which integrates the three municipalities.[24]

Langyashan (Wolf Tooth Mountain), in Yi County
Langyashan (Wolf Tooth Mountain), in Yi County
Bashang Meadows in Fengning County
Bashang Meadows in Fengning County

Geography

Hebei is the only province in China to contain plateaus, mountains, hills, shorelines, plains, and lakes.[25] Most of central and southern Hebei lies within the North China Plain. Western Hebei rises into the Taihang Mountains (Taihang Shan), while the Yan Mountains (Yan Shan) runs through northern Hebei. Beyond the mountains are the grasslands of Inner Mongolia. The highest peak is Mount Xiaowutai in Yu County in the northwest of the province, with an altitude of 2,882 m (9,455 ft).[1]

Hebei borders the Bohai Sea on the east. The Hai River watershed covers most of the province's central and southern parts; the Luan River watershed covers the northeast. Excluding manmade reservoirs, the largest lake in Hebei is Baiyangdian, located in Anxin County, Baoding.

Major cities in Hebei include: Shijiazhuang, Baoding, Tangshan, Qinhuangdao, Handan, and Zhangjiakou.

Hebei has a monsoon-influenced humid continental climate. Its winters are cold and dry winters, while its summers are hot and humid. Temperatures average −16 to −3 °C (3 to 27 °F) in January and 20 to 27 °C (68 to 81 °F) in July. The annual precipitation ranges from 400 to 800 mm (16 to 31 in), concentrated heavily in summer.

Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected locations in Hebei Province, China[26][27][28][29]
City July (°C) July (°F) January (°C) January (°F)
Baoding 31.7/22.6 89.1/72.7 2.5/–7.7 36.5/18.1
Qinhuangdao 28.1/21.7 82.6/71.1 0.1/–8.8 32.2/16.2
Tangshan 30.2/21.7 86.4/71.1 0.9/–10.2 33.6/13.6
Zhangjiakou 29.4/18.7 84.9/65.7 2.2/–12.9 36.0/8.8

Government

Main articles: Politics of Hebei and List of provincial leaders of the People's Republic of China

The politics of Hebei is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China. The Governor of Hebei is the highest-ranking official in the People's Government of Hebei. However, in the province's dual party-government governing system, the governor has less power than the Hebei Chinese Communist Party Provincial Committee Secretary (CCP Party Chief).

Administrative divisions

Main articles: List of administrative divisions of Hebei and List of township-level divisions of Hebei

Hebei has eleven prefecture-level divisions. All are prefecture-level cities:

Administrative divisions of Hebei
Division code[30] Division Area in km2[31] Population 2010[32] Seat Divisions[33]
Districts Counties Aut. counties CL cities
130000 Hebei Province 18,770 71,854,202 Shijiazhuang city 49 91 6 21
130100 Shijiazhuang city 15,848 9,547,869 Chang'an District 8 11 3
130200 Tangshan city 14,334.59 7,577,284 Lunan District 7 4 3
130300 Qinhuangdao city 7791.57 2,987,605 Haigang District 4 2 1
130400 Handan city 12,066 9,174,679 Congtai District 6 11 1
130500 Xingtai city 12,433 7,104,114 Xindu District 4 12 2
130600 Baoding city 22,185 10,029,197 Jingxiu District 5 15 4
130700 Zhangjiakou city 36,861.55 4,345,491 Qiaoxi District 6 10
130800 Chengde city 39512.98 3,473,197 Shuangqiao District 3 4 3 1
130900 Cangzhou city 14,305.28 7,134,053 Yunhe District 2 9 1 4
131000 Langfang city 6,417.29 4,358,839 Anci District 2 5 1 2
131100 Hengshui city 8,836.90 4,340,773 Taocheng District 2 8 1

These eleven prefecture-level divisions are subdivided into 168 county-level divisions (47 districts, 21 county-level cities, 94 counties and 6 autonomous counties). Those are, in turn, divided into 2207 township-level divisions (1 district public office, 937 towns, 979 townships, 55 ethnic townships, and 235 subdistricts). At the end of 2017, the total population of Hebei was 75.2 million.[34]

Urban areas

Population by urban areas of prefecture and county cities
# City Urban area[35] District area[35] City proper[35] Census date Notes
1 Shijiazhuang 2,770,344 2,834,942 10,163,788 2010-11-01 [a]
(1) Shijiazhuang (new districts) 461,738 1,208,046 see Shijiazhuang 2010-11-01 [a]
2 Tangshan 2,128,191 3,187,171 7,577,289 2010-11-01 [b]
(2) Tangshan (new district) 109,126 184,931 see Tangshan 2010-11-01 [b]
3 Handan 1,316,674 1,445,338 9,174,683 2010-11-01 [c]
(3) Handan (new districts) 627,869 1,757,637 see Handan 2010-11-01 [c]
4 Baoding 1,038,195 1,138,521 11,194,382 2010-11-01 [d]
(4) Baoding (new districts) 459,153 1,377,399 see Baoding 2010-11-01 [d]
(4) Baoding Xiong'an 405,661 1,055,063 see Baoding 2010-11-01 [e]
5 Qinhuangdao 967,877 1,029,670 2,987,605 2010-11-01 [f]
(5) Qinhuangdao (new district) 120,710 517,073 see Qinhuangdao 2010-11-01 [f]
6 Zhangjiakou 924,628 1,060,605 4,345,485 2010-11-01 [g]
(6) Zhangjiakou (new districts) 209,414 591,334 see Zhangjiakou 2010-11-01 [g]
7 Xingtai 668,765 670,154 7,104,103 2010-11-01
8 Chengde 540,390 634,229 3,473,201 2010-11-01
9 Langfang 530,840 868,066 4,358,839 2010-11-01
10 Cangzhou 499,411 536,795 7,134,062 2010-11-01
11 Dingzhou 482,121 1,165,182 see Baoding 2010-11-01
12 Renqiu 430,896 822,455 see Cangzhou 2010-11-01
13 Hengshui 389,447 522,147 4,340,773 2010-11-01 [h]
(13) Hengshui (new district) 165,363 362,013 see Hengshui 2010-11-01 [h]
14 Sanhe 386,902 652,042 see Langfang 2010-11-01
15 Qian'an 308,849 728,160 see Tangshan 2010-11-01
16 Zunhua 299,759 737,011 see Tangshan 2010-11-01
17 Huanghua 296,978 548,507 see Cangzhou 2010-11-01
18 Wu'an 293,151 819,000 see Handan 2010-11-01
19 Bazhou 291,710 622,975 see Langfang 2010-11-01
20 Gaobeidian 274,853 323,671 see Baoding 2010-11-01
21 Zhuozhou 260,493 303,125 see Baoding 2010-11-01
22 Botou 258,203 584,308 see Cangzhou 2010-11-01
23 Hejian 243,458 810,306 see Cangzhou 2010-11-01
24 Xinji 236,658 615,919 see Shijiazhuang 2010-11-01
25 Shahe 218,958 498,416 see Xingtai 2010-11-01
(26) Luanzhou 208,212 554,315 see Tangshan 2010-11-01 [i]
27 Shenzhou 207,945 566,087 see Hengshui 2010-11-01
28 Xinle 194,480 487,652 see Shijiazhuang 2010-11-01
29 Nangong 188,260 469,030 see Xingtai 2010-11-01
30 Jinzhou 160,284 537,679 see Shijiazhuang 2010-11-01
(31) Pingquan 136,401 229,622 see Chengde 2010-11-01 [j]
32 Anguo 135,524 185,386 see Baoding 2010-11-01

Notes

  1. ^ a b New districts established after census: Gaocheng (Gaocheng CLC), Luquan (Luquan CLC). These new districts are not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  2. ^ a b New district established after census: Caofeidian (Tanghai County). The new district is not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  3. ^ a b New districts established after census: Yongnian (Yongnian County), Feixiang (Feixiang County); Handan County merged into Hanshan & Congtai. These new districts are not included in the urban area and district area count.
  4. ^ a b New districts established after census: Mancheng (Mancheng County), Qingyuan (Qingyuan County), Xushui (Xushui County). These new districts are not included in the urban area and district area count.
  5. ^ Xiong'an New Area is a special urban area jurisdiction consisting of Rongcheng County, Anxin County, & Xiongxian County established after the census.
  6. ^ a b New district established after census: Funing (Funing County). The new district is not included in the urban area and district area count.
  7. ^ a b New districts established after census: Wanquan (Wanquan County), Chongli (Chongli County); Xuanhua County merged into Xuanhua. These new districts are not included in the urban area and district area count.
  8. ^ a b New district established after census: Jizhou (Jizhou CLC). The new district is not included in the urban area and district area count.
  9. ^ Luanxian County is currently known as Luanzhou CLC after the census.
  10. ^ Pingquan County is currently known as Pingquan CLC after the census.
 
 
Most populous cities in Hebei
Source: China Urban Construction Statistical Yearbook 2018 Urban Population and Urban Temporary Population[36]
Rank Pop. Rank Pop.
Shijiazhuang

Shijiazhuang
Handan

Handan
1 Shijiazhuang 2,843,100 11 Chengde 597,800
Tangshan

Tangshan
Baoding

Baoding
2 Handan 2,044,000 12 Dingzhou 416,100
3 Tangshan 2,041,700 13 Renqiu 368,500
4 Baoding 1,730,000 14 Qian'an 350,000
5 Qinhuangdao 1,338,600 15 Zhuozhou 277,800
6 Zhangjiakou 1,072,200 16 Luanzhou 273,000
7 Xingtai 936,800 17 Wu'an 248,300
8 Cangzhou 648,800 18 Zunhua 243,300
9 Hengshui 643,400 19 Sanhe 218,700
10 Langfang 608,400 20 Xinji 211,300

Economy

In 2014, Hebei's gross domestic product (GDP} was 2.942 trillion yuan (US$479 billion).[37] It is ranked sixth in the PRC, with its GDP per capita reaching 40,124 renminbi. As of 2011, the primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors of industry contributed 203.46 billion, 877.74 billion, and 537.66 billion RMB respectively. The registered urban unemployment rate was 3.96%.

Hebei's industries include textiles, coal, steel, iron, engineering, chemical production, petroleum, power, ceramics, and food. 40% of Hebei's labor force works in the agriculture, forestry, and animal husbandry sectors, with the majority of production from these industries going to Beijing and Tianjin. Hebei's main agricultural products are cereal crops, including wheat, maize, millet, and sorghum. Cash crops like cotton, peanut, soybeans and sesame are also produced.

Hebei has abundant natural resources. The Kailuan mine in Tangshan, with a history of over 100 years, is one of China's first modern coal mines. It remains active, with an annual production of over 20 million metric tonnes. Much of the North China Oilfied is within Hebei. There are major iron mines at Handan and Qian'an. Iron and steel manufacturing are the largest industries in Hebei.

Economic and technological development zones

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1912[38] 26,658,000—    
1928[39] 31,232,000+0.99%
1936–37[40] 28,644,000−1.08%
1947[41] 28,719,000+0.02%
1954[42] 35,984,644+3.27%
1964[43] 45,687,781+2.42%
1982[44] 53,005,876+0.83%
1990[45] 61,082,439+1.79%
2000[46] 66,684,419+0.88%
2010[47] 71,854,202+0.75%
2020[48] 74,610,235+0.38%
Hebei Province was known as Zhili Province until 1928.
Beijing was part of Hebei Province[16] until 1928.
Tainjin was part of Hebei Province until 1928 and from 1954 to 1967.
Rehe Province dissolved in 1955. Parts of it were incorporated into Hebei Province.
Qahar Province dissolved in 1952. Parts of it were incorporated into Hebei Province.

Demographics

The population in Hebei is mostly Han Chinese. There are 55 ethnic minorities in Hebei, representing 4.27% of the total population. The largest ethnic groups are Manchu (2.1 million people), Hui (600,000 people), and Mongol (180,000 people).[49] Population totals do not include those in active service with the People's Liberation Army.[50]

Ethnic groups in Hebei, 2000 census
Nationality Population Percentage
Han Chinese 63,781,603 95.65%
Manchu 2,118,711 3.18%
Hui 542,639 0.78%
Mongol 169,887 0.26%
Zhuang 20,832 0.031%

In 2019, the birth rate was 10.83 births per 1,000 people, while the death rate was 6.12 deaths per 1,000 people.[51] The male population is 37,679,003 (50.50%), the female population is 36,931,232 (49.50%). The gender ratio of the total population was 102.02, decreasing by 0.82 from 2010.[52]

Religion

Religion in Hebei[53][note 1]

  Deity worshippers, Taoists, Buddhists, Confucians, folk religious sects, or not religious people (90.61%)
  Christianity (3.05%)
  Islam (0.82%)

The dominant religions in Hebei are Chinese folk religions, Taoist traditions, and Chinese Buddhism. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 5.52% of the population believe in and are involved in ancestor veneration, while 3.05% identify as Christian, belonging mostly to the Catholic Church.[53] As of 2010 Muslims constitute 0.82% of the population of Hebei.[54]

Although the surveys did not provide specific data for other religions, 90.61% of the population are either nonreligious or are involved in worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, and folk religious sects. Zailiism is a folk religious sect that originated in Hebei. Local worship of deities organized into benevolent churches in reaction to Catholicism in the Qing dynasty.

The giant Bodhisattva statue of Puning Temple
Great Temple of Zhang Hui, the central ancestral shrine of the Zhang lineage, in Qinghe

Hebei has the largest Catholic population in China, with one million members and 1.5 million Catholics according to the Catholic Church.[55][56] In 1900, apparition of the Virgin Mary was said have appeared in the town of Donglu in Baoding. As a result, Donglu is "one of the strongholds of the unofficial Catholic Church in China".[57] Many Catholics in Hebei remain loyal to the Pope and reject the authority of the Catholic Patriotic Church. Four of Hebei's underground bishops have been imprisoned in recent years: Bishop Francis An Shuxin of Donglu since 1996; Bishop James Su Zhimin since October 1997; Bishop Han Dingxiang of Yongnian who died in prison in 2007, and Bishop Julius Jia Zhiguo of Zhengding since late 1999.[55][58]

The Lingxiao Pagoda of Zhengding, Hebei Province, built in AD 1045 during the Song dynasty
The Lingxiao Pagoda of Zhengding, Hebei Province, built in AD 1045 during the Song dynasty

Culture

Language

People speak dialects of Mandarin across the Hebei, with most classified as part of the Ji Lu Mandarin subdivision of Chinese. Along the western border with Shanxi, dialects are distinct enough for linguists to consider them as part of Jin, another subdivision of Chinese. In general, the dialects of Hebei are similar to the Beijing dialect, which forms the basis for Standard Chinese and the official language of the nation. However, there are also some distinct differences, such as the pronunciation of some words, made by entering tone syllables (syllables ending on a plosive) in Middle Chinese.[59]

Arts

A Ding ware bowl
A Ding ware bowl

Traditional forms of Chinese opera in Hebei include Pingju, Hebei Bangzi (Hebei Clapper Opera), and Cangzhou Kuaiban Dagu. Pingju is especially popular because it tends to use colloquial language which is easier for audiences to understand. Originating from northeastern Hebei, Pingju was influenced by other forms of Chinese opera such as Beijing opera. Traditionally Pingju has a xiaosheng (young male lead), a xiaodan (young female lead), and a xiaohualian (young comic character), though it has diversified to include other roles.[60]

Quyang County, in central Hebei, is noted for Ding ware, a type of Chinese ceramics which includes various vessels such as bowls, plates, vases, and cups, as well as figurines. Ding ware is usually creamy white, though it is also made in other colors.

Hejian-styled donkey burger
Hejian-styled donkey burger

Cuisine

Hebei cuisine is typically based on wheat, mutton, and beans. The donkey burger, originating from the cities of Baoding and Hejian, Cangzhou, is a staple in provincial cuisine and has spread into the two municipalities. Other dishes include local variants of shaobing.

Entertainment

Beidaihe, located near Shanhaiguan, is a popular beach resort.

Architectural and cultural sites

Section of the Great Wall of China at Jinshanling
Section of the Great Wall of China at Jinshanling
Xumi Pagoda of Zhengding, built in 636 AD
Xumi Pagoda of Zhengding, built in 636 AD

The Ming Great Wall crosses the northern part of Hebei, and its eastern end is located on the coast at Shanhaiguan (Shanhai Pass), near Qinhuangdao. Informally known as the First Pass of The World, Shanhaiguan Pass was where Ming general Wu Sangui opened the gates to Manchu forces in 1644, beginning nearly 300 years of Manchu rule.

The Chengde Mountain Resort and its outlying temples are a World Heritage Site. Also known as the Rehe Palace, this was the summer resort of the Manchu Qing dynasty emperors. The resort was built between 1703 and 1792. It consists of a palace complex and a large park with lakes, pavilions, causeways, and bridges. There are also several Tibetan Buddhist and Han Chinese temples in the surrounding area.

Chengde Mountain Resort

There are Qing dynasty imperial tombs at Zunhua (Eastern Qing Tombs) and Yixian (West Qing Tombs). The Eastern Qing Tombs are the resting place of 161 Qing emperors, empresses, and other members of the Qing imperial family, while the West Qing Tombs have 76 burials. Both tomb complexes are part of a World Heritage Site.

The Zhaozhou, or Anji Bridge, was built by Li Chun during the Sui dynasty and is the oldest stone arch bridge in China. It is one of the most significant examples of pre-modern Chinese civil engineering. Baoding, the old provincial capital, contains the historic Zhili governor's residence and the former court.

Xibaipo, a village about 90 km (56 mi) from Shijiazhuang in Pingshan County, was the location of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party and the headquarters of the People's Liberation Army during the decisive stages of the Chinese Civil War between May 26, 1948 and March 23, 1949. Today, the area houses a memorial site.[61]

Sports

The 2018 Women's Bandy World Championship was held in Hebei. Sports teams based in Hebei include National Basketball League (China), Hebei Springs Benma, and the Chinese Football Association team Hebei F.C., Hebei Elite F.C., and Cangzhou Mighty Lions F.C. Baoding is home to the Baoding balls, a kind of metal ball for exercise and meditation.

Education

See also: List of universities and colleges in Hebei

Under the national Ministry of Education:

Under other national agencies:

Under the provincial government:

There are also Tibetan Buddhist schools in the province.

Infrastructure

Transportation

Intracity Rail

The Shijiazhuang Metro is the only operational rapid transit system in Hebei. Xiong'an Rail Transit is a planned metro system in Xiong'an.

Intercity Rail

As of early 2013, railway schedule systems listed 160 passenger train stations within the province.[62] Because Hebei surrounds Beijing and Tianjin, all the important railway lines from these cities pass through Hebei. The Beijing–Guangzhou railway is one of the most important. It passes through many major cities, including Baoding, Shijiazhuang, Xingtai and Handan on its way south to Henan. Other important railways include the Beijing–Kowloon railway, Beijing–Shanghai railway, Beijing–Harbin railway, Beijing–Chengde railway, Beijing–Tongliao railway, Beijing–Baotou railway and Fengtai–Shacheng railway. High-speed rail lines crossing the province include the Beijing–Shanghai high-speed railway, Beijing–Guangzhou high-speed railway, and Shijiazhuang–Taiyuan high-speed railway.

During the Eleventh Five-Year Plan, Beijing and Hebei collaborated on a new passenger railway. The RMB 82.6 billion network will add 844 kilometres (524 mi) to the system. Current railway systems for Hebei are also being upgraded and will soon be able to travel at speeds of between 160 and 200 kilometres (99 and 124 mi) per hour.

Highways and primary routes

The recent expressway boom in China included Hebei. There are expressways to every prefecture-level city in Hebei, totaling approximately 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi). The total length of highways within Hebei is around 40,000 kilometres (25,000 mi).

Air transit

Shijiazhuang's Zhengding Airport is the province's center for air transportation, with domestic and international flights. Parts of Hebei are served by the Beijing Daxing International Airport in Beijing.[63]

Ocean transit

There are several ports along the Bohai Sea, including Huanghua, Jingtang, and Qinhuangdao. Qinhuangdao is the second busiest port in China and has a capacity of over 100 million tons.

Media

Hebei is served by the province-wide Hebei Television, abbreviated HEBTV. Shijiazhuang Radio & Television is a regional network that covers the provincial capital. Hebei is also served by three major newspapers: Hebei Daily, Yanzhao Metropolis Daily, and Yanzhao Evening News. Hebei Daily Newspaper Group publishes all three newspapers.

Notable people

Sister subdivisions

Hebei is a sister district with the following country states, districts, and other subdivisions:[65]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The data was collected by the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) of 2009 and by the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) of 2007, reported and assembled by Xiuhua Wang (2015)[53] to confront the proportion of people identifying with two similar social structures: ① Christian churches, and ② the traditional Chinese religion of the lineage (i.e. people believing and worshipping ancestral deities often organized into lineage "churches" and ancestral shrines). Data for other religions with a significant presence in China (deity cults, Buddhism, Taoism, folk religious sects, Islam, et al.) was not reported by Wang. The number of Muslims is taken from a survey reported in the year 2010.[54]

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Sources

External link