Mongols in China
Mongol Autonomous Subjects in the PRC.png
Map showing the Mongol autonomous subjects in the China Area
Total population
Regions with significant populations
Inner Mongolia · Qinghai · Xinjiang
Mongolian · Oirat · Buryat · Chinese
Predominantly Mongolian shamanism · Tibetan Buddhism
Related ethnic groups
Buryats · Oirats
China linguistic map.jpg

Mongols in China[3][4] or Mongolian Chinese[5][6] (Chinese: 蒙古族; pinyin: Měnggǔ zú; lit. 'the Mongol ethnicity') are ethnic Mongols who were integrated into the nation-building of the Republic of China (1912–1949) after the fall of Qing Empire (1636–1911). Those not integrated broke away in the Mongolian Revolution of 1911 and again in 1921. The Republic of China recognized Mongols to be part of the Five Races Under One Union. Its successor, the People's Republic of China (1949—present), recognized Mongols to be one of the 55 ethnic minorities in China.

As of 2020, there are 6,290,204 Mongols in China, a 0.45% increase from the 2010 national census.[1][2] Most of them live in Inner Mongolia, Northeast China, Xinjiang and Qinghai. The Mongol population in China is nearly twice as much as that of the sovereign state of Mongolia.


The Mongols in China are divided between autonomous regions and provinces as follows:

Besides the Inner Mongolia autonomous region, there are other Mongol autonomous administrative subdivisions in China.

Prefecture level:

County level:


Photo by Yvette Borup Andrews in 1920
Photo by Yvette Borup Andrews in 1920

China classifies different Mongolian groups like Buryats and Oirats into the same single category as Mongol along with Inner Mongols. A non-Mongolic ethnic group, the Tuvans are also classified as Mongols by China.[7] The official language used for all of these Mongols in China is a literary standard based on the Chahar dialect of Mongol.[8]

The ethnic classification might be inaccurate due to lack of information regarding the registering policy.[9][10]

Some populations officially classified as Mongols by the government of the People's Republic of China do not currently speak any form of Mongolic language. Such populations include the Sichuan Mongols (most of whom speak a form of Naic language), the Yunnan Mongols (most of whom speak a form of Loloish language), and the Mongols of Henan Mongol Autonomous County in Qinghai (most of whom speak Amdo Tibetan and/or Chinese).


According to a 2021 study, the Y-chromosomal haplogroup O2 (49.14%) ranked first among the Mongols of China, followed by C2 (22.86%), O1 (12.00%) and N1 (6.29%) . Y-chromosomal haplogroups D1, E, I, G, Q, and R were sparsely distributed in the studied Mongolian populations. Among the Mongols of China, mitochondrial haplogroup D was in first place (27.07%), followed by mitochondrial haplogroups B (11.60%), F (10.77%), Z (8.01%), G (7, 73%), C (6.91%), A (6.08%), N (5.25%) and M7 (5.25%). Other mitochondrial haplogroups (HV, H, I, M8, M9, M10, M11, R, T, U, W and Y) were sporadically distributed among the studied Mongols of China with frequencies of no more than 1.66%

Related groups

Not all groups of people related to the medieval Mongols are officially classified as Mongols under the current system. Other official ethnic groups in China which speak Mongolic languages include:

Notable people


See also



  1. ^ a b "Main Data of the Seventh National Population Census". Retrieved 25 July 2021.
  2. ^ a b "China Statistical Yearbook 2021".
  3. ^ Jirimutu, Jerry (1998). "A socio‐demographic profile of the Mongols in China, 1990". Central Asian Survey. 17 (1): 93–108. doi:10.1080/02634939808401025.
  4. ^ Bulag, Uradyn E. (2003). "Mongolian Ethnicity and Linguistic Anxiety in China". American Anthropologist. 105 (4): 753–763. doi:10.1525/aa.2003.105.4.753. Archived from the original on 2004-06-03. The quest for the standardization of Mongolian [language] in Inner Mongolia was a product as much of a domestication of the Mongols in China as a protest against the imposition of Chinese [Standard Beijing Mandarin] as the national standard language to which all minority languages were forced to conform.
  5. ^ Wang, Jian; Teng, Xing (2016). "Teachers' beliefs of behaviors, learning, and teaching related to minority students: a comparison of Han and Mongolian Chinese teachers". Teaching Education. 27 (4): 371–395. doi:10.1080/10476210.2016.1153623. S2CID 147587249.
  6. ^ Deng, Xinmei; Ding; Cheng; Chou (2016). "Feeling Happy and Sad at the Same Time? Subcultural Differences in Experiencing Mixed Emotions between Han Chinese and Mongolian Chinese". Frontiers in Psychology. 7 (1692): 1692. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01692. PMC 5081370. PMID 27833582.
  7. ^ Mongush, M. V. "Tuvans of Mongolia and China." International Journal of Central Asian Studies, 1 (1996), 225-243. Talat Tekin, ed. Seoul: Inst. of Asian Culture & Development.
  8. ^ "Öbür mongγul ayalγu bol dumdadu ulus-un mongγul kelen-ü saγuri ayalγu bolqu büged dumdadu ulus-un mongγul kelen-ü barimǰiy-a abiy-a ni čaqar aman ayalγun-du saγurilaγsan bayidaγ." (Sečenbaγatur et al. 2005: 85).
  9. ^ [ y (Mongolian): Millions of Han Chinese of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region registered as "Mongol" and "Manchu" according to Chinese policy since the 1980s. There is no enough information about Chinese ethnic minorities due to the government policy.
  10. ^ Өвөр Монголын хүн ам (Mongolian)


  • Mongush, M.V. (1996). "Tuvans of Mongolia and China". International Journal of Central Asian Studies. 1: 225–243.
  • (in Mongolian) Sečenbaγatur, Qasgerel, Tuyaγ-a [Туяa], Bu. Jirannige, Wu Yingzhe, Činggeltei. 2005. Mongγul kelen-ü nutuγ-un ayalγun-u sinǰilel-ün uduridqal [A guide to the regional dialects of Mongolian]. Kökeqota: ÖMAKQ. ISBN 7-204-07621-4.

Further reading