Fuyu Kyrgyz
Gïrgïs, Kyrgysdar
Fuyu Kyrgyz woman with her traditional costume.
Total population
Regions with significant populations
 China 1,400
Fuyu Kyrgyz, Oirat, Chinese
Tibetan Buddhism[citation needed]
Related ethnic groups
Khakas, Kyrgyz, Manchurian Öelets[1]

The Fuyu Kyrgyz are a Turkic ethnic group who reside in Heilongjiang, China.[2] They primarily reside in the Fuyu County.[3] Their ethnic ties with the Kyrgyz/Kirghiz are unclear.


The Fuyu Kyrgyz resided in the region of East Turkestan, modern day Xinjiang, until the Qing government forced them to move to Heilongjiang nearly 200 years ago.[4][when?] Some Fuyu Kyrgyz came from the Russian Empire to northeast China 200 years before that.[5] Some Fuyu Kyrgyz from Dzungaria moved to Manchuria in 1761.[6]

Relations with the Khakas

The Khakas are one of the closest groups to the Fuyu Kyrgyz.[7] The Fuyu Kyrgyz went by the name Khonkoro during their exile.[8]


Main article: Fuyu Kyrgyz language

Although the Fuyu Kyrgyz number more than 1,400, only 10 people speak the language and most people have shifted to the Mongolic language Oirat or Mandarin.[9][better source needed] It is closely related to Khakas.


Many of the Fuyu Kyrgyz are cattle breeders and are also involved in hunting.[10] The Fuyu Kyrgyz used to live in Mongolic-Turkic yurts, and the people wear loose clothing and belts. The Fuyu Kyrgyz instruments include the Khakas Khakashomysu. The Fuyu Kyrgyz and Tuva are one of the only Turkic groups in China which have not been recognised by the government as well as the Äynu people.[11]


  1. ^ Juha Janhunen (1996). Manchuria: An Ethnic History. Finno-Ugrian Society. pp. 111–112. ISBN 978-951-9403-84-7.
  2. ^ Robbeets, Martine; Savelyev, Alexander (2020). The Oxford Guide to the Transeurasian Languages. China: Oxford University Press, 27-May-2020. p. 27. ISBN 9780198804628.
  3. ^ Dao, Zhi. Islamic History in China.
  4. ^ Dao, Zhi. Hero Epic of Ethnic Minority in China. DeepLogic.
  5. ^ Kokaisl, Petr; Kokaislová, Pavla (2009). The Kyrgyz – Children of Manas. Кыргыздар – Манастын балдары. NOSTALGIE Praha, 2009. p. 175. ISBN 9788025463659.
  6. ^ Schmitz, Timo (2021). My Archive of Languages (2021 Edition) (4 ed.). epubli, 2021. ISBN 9783754929186.
  7. ^ Pultar, Gönül (2014). Imagined Identities: Identity Formation in the Age of Globalization. Syracuse University Press, 14-Apr-2014. p. 362. ISBN 9780815633426.
  8. ^ Akerov, Found Abdramanovich (2005). Ancient Kyrgyz and the Great Steppe : in the footsteps of ancient Kyrgyz civilizations. Height , 2005. p. 278. ISBN 9789967131514.
  9. ^ "Fuyu Kyrgyz language, alphabet and pronunciation". omniglot.com.
  10. ^ "FU-YU (FUYU) KYRGYZ AND THEIR ORIGIN". dergikaradeniz.com.
  11. ^ Dwyer, Arienne M. (2016). "Endangered Turkic languages of China" (PDF). In Eker, Süer; Şavk, Çelik (eds.). Tehlikedeki Türk dilleri I: Kuramsal ve Genel Yaklaşımlar [Endangered Turkic Languages: Theoretical and General Approaches]. Vol. 1. Ankara. pp. 431–450. ISBN 978-9944-237-48-2. OCLC 1039594909.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)