This page guides the presentation of numbers, dates, times, measurements, currencies, coordinates, and similar items in articles. The aim is to promote clarity, cohesion, and consistency, and to make the encyclopedia easier and more intuitive to use. For numbers, dates, and similar items in Wikipedia article titles, see the "Naming conventions (numbers and dates)" guideline.

Where this manual gives options, maintain consistency within an article unless there is a good reason to do otherwise. The Arbitration Committee has ruled that editors should not change an article from one guideline-defined style to another without a substantial reason unrelated to mere choice of style; revert-warring over optional styles is unacceptable.[a] If discussion fails to resolve the question of which style to use in an article, defer to the style used by the first major contributor.

General notes[edit]

Quotations, titles, etc.

See also: Wikipedia:Manual of Style § Quotations

Quotations, titles of books and articles, and similar "imported" text should be faithfully reproduced, even if they use formats or units inconsistent with these guidelines or with other formats in the same article. If necessary, clarify via [bracketed interpolation], article text, or footnotes.

Non-breaking spaces

Guidance on the use of non-breaking spaces ("hard spaces") is given in some sections below, but not all situations in which hard spaces (((nbsp)) or  ) or ((nowrap)) may be appropriate are described. For further information see Wikipedia:Manual of Style § Non-breaking spaces and Wikipedia:Line-break handling.

Chronological items[edit]

Statements likely to become outdated

See also: Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Words to watch § Relative time references, Wikipedia:Updating information, and Wikipedia:As of

Except on pages that are inherently time-sensitive and updated regularly (e.g. the "Current events" portal), terms such as now, today, currently, present, to date, so far, soon, upcoming, ongoing, and recently should usually be avoided in favor of phrases such as during the 2010s, since 2010, and in August 2020. Wording can usually be modified to remove the "now" perspective: not she is the current director but she became director on 1 January 2023; not 2010–present but beginning in 2010 or since 2010. Terms likely to go out of date include best known for, holds the record for, etc.[b] For current and future events, use phrases such as as of December 2023 or since the beginning of 2023 to signal the time-dependence of the information; use the template ((as of)) (or ((updated))) in conjunction. Relative-time expressions are acceptable for very long periods, such as geological epochs: Humans diverged from other primates long ago, but only recently developed state legislatures.

Dates, months, and years

"WP:YEAR" redirects here. For WikiProject Years, see WP:YEARS.


Acceptable date formats
General use Only in limited situations
where brevity is helpful
2 September 2001 2 Sep 2001 A comma doesn't follow the year unless otherwise required by context:
  • The 5 May 1922 meeting was cancelled.
  • Except Jones, who left London on 5 March 1847, every delegate attended the signing.
September 2, 2001 Sep 2, 2001 A comma follows the year unless other punctuation obviates it:
  • The weather on March 12, 2005, was clear and warm.
  • Everyone remembers July 20, 1969 – when humans first landed on the Moon.
2 September 2 Sep Omit year only where there is no risk of ambiguity:
  • The 2012 London Olympics ran from 25 July to 12 September.
  • January 1 is New Year's Day.
September 2 Sep 2
No equivalent for general use 2001-09-02 Use yyyy-mm-dd format only with Gregorian dates from 1583 onward.[d]
September 2001 Sep 2001

Unacceptable date formats (except in external titles and quotes)
Unacceptable Corrected Comments
Sep. 2 Sep 2[c] Do not add a full stop (period) to an abbreviated month or to the day-of-month.[f]
9. June 9 June or June 9
9 june
june 9
Months should be capitalized.
9th June
June 9th
the 9th of June
Do not use ordinals (1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc.).
Do not use these formats.
09 June
June 09
Do not zero-pad day ...
2007-4-15 2007-04-15[c] ... except in all-numeric (yyyy-mm-dd) format, where both month and day should be zero-padded to two digits.
2007/04/15 Do not use separators other than hyphens.
20070415 Do not omit the hyphens.
07-04-15 Do not abbreviate year to two digits.
Do not use dd-mm-yyyy, mm-dd-yyyy or yyyy-dd-mm formats.[g]
2007 April 15
2007 Apr 15
Do not use these formats.
2001 July
July of 2001
July 2001 Do not use these formats.
July, 2001 No comma between month and year.
3 July, 2001 3 July 2001
July 3 2001 July 3, 2001 Comma required between day and year.
the '97 elections
the 97 elections
the 1997 elections Do not abbreviate year.
Copyright MMII Copyright 2002 Roman numerals are not normally used for dates.
Two thousand one 2001 Years and days of the month are not normally written in words.
the first of May
May the first
1 May or May 1
June 0622 June 622 Do not zero-pad years.
June 2,015 June 2015 Do not add a comma to a four-digit year.
sold in the year 1995 sold in 1995 Write "the year" only where needed for clarity (About 200 ships arrived in the year 300).

Strong national ties to a topic

For any given article, the choice of date format and the choice of national variety of English (see Wikipedia:Manual of Style § Strong national ties to a topic) are independent issues.

Retaining existing format

See also: Wikipedia:Manual of Style § Retaining existing styles

Era style

"WP:BCE" redirects here. For the copyediting guide, see Wikipedia:Basic copyediting.

Julian and Gregorian calendars

See also: Old Style and New Style dates

A date can be given in any appropriate calendar, as long as it is (at the minimum) given in the Julian calendar or the Gregorian calendar or both, as described below. For example, an article on the early history of Islam may give dates in both Islamic and Julian calendars. Where a calendar other than the Julian or Gregorian is used, the article must make this clear.

The dating method used should follow that used by reliable secondary sources (or if reliable sources disagree, that used most commonly, with an explanatory footnote). The guidance above is in line with the usage of reliable sources such as American National Biography,[1] Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, and Encyclopædia Britannica.[i]

Where it's not obvious that a given date should be given in Julian alone or in Gregorian alone, consider giving both styles, for example by using ((OldStyleDate)). If a date appears without being specified as Old Style or New Style, tagging that date with ((which calendar?)) will add the page to Category:Articles containing ambiguous dates for further attention.

If an article contains Julian calendar dates after 4 October 1582 (as in the October Revolution), or if a start-of-year date other than 1 January was in force in the place being discussed, or both, a footnote should be provided on the first usage, explaining the calendar usage adopted for the article. The calendar usage should be compatible with this guideline.


See also: Wikipedia:Manual of Style § Number ranges

"MOS:DIED" redirects here. For euphemisms for "died", see Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Words to watch § Euphemisms.

In tables and infoboxes where space is limited, pres. may be used (1982–pres.). Do not use incomplete-looking constructions such as 1982– and 1982–... .
  • Consider adding the ((As of)), or ((Update after)) templates to such constructions, depending on how important it is for editors to keep "present" up to date.

Uncertain, incomplete, or approximate dates

The corresponding template ((r.)) produces reign output: r. 540–562, though it is often clearer to write out reigned 540–562, especially in the lead. With both of these templates, linked forms should not be used on disambiguation pages, and "active" followed by the range is a better alternative for occupations not relating to the composition of works, whether it be musical, grammatical, historical, or any other such work.

Times of day

Context determines whether the 12- or 24-hour clock is used. In all cases, colons separate hours, minutes, and (where present) seconds, e.g. 1:38:09 pm or 13:38:09. Use figures (11 a.m. or 12:45 p.m.) rather than words (twelve forty-five p.m.).

Time zones

Give dates and times appropriate to the time zone where an event took place. For example, the date of the attack on Pearl Harbor should be December 7, 1941 (Hawaii time/​date). Give priority to the place at which the event had its most significant effects; for example, if a hacker in Monaco attacked a Pentagon computer in the US, use the time zone for the Pentagon, where the attack had its effect. In some cases, the best solution may be to add the date and time in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). For example:

     8 p.m. Eastern Standard Time on January 15, 2001 (01:00 UTC, January 16)

Alternatively, include just the UTC offset:

     21:00 British Summer Time (UTC+1) on 27 July 2012

Rarely, the time zone in which an event took place has since changed; for example, China until 1949 was divided into five time zones, whereas all of modern China is UTC+8. Similarly, the term "UTC" is not appropriate for dates before this system was adopted in 1960;[2] Universal Time (UT) is the appropriate term for the mean time at the prime meridian (Greenwich) when it is unnecessary to specify the precise definition of the time scale. Be sure to show the UTC or offset appropriate to the clock time in use at the time of the event, not the modern time zone, if they differ.

Days of the week

Seasons of the year


Centuries and millennia

The sequence of numbered years in dates runs ... 2 BC, 1 BC, 1 AD, 2 AD ...; there is no "year zero".

Long periods of time


"MOS:FIGURE" redirects here. Not to be confused with MOS:IMAGE.

Numbers as figures or words

Information on specific situations is scattered elsewhere on this page.

Generally, in article text:

Notes and exceptions:

Other numbers


"MOS:1ST" redirects here. For the guideline on the first sentence in articles, see MOS:FIRST.

Number ranges

Like date ranges, number ranges and page ranges should state the full value of both the beginning and end of the range, separated by an en dash: pp. 1902–1911 or entries 342–349. Except in quotations, avoid abbreviated forms such as 1902–11 and 342–9, which are not understood universally, are sometimes ambiguous, and can cause inconsistent metadata to be created in citations.

Sport scores, vote tallies, etc.

These use an unspaced ((ndash)):

Singular versus plural

Fractions and ratios

See also: Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Mathematics § Fractions


Grouping of digits


Scientific and engineering notation

Markup: ((val)) and ((e)) may be used to format exponential notation.

Uncertainty and rounding

Non–base 10 notations

Mathematical formulae

Main page: Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Mathematics

There are multiple ways to display mathematical formulae, covered in detail at Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Mathematics § Typesetting of mathematical formulae. One uses special MediaWiki <math>...</math> markup using LaTeX syntax, which is capable of complex formulae; the other relies on conventionalized HTML formatting of simple formulae.

The <math> markup is displayed as a PNG image by default. Logged-in users can optionally have it rendered in MathML, or in HTML (via MathJax); detailed instructions are at Help:Displaying a formula.

Do not put <math> markup in headings.

Units of measurement[edit]

Unit choice and order

Quantities are typically expressed using an appropriate "primary unit", displayed first, followed, when appropriate, by a conversion in parentheses e.g. 200 kilometres (120 mi). For details on when and how to provide a conversion, see the section § Unit conversions. The choice of primary units depends on the circumstances, and should respect the principle of "strong national ties", where applicable:

Special considerations:

Unit conversions

Where English-speaking countries use different units for the same quantity, provide a conversion in parentheses: the Mississippi River is 2,320 miles (3,734 km) long; the Murray River is 2,508 kilometres (1,558 mi) long. But in science-related articles, supplying such conversion is not required unless there is some special reason to do so.

Unit names and symbols

  • Examples of unit names: foot, metre, kilometre, (US: meter, kilometer).
  • Examples of unit symbols: ft, m, km.
General guidelines on use of units
Guideline Acceptable Unacceptable
Unit names and symbols
Except as listed in the § Specific units table below, unit symbols are uncapi­tal­ized unless they are derived from a proper name, in which case the first letter (of the base unit symbol, not of any prefix) is capitalized.[q] 8 kg
100 kPa
8 Kg
100 kpa
Unit symbols are undotted. 38 cm of rope 38 cm. of rope
Unit names are given in lower case except: where any word would be capital­ized, or where otherwise specified in the SI brochure[4] or this Manual of Style.
  • A gallon is 4 quarts.
  • 4 pascals
  • A Gallon is 4 Quarts.
  • 4 Pascals
  • He walked several miles.
  • Miles of trenches were dug.
The spelling of certain unit names (some of which are listed in § Specific units, below) varies with the variety of English followed by the article.
Write unit names and symbols in upright (roman) type, except where emphasizing in context. 10 m
29 kilograms
10 m
29 kilograms
Thus each two-liter jug contained only two quarts.
Do not use precomposed unit symbol characters. ㎓, ㎦, ㎍, ㎖, ㎉
Numeric values
Do not spell out numbers before unit symbols ... 12 min twelve min
... but words or figures may be used with unit names.
  • twelve minutes
  • 12 minutes
Use a non-breaking space (((nbsp)) or &nbsp;) between a number and a unit symbol, or use ((nowrap)) ... 29 kg (markup: 29&nbsp;kg or ((nowrap|29 kg))) 29kg
... though with certain symbols no space is used (see "Specific units" table below) ... 23° 47′ 22″ 23 ° 47  22 
... and a normal space is used between a number and a unit name. 29 kilograms
(markup: 29 kilograms)
To form a value and a unit name into a compound adjective use a hyphen or hyphens ...
  • a five-day holiday
  • a five-cubic-foot box
  • a 10-centimeter blade
... but a non-breaking space (never hyphen) separates a value and unit symbol.
  • a blade 10 cm long
a 10-cm blade
SI unit names are pluralized by adding the appropriate -s or -es suffix ... 1 ohm; 10 ohms
... except for these irregular forms. 1 henry; 10 henries
1 hertz; 10 hertz
1 lux; 10 lux
1 siemens; 10 siemens
10 henrys
10 hertzes
10 luxes
10 siemenses
Some non-SI units have irregular plurals. 1 foot; 10 feet 10 foots
1 stratum; 10 strata (unusual) 10 stratums
Unit symbols (in any system) are identical in singular and plural.
  • grew from 1 in to 2 in
  • grew from 1 inch to 2 inches
  • grew from one to two inches
grew from 1 in to 2 ins
Format exponents using <sup>, not special characters. km2
(markup: km<sup>2</sup>)
Or use squared or cubed (after the unit being modified). ten metres per second squared ten metres per squared second
For areas or volumes only, square or cubic may be used (before the unit being modified). ten metres per square second
tons per square mile
sq or cu may be used with US customary or imperial units, but not with SI units. 15 sq mi
3 cu ft
15 sq km
3 cu m
Indicate a product of unit names with either a hyphen or a space.
  • foot-pound
  • foot pound
  • footpound
  • foot⋅pound
Indicate a product of unit symbols with &sdot; or &nbsp;.
  • ms = millisecond
  • m⋅s or m s = metre-second
Exception: In some topic areas, such as power engineer­ing, certain products take neither space nor &sdot;. Follow the practice of reliable sources in the article's topic area.
To pluralize a product of unit names, pluralize only the final unit. (Unit symbols are never pluralized.) ten foot-pounds ten feet-pounds
Ratios, rates, densities
Indicate a ratio of unit names with per. meter per second meter/second
Indicate a ratio of unit symbols with a forward slash (/), followed by either a single symbol or a parenthesized product of symbols – do not use multiple slashes. Or use −1, −2, etc.
  • metre per second
  • m/s
  • m⋅s−1
  • mps
  • kg/(m⋅s)
  • kg⋅m−1⋅s−1
  • kg/m⋅s
  • kg/m/s
To pluralize a ratio of unit names, pluralize only the numerator unit. (Unit symbols are never pluralized.)
  • ten newton-metres per second
  • 10 N⋅m/s
Some of the special forms used in the imperial and US customary systems are shown here ...
  • mph = miles per hour
  • mpg = miles per gallon
  • psi = pounds per square inch
... but only the slash or negative exponent notations are used with SI (and other metric) units.
  • g/m2
  • g⋅m−2
  • km/h
  • km⋅h−1
Prefixes should not be separated by a space or hyphen. kilopascal
  • kilo pascal
  • kilo-pascal
Prefixes are added without contraction, except as shown here: kilohm
The deci-, deca-, and hecto- prefixes should generally be avoided; exceptions include decibel, hectolitre, hectare, and hectopascal.
  • 100 metres
  • 0.1 km
1 hectometre
Do not use M for 103, MM for 106, or B for 109 (except as noted elsewhere on this page for M and B, e.g. for monetary values) 3 km
8 MW
125 GeV
3 Mm
125 BeV
Mixed units
Mixed units are traditionally used with the imperial and US customary systems ...
  • a wall 1 ft 1 in thick
  • a wall 1 foot 1 inch thick
  • a man 6 feet 2 inches tall
  • a 6-foot 2-inch man
  • a 6 ft 2 in man
  • 1 ft , 1 in (no comma)
  • 1 foot , 1 inch
  • a man 6 foot 2 tall
  • a 6-foot 2 man
  • 1 US fl pt 8 oz
  • 1 US fl pt 8 US fl oz
... and in expressing time durations ...
  • 1:30′07″
  • 1:30′
  • 1 hr 30 min 7 sec
  • 1 h 30 m 7 s
... but are not used with metric units.
  • 1.33 m
  • 133 cm
1 m 33 cm

Note to table:

  1. ^ Use this format only where it is clear from context whether it means hours and minutes (HH:MM) or minutes and seconds (MM:SS).
  2. ^ This format is used in astronomy (see the IAU Style Manual[6] for details).

Specific units

Guidelines on specific units
Unit name Unit symbol Comment
Length, speed
  • inch
  • foot
  • in
  • ft
Do not use &prime; (), &Prime; (), apostrophe ('), or quote (").
foot per second ft/s (not fps)
hand h or hh Equal to 4 inches; used in measurement of horses. A dot may be followed by additional inches e.g. 16.2 hh indicates 16 hands 2 inches.
  • kn (not kt, Kt, or kN)
  • KIAS or kn
  • KCAS
  • KEAS
  • KTAS
  • kn (not KGS)
Used in aviation contexts for aircraft and wind speeds, and also used in some nautical and general meteorological contexts. When applied to aircraft speeds, kn means KIAS unless stated otherwise; if kn is used for calibrated airspeed, equivalent airspeed, true airspeed, or groundspeed, explicitly state and link to, upon first use, the type of speed being referred to (for instance, kn equivalent airspeed, or, if severely short of space, kn EAS); for airspeeds other than indicated airspeed, the use of the specific abbreviation for the type of airspeed being referred to (such as KEAS) is preferred. When referring to indicated airspeed, either kn or KIAS is permissible. Groundspeeds and wind speeds must use the abbreviation kn only.
  • metre
  • meter (US)
micron μm (not μ) Markup: &mu;m  Link to micrometre (for which micron is a synonym) on first use.
astronomical unit au
(not A.U., ua)
The preferred form is au. Articles that already use AU may switch to au or continue with AU; seek consensus on the talk page.
  • mile
  • miles per hour
  • nautical mile
  • mi
  • mph
  • nmi or NM (not nm or M)
In nautical and aeronautical contexts where there is risk of confusion with nautical miles, consider writing out references to statute miles as e.g. 5 statute miles rather than simply 5 miles.
Volume, flow
  • cubic centimetre
  • cubic centimeter (US)
cm3 Markup: cm<sup>3</sup>
cc Non-SI abbreviation used for certain engine displacements. Link to Cubic centimetre on first use.
  • imperial fluid ounce
  • imperial pint
  • imperial quart
  • imperial gallon
  • US fluid ounce
  • US dry pint
  • US liquid pint
  • US dry quart
  • US liquid quart
  • US gallon
  • imp fl oz
  • imp pt
  • imp qt
  • imp gal
  • US fl oz
  • US dry pt
  • US liq pt
  • US dry qt
  • US liq qt
  • US gal
  • US or imperial (or imp) must be specified for all these units.
  • fluid or fl must be specified for fluid ounces (to avoid ambiguity versus avoirdupois ounce and troy ounce).
  • For US pints and quarts, dry or liquid (liq) are needed to be fully unambiguous, though context determines whether or not to repeat those qualifiers on every use in a given article.
cubic foot cu ft (not cf) Write five million cubic feet, 5,000,000 cu ft, or 5×106 cu ft, not 5 MCF.
cubic foot per second cu ft/s (not cfs)
  • litre
  • liter (US)
L (not l or ) The symbol l (lowercase "el") in isolation (i.e. outside forms as ml) is easily mistaken for the digit 1 or the capital letter I ("eye") and should not be used.
  • millilitre
  • milliliter (US)
ml or mL Derivative units of the litre may use l (lowercase "el").
Mass, weight, force, density, pressure
  • gram
  • kilogram
  • g
  • kg
Not gramme, kilogramme
  • long ton
  • short ton
Spell out in full.
t (not mt, MT, or Mt)
pound per square inch psi
  • troy ounce
  • troy pound
  • oz t
  • lb t
The qualifier t or troy must be specified where applicable. Use the qualifier avdp (avoirdupois) only where there is risk of confusion with troy ounce, imperial fluid ounce, US fluid ounce, or troy pound; but articles about precious metals, black powder, and gemstones should always specify which type of ounce (avoirdupois or troy) is being used, noting that these materials are normally measured in troy ounces and grams.
  • avoirdupois ounce
  • avoirdupois pound
  • oz or oz avdp
  • lb or lb avdp
carat carat Used to express masses of gemstones and pearls.
carat or karat k or Kt (not kt or K) A measure of purity for gold alloys. (Do not confuse with the unit of mass with the same spelling.)
  • second
  • minute
  • hour
  • s
  • min
  • h
Do not use &prime; (), &Prime; (), apostrophe (') or quote (") for minutes or seconds. See also the hours–minutes–seconds formats for time durations described in the Unit names and symbols table.
year a Use a only with an SI prefix multiplier (a rock formation 540 Ma old, not Life expectancy rose to 60 a).
y or yr See § Long periods of time for all affected units.
Information, data
bit bit (not b or B) See also § Quantities of bytes and bits, below. Do not confuse bit/second or byte/second with baud (Bd).
byte B or byte (not b or o)
bit per second bit/s (not bps, b/s)
byte per second B/s or byte/s (not Bps, bps, b/s)
arcminute Markup: ((prime))  (prime  not apostrophe/​single quote '). No space (47, not 47 ).
arcsecond Markup: ((pprime))  (double prime ″ not double-quote "). No space (22″, not 22 ).
degree ° Markup: degree ° not masculine ordinal º or ring ̊. No space (23°, not 23 °).
degree Fahrenheit °F (not F) Markup: Non-breaking space, followed by °: 12((nbsp))°C, not 12°C or 12°((nbsp))C (12 °C, not 12°C or 12° C). Do not use the precomposed characters U+2103 DEGREE CELSIUS and U+2109 DEGREE FAHRENHEIT.
degree Rankine °R (not R)
degree Celsius (not degree centigrade) °C (not C)
kelvin (not degree kelvin) K (not °K) Use a non-breaking space: 12((nbsp))K (use the normal Latin letter K, not U+212A KELVIN SIGN). When writing out the unit (not usually necessary), pluralize, e.g. 12 kelvins (see Kelvin#Orthography)
cal In certain subject areas, calorie is convention­ally used alone; articles following this practice should specify on first use whether the use refers to the small calorie or to the kilocalorie (large calorie). Providing conversions to SI units (usually calories to joules or kilocalories to kilojoules) may also be useful. A kilocalorie (kcal) is 1000 calories. A calorie (small calorie) is the amount of energy required to heat 1 gram of water by 1 °C. A kilocalorie is also a kilogram calorie.
  • kilocalorie
  • large calorie
  • kilogram calorie
  • (not Calorie – can be ambiguous)

Quantities of bytes and bits

In quantities of bits and bytes, the prefixes kilo- (symbol k or K), mega- (M), giga- (G), tera- (T), etc., are ambiguous in general usage. The meaning may be based on a decimal system (like the standard SI prefixes), meaning 103, 106, 109, 1012, etc., or it may be based on a binary system, meaning 210, 220, 230, 240, etc. The binary meanings are more commonly used in relation to solid-state memory (such as RAM), while the decimal meanings are more common for data transmission rates, disk storage and in theoretical calculations in modern academic textbooks.

Prefixes for decimal and binary multiples Decimal Value SI 1000 103 k kilo 10002 106 M mega 10003 109 G giga 10004 1012 T tera 10005 1015 P peta 10006 1018 E exa 10007 1021 Z zetta 10008 1024 Y yotta 10009 1027 R ronna 100010 1030 Q quetta Binary Value IEC 1024 210 Ki kibi 10242 220 Mi mebi 10243 230 Gi gibi 10244 240 Ti tebi 10245 250 Pi pebi 10246 260 Ei exbi 10247 270 Zi zebi 10248 280 Yi yobi – – Note: in information technology, especially for measurements of memory capacity in bits or bytes, it is still common to use the decimal prefixes "kilo" (with symbol "k" or "K"), "mega" ("M"), "giga" ("G"), etc, to mean the closest binary prefixes "kibi", "mebi", etc. This use is now deprecated by major standards bodies such as the NIST and the BIPM. vte

Follow these recommendations when using these prefixes in Wikipedia articles:

The IEC prefixes kibi- (symbol Ki), mebi- (Mi), gibi- (Gi), etc., are generally not to be used except:[r]

Currencies and monetary values[edit]

"WP:MONEY" and "WP:CURRENCY" redirect here. For the WikiProject focusing on articles about currencies, see Wikipedia:WikiProject Numismatics.

"WP:[[text]]quot; and "WP:£" redirect here. For the policy on paid editing, see Wikipedia:Paid-contribution disclosure. For the humor page, see Help:Buying Wikipedia.

Choice of currency

Currency names

Currency symbols

See also: Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Abbreviations § Unicode abbreviation ligatures



Common mathematical symbols[edit]

See also: Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Mathematics and Help:Displaying a formula

Common mathematical symbols
Symbol name Example Markup Comments
Plus /
x + y ((math|''x'' + ''y''))
+y ((math|+''y''))
Minus /
xy ((math|''x'' &minus; ''y'')) Do not use hyphens (-) or dashes (((ndash)) or ((mdash))).
y ((math|&minus;''y''))
Plus-minus /
41.5 ± 0.3 41.5 &plusmn; 0.3
−(±a) = ∓a ((math|1=&minus;(&plusmn;''a'') = &#8723;''a''))
xy ((math|''x'' &sdot; ''y''))
x × y ((math|''x'' &times; ''y'')) Do not use the letter x to indicate multiplication. However, an unspaced x may be used as a substitute for "by" in common terms such as 4x4.
Division, obelus x ÷ y ((math|''x'' &divide; ''y''))
Equal / equals x = y ((math|1=''x'' = ''y'')) or
((math|''x'' ((=)) ''y''))
Note the use of 1= or ((=)) to make the template parameters work correctly
Not equal xy ((math|''x'' &ne; ''y''))
Approx. equal π ≈ 3.14 ((math|''&pi;'' &asymp; 3.14))
Less than x < y ((math|''x'' &lt; ''y''))
Less or equal xy ((math|''x'' &le; ''y''))
Greater than x > y ((math|''x'' &gt; ''y''))
Greater or equal xy ((math|''x'' &ge; ''y''))

Geographical coordinates[edit]

For draft guidance on, and examples of, coordinates for linear features, see Wikipedia:WikiProject Geographical coordinates/Linear.
Quick guide:

To add 57°18′22″N 4°27′32″W / 57.30611°N 4.45889°W / 57.30611; -4.45889 to the top of an article, use ((Coord)), thus:


These coordinates are in degrees, minutes, and seconds of arc.

"title" means that the coordinates will be displayed next to the article's title at the top of the page (in desktop view only; title coordinates do not display in mobile view) and before any other text or images. It also records the coordinates as the primary location of the page's subject in Wikipedia's geosearch API.

To add 44°06′45″N 87°54′47″W / 44.1124°N 87.9130°W / 44.1124; -87.9130 to the top of an article, use either


(which does not require minutes or seconds but does require the user to specify north/ south and east/west) or


(in which the north and east are presumed by positive values while the south and west are negative ones). These coordinates are in decimal degrees.

  • Degrees, minutes and seconds, when used, must each be separated by a pipe ("|").
  • Map datum must be WGS84 if possible (except for off-Earth bodies).
  • Avoid excessive precision (0.0001° is <11 m, 1″ is <31 m).
  • Maintain consistency of decimal places or minutes/seconds between latitude and longitude.
  • Latitude (N/S) must appear before longitude (E/W).

Optional coordinate parameters follow the longitude and are separated by an underscore ("_"):

Other optional parameters are separated by a pipe ("|"):

  • display
    |display=inline (the default) to display in the body of the article only,
    |display=title to display at the top of the article only (in desktop view only; title coordinates do not display in mobile view), or
    |display=inline,title to display in both places.
  • name
    name=X to label the place on maps (default is PAGENAME)

Thus: ((Coord|44.1172|-87.9135|dim:30_region:US-WI_type:event

|display=inline,title|name=accident site))

Use |display=title (or |display=inline,title) once per article, for the subject of the article, where appropriate.

Geographical coordinates on Earth should be entered using a template to standardise the format and to provide a link to maps of the coordinates. As long as the templates are adhered to, a robot performs the functions automatically.

First, obtain the coordinates. Avoid excessive precision.

The ((Coord)) template offers users a choice of display format through user styles, emits a Geo microformat, and is recognised (in the title position) by the "nearby" feature of Wikipedia's mobile apps and by external service providers such as Google Maps and Google Earth, and Yahoo. Infoboxes automatically emit ((Coord)).

The following formats are available.


For example:

For the city of Oslo, located at 59° 54′ 50″ N, 10° 45′ 8″ E:

((coord|59|54|50|N|10|45|08|E)) – which becomes 59°54′50″N 10°45′08″E / 59.91389°N 10.75222°E / 59.91389; 10.75222

For a country, like Botswana, with no source on an exact geographic center, less precision is appropriate due to uncertainty:

((coord|22|S|24|E)) – which becomes 22°S 24°E / 22°S 24°E / -22; 24

Higher levels of precision are obtained by using seconds:

((coord|33|56|24|N|118|24|00|W)) – which becomes 33°56′24″N 118°24′00″W / 33.94000°N 118.40000°W / 33.94000; -118.40000

Coordinates can be entered as decimal values:

((coord|33.94|S|118.40|W)) – which becomes 33°56′S 118°24′W / 33.94°S 118.40°W / -33.94; -118.40

Increasing or decreasing the number of decimal places controls the precision. Trailing zeros may be added as needed to give both values the same appearance.

Heathrow Airport, Amsterdam, Jan Mayen and Mount Baker are examples of articles that contain geographical coordinates.

Generally, the larger the object being mapped, the less precise the coordinates should be. For example, if just giving the location of a city, precision greater than degrees (°), minutes (′), seconds (″) is not needed, which suffice to locate, for example, the central administrative building. Specific buildings or other objects of similar size would justify precisions down to 10 meters or even one meter in some cases (1″ ~15 m to 30 m, 0.0001° ~5.6 m to 10 m).

The final field, following the E/W, is available for attributes such as type:, region:, or scale: (the codes are documented at Template:Coord/doc § Coordinate parameters).

When adding coordinates, please remove the ((coord missing)) tag from the article, if present (often at the top or bottom).

For more information, see the geographical coordinates WikiProject.

Templates other than ((coord)) should use the following variable names for coordinates: lat_d, lat_m, lat_s, lat_NS, long_d, long_m, long_s, long_EW.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ See Arbitration Committee statements of principles in cases on style-related edit warring in June 2005, November 2005, and February 2006; and Wikipedia:General sanctions/Units in the United Kingdom.
  2. ^ See also this July 2022 RfC.
  3. ^ a b c For use in tables, infoboxes, references, etc. Only certain citation styles use abbreviated date formats. By default, Wikipedia does not abbreviate dates. Use a consistent citation style within any one article.
  4. ^ All-numeric yyyy-mm-dd dates might be assumed to follow the ISO 8601 standard, which mandates the Gregorian calendar. Also, technically all years must have (only) four digits, but Wikipedia is unlikely to need to format a date beyond the year 9999 anytime soon.
  5. ^ The routine linking of dates is deprecated. This change was made August 24, 2008, on the basis of this archived discussion. It was ratified in two December 2008 RfCs: Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Dates and numbers/Three proposals for change to MOSNUM and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Dates and numbers/Date Linking RFC.
  6. ^ For consensus discussion on abbreviated date formats like "Sep 2", see Wikipedia talk:Manual of Style/Archive 151 § RFC: Month abbreviations
  7. ^ These formats cannot, in general, be distinguished on sight, because there are usages in which 03-04-2007 represents March 4, and other usages in which it represents April 3. In contrast, there is no common usage in which 2007-04-03 represents anything other than April 3.
  8. ^ a b Body in this context means the main prose of the article, as distinguished from reference citations, tabular data, infoboxes, navigation templates, and meta-data such as hatnote templates, etc. Other parts of the Manual of Style may use body to mean 'the bulk of the article after the lead section', but that is not the meaning here. Our article leads are not written in a different prose style from the material following them.
  9. ^ The calendar practices of Oxford Dictionary of National Biography and Encyclopædia Britannica can be inferred by looking up the birth and death dates of famous, well-documented individuals.
  10. ^ A change from a preference for two digits, to a preference for four digits, on the right side of year–year ranges was implemented in July 2016 per this RFC.
  11. ^ Some precomposed fractions may not work with screen readers, and not all fractions are available precomposed.
  12. ^ These three characters are in ISO/IEC 8859-1 and work in screen readers.
  13. ^ The number in parentheses in a construction like 1.604(48) × 10−4 J is the numerical value of the standard uncertainty referred to the corresponding last digits of the quoted result.[3]
  14. ^ The 0x, but not 0b, is borrowed from the C programming language.
  15. ^ One such situation is with Unicode codepoints, which use U+; U+26A7, not 0x26A7.
  16. ^ If there is disagreement about the primary units used in a UK-related article, discuss the matter on the article talk-page or at Wikipedia talk:Manual of Style/Dates and numbers (WT:MOSNUM). If consensus cannot be reached, refer to historically stable versions of the article and retain the units used in these as the primary units. Also note the style guides of British publications (e.g. The Times, under "Metric").
  17. ^ These definitions are consistent with all units of measure mentioned in the SI Brochure[4] and with all units of measure catalogued in EU directive 80/181/EEC.[5]
  18. ^ Wikipedia follows common practice regarding bytes and other data traditionally quantified using binary prefixes (e.g. mega- and kilo-, meaning 220 and 210 respectively) and their unit symbols (e.g. MB and KB) for RAM and decimal prefixes for most other uses. Despite the IEC's 1998 international standard creating several new binary prefixes (e.g. mebi-, kibi-, etc.) to distinguish the meaning of the decimal SI prefixes (e.g. mega- and kilo-, meaning 106 and 103 respectively) from the binary ones, and the subsequent incorporation of these IEC prefixes into the ISO/IEC 80000, consensus on Wikipedia in computing-related contexts favours the retention of the more familiar but ambiguous units KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, etc. over use of unambiguous IEC binary prefixes. For detailed discussion, see WT:Manual of Style (dates and numbers)/Archive/Complete rewrite of Units of Measurements (June 2008).
  19. ^ Whether 00A3 is displayed with one or two bars is typeface (font) dependent.
  20. ^ See also this February 2023 RfC.


  1. ^ Garraty, John A.; Carnes, Mark C., eds. (1999). "Editorial note". American National Biography. Oxford University Press. pp. xxi–xxii.
  2. ^ Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) (PDF). Bureau International des Poids et Mesures. June 2, 2009. p. 3. CCTF/09-32. Retrieved October 5, 2022. This coordination began on January 1, 1960, and the resulting time scale began to be called informally 'Coordinated Universal Time.' 
  3. ^ "Fundamental Physical Constants: Standard Uncertainty and Relative Standard Uncertainty". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. US National Institute of Standards and Technology. June 25, 2015. Retrieved December 12, 2017.
  4. ^ a b c "Chapter 4: Non-SI units that are accepted for use with the SI". SI Brochure: The International System of Units (SI) (PDF) (9th ed.). Bureau International des Poids et Mesures. 2019. Retrieved 2020-09-24. Table 8, p 145, gives additional guidance on non-SI units.
  5. ^ "Council Directive of 20 December 1979 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to units of measurement". European Union. 2017 [1979]. 80/181/EEC (Document 01980L0181-20090527). Retrieved December 12, 2017.
  6. ^ Wilkins, G. A. (1989). "5.14 Time and angle". IAU Style Manual (PDF). International Astronomical Union. p. S23. Retrieved 12 December 2017.