In Wikipedia, the lead section is an introduction to an article and a summary of its most important contents. It is located at the beginning of the article, before the table of contents and the first heading. It is not a news-style lead or "lede" paragraph.

The average Wikipedia visit is a few minutes long.[1] The lead is the first thing most people read upon arriving at an article, and may be the only portion of the article that they read.[A] It gives the basics in a nutshell and cultivates interest in reading on—though not by teasing the reader or hinting at what follows. It should be written in a clear, accessible style with a neutral point of view.

The lead should stand on its own as a concise overview of the article's topic. It should identify the topic, establish context, explain why the topic is notable, and summarize the most important points, including any prominent controversies.[B] The notability of the article's subject is usually established in the first few sentences. As in the body of the article itself, the emphasis given to material in the lead should roughly reflect its importance to the topic, according to reliable, published sources. Apart from basic facts, significant information should not appear in the lead if it is not covered in the remainder of the article.

As a general rule of thumb, a lead section should contain no more than four well-composed paragraphs and be carefully sourced as appropriate, although it is common for citations to appear in the body and not the lead.


The lead section may contain optional elements presented in the following order: short description, disambiguation links (dablinks/hatnotes), maintenance tags, infoboxes, foreign character warning boxes, images, navigational boxes (navigational templates), introductory text, and table of contents, moving to the heading of the first section.

Structure of lead section:

((Short description))

((Article for deletion))
((Copy edit))

((Use American English))
((Use mdy dates))

((Infobox rocket|name=...))

((Contains special characters))

[[File:TypicalRocket.gif|...|A typical rocket]]
((Rocket Navigation))

A '''rocket''' is a ...

==First section==


The lead must conform to verifiability, biographies of living persons, and other policies. The verifiability policy states that all quotations, and any material whose verifiability has been challenged or is likely to be challenged, must include an inline citation to a reliable source that directly supports it.

Because the lead usually repeats information that is in the body, editors should balance the desire to avoid redundant citations in the lead with the desire to aid readers in locating sources for challengeable material. Although the presence of citations in the lead is neither required in every article nor prohibited in any article, there is no exception to citation requirements specific to leads. The necessity for citations in a lead should be determined on a case-by-case basis by editorial consensus. Complex, current, or controversial subjects may require many citations; others, few or none.

As editors are often unaware of this guideline, good faith should be assumed when ((citation needed)) tags are added to lead sections sometimes erroneously. ((Leadcite comment)) can be added to article leads that often attract unwarranted ((citation needed)) tags.


Provide an accessible overview

See also: Wikipedia:Summary style

The lead section should briefly summarize the most important points covered in an article in such a way that it can stand on its own as a concise version of the article. The reason for a topic's noteworthiness should be established, or at least introduced, in the lead (but not by using subjective "peacock terms" such as "acclaimed" or "award-winning" or "hit"). It is even more important here than in the rest of the article that the text be accessible. Editors should avoid lengthy paragraphs and overly specific descriptions – greater detail is saved for the body of the article. Consideration should be given to creating interest in the article, but do not hint at startling facts without describing them.

Make the lead section accessible to as broad an audience as possible. Where possible, avoid difficult-to-understand terminology, symbols, mathematical equations and formulas. Where uncommon terms are essential, they should be placed in context, linked, and briefly defined. The subject should be placed in a context familiar to a normal reader. For example, it is better to describe the location of a town with reference to an area or larger place than with coordinates. Readers should not be dropped into the middle of the subject from the first word; they should be eased into it.

Relative emphasis

According to the policy on due weight, emphasis given to material should reflect its relative importance to the subject, according to published reliable sources. This is true for both the lead and the body of the article. If there is a difference in emphasis between the two, editors should seek to resolve the discrepancy.

Significant information should not appear in the lead, apart from basic facts, if it is not covered in the remainder of the article, although not everything in the lead must be repeated in the body of the text. Exceptions include specific facts such as quotations, examples, birth dates, taxonomic names, case numbers, and titles. This admonition should not be taken as a reason to exclude information from the lead, but rather to harmonize coverage in the lead with material in the body of the article.

Opening paragraph

The first paragraph should define or identify the topic with a neutral point of view, but without being too specific. It should establish the context in which the topic is being considered by supplying the set of circumstances or facts that surround it. If appropriate, it should give the location and time. It should also establish the boundaries of the topic; for example, the lead for the article List of environmental issues succinctly states that the list covers "harmful aspects of human activity on the biophysical environment".

First sentence

"MOS:FIRST" redirects here. For the guideline on ordinals, see MOS:1ST.

See also: Wikipedia:Writing better articles § Use of "refers to", and Wikipedia:Wikipedia is not a dictionary § Fixing the introductory sentence: removing "refers to"

The first sentence should introduce the topic, and tell the nonspecialist reader what or who the subject is, and often when or where. It should be in plain English.

Do not overload the first sentence by describing everything notable about the subject. Instead, spread the relevant information out over the entire lead. Avoid cluttering the first sentence with a long parenthetical containing items like alternative spellings and pronunciations: these can make the sentence difficult to read. This information should be placed elsewhere.

Format of the first sentence

See also: Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Text formatting § Boldface, and Wikipedia:Superfluous bolding explained

If an article's title is a formal or widely accepted name for the subject, display it in bold as early as possible in the first sentence:

The electron is a subatomic particle with a negative elementary electric charge. (Electron)

Otherwise, include the title if it can be accommodated in a natural way:

The United States presidential line of succession is the order in which officials of the United States ... (United States presidential line of succession)
Bolding of title and alternative names

See also: Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Biography § Text formatting

Only the first occurrence of the title and significant alternative names (which should usually also redirect to the article)[L] are placed in bold:

Mumbai, also known as Bombay, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra. (Mumbai)

Common abbreviations (in parentheses after the corresponding title) are considered significant alternative names in this sense:

The International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP), also known as the Petrucci Music Library after publisher Ottaviano Petrucci, is a ... (International Music Score Library Project)

If an article is about an event involving a subject about which there is no main article, especially if the article is the target of a redirect, the subject should be in bold:

Azaria Chantel Loren Chamberlain (11 June – 17 August 1980) was an Australian baby girl who was killed by a dingo on the night of 17 August 1980 ... (Death of Azaria Chamberlain, redirected from Azaria Chamberlain)
Avoid redundancy

"WP:REDUNDANCY" redirects here. For redundant articles, see WP:REDUNDANT.

Keep redundancy to a minimum in the first sentence. Use the first sentence of the article to provide relevant information that is not already given by the title of the article. The title need not appear verbatim in the lead if it is descriptive. For example:

Iraq–Pakistan relations are the relations between Iraq and Pakistan.
Iraq and Pakistan established diplomatic relations in 1947.

The statement relations are the relations does not help a reader who does not know the meaning of diplomatic relations. The second version sensibly includes new information (that relations were established in 1947) in the first sentence, rather than repeating the title.

If the article's title does not lend itself to being used easily and naturally in the first sentence, the wording should not be distorted in an effort to include it. Instead, simply describe the subject in normal English, avoiding unnecessary redundancy.

The 2011 Mississippi River floods were a series of floods affecting the Mississippi River in April and May 2011, which were among the largest and most damaging recorded along the U.S. waterway in the past century.
Major floods along the Mississippi River in April and May 2011 were among the largest and most damaging recorded along the U.S. waterway in the past century.

Sometimes a little redundancy is unavoidable. For example, the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) has to be called by its proper name in its article, and cannot be called anything other than a dictionary in the first sentence. Even in these cases, the first sentence should provide information not given in the title. But try to rephrase whenever possible. Instead of:

The Oxford English Dictionary is a dictionary of the English language.


The Oxford English Dictionary is the principal historical dictionary of the English language.

Both contain some redundancy, but the second is better because it tells us that the OED is the world's most respected dictionary of English.

Avoid these other common mistakes

Links should not be placed in the boldface reiteration of the title in the first sentence of a lead:[M][N]

The Babe Ruth Award is given annually to the Major League Baseball (MLB) player with the best performance in the postseason.
The Babe Ruth Award is given annually to the Major League Baseball (MLB) player with the best performance in the postseason. The award, created in honor of Babe Ruth, was first awarded in 1949 to the MVP of the World Series, one year after Ruth's death.

As an exception, disambiguation pages may use bolding for the link to the primary topic, if there is one.

In general, if the article's title (or a significant alternative title) is absent from the first sentence, do not apply the bold style to related text that does appear (example from 1999 Nepalese general election):

General elections were held in Nepal on May 3 and May 17, 1999.
General elections were held in Nepal on May 3 and May 17, 1999.
Proper names and titles

If the title of the page is normally italicized (for example, a work of art, literature, album, or ship) then its first mention should be both bold and italic text:

Las Meninas (Spanish for The Maids of Honour) is a 1656 painting by Diego Velázquez, ...

The Good, the Bad and the Ugly (Italian: Il buono, il brutto, il cattivo) is a 1966 Italian epic spaghetti Western film ...

If the mention of the article's title is surrounded by quotation marks, the title should be bold but the quotation marks should not be:

"Yesterday" is a song originally recorded by the Beatles for their 1965 album Help!

Further information on the formatting of pronunciation in the first sentence: Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation

If the name of the article has a pronunciation that is not apparent from its spelling, include its pronunciation in parentheses after the first occurrence of the name. Most such terms are foreign words or phrases (mate, coup d'état), proper nouns (Ralph Fiennes, Tuolumne River, Tao Te Ching), or very unusual English words (synecdoche, atlatl). It is preferable to move pronunciation guides to a footnote or elsewhere in the article if they would otherwise clutter the first sentence.[O] Do not include pronunciation guides for foreign translations of the article title in the text of the lead sentence, as this clutters the lead sentence and impairs readability.

Do not include in the text of the lead sentence pronunciations for names of foreign locations whose pronunciations are well known in English (e.g., Poland, Paris). Do not include them for common English words, even if their pronunciations are counterintuitive for learners (laughter, sword). If the name of the article is more than one word, include pronunciation only for the words that need it unless all are foreign (all of Jean van Heijenoort but only Cholmondeley in Thomas P. G. Cholmondeley). A fuller discussion of pronunciation can come later in the article.

Contextual links

The first sentence should provide links to the broader or more elementary topics that are important to the article's topic or place it into the context where it is notable.

For example, an article about a building or location should include a link to the broader geographical area of which it is a part.

Arugam Bay is a bay on the Indian Ocean in the dry zone of Sri Lanka's southeast coast.

In an article about a technical or jargon term, the first sentence or paragraph should normally contain a link to the field of study that the term comes from.

In heraldry, tinctures are the colours used to emblazon a coat of arms.

The first sentence of an article about a person should link to the page or pages about the topic where the person achieved prominence.

Harvey Lavan "Van" Cliburn Jr. (July 12, 1934 – February 27, 2013) was an American pianist who achieved worldwide recognition in 1958 at age 23, when he won the first quadrennial International Tchaikovsky Piano Competition in Moscow, at the height of the Cold War.

Exactly what provides the context needed to understand a given topic varies greatly from topic to topic.

The Gemara is the component of the Talmud comprising rabbinical analysis of and commentary on the Mishnah.

Do not, however, add contextual links that don't relate directly to the topic's definition or reason for notability. For example, Van Cliburn's first sentence links to Cold War because his fame came partly from his Tchaikovsky Competition victory being used as a Cold War symbol. The first sentence of a page about someone who rose to fame in the 1950s for reasons unrelated to the Cold War should not mention the Cold War at all, even though the Cold War is part of the broader historical context of that person's life. By the same token, do not link to years unless the year has some special salience to the topic.

Most Featured Articles contain about 12 to 25 links in the lead, with an average of about 1.5 links per sentence or one link for every 16 words.

Links appearing ahead of the bolded term distract from the topic if not necessary to establish context, and should be omitted even if they might be appropriate elsewhere in the text. For example, a person's title or office, such as colonel, naturally appears ahead of their name, but the word "Colonel" should not have a link, since it doesn't establish context. (Do not, however, reword a sentence awkwardly just to keep a needed contextual link from getting ahead of the bolded term.)

Colonel Charles Hotham (died 1738) was a special British envoy entrusted by George II with the task of negotiating a double marriage between the Hanover and Hohenzollern dynasties.

See also Wikipedia:Manual of Style § Animals, plants, and other organisms for capitalization rules; and Wikipedia:Naming conventions (fauna) and Wikipedia:Naming conventions (flora) for article title guidelines.

When a common (vernacular) name is used as the article title, the boldfaced common name is followed by the italic boldfaced scientific name in round parentheses in the first sentence of the lead. Alternative names should be mentioned and reliably sourced in the text where applicable, with bold type in the lead if they are in wide use, or elsewhere in the article (with or without the bold type, per editorial discretion) if they are less used. It is not necessary to include non-English common names, unless they are also commonly used in English, e.g. regionally; if included, they should be italicized as non-English.

Thomson's gazelle (Eudorcas thomsonii) is the most common gazelle of East Africa ...

When the article title is the scientific name, reverse the order of the scientific and common name(s) (if any of the latter are given), and boldface as well as italicize the scientific name. Avoid putting the most common name in parentheses (this suppresses its display in some views of Wikipedia, including Wikipedia:Pop-ups and Google Knowledge Graph).

Vitis vinifera, the common grape vine, is a species of Vitis, native to the Mediterranean region, central Europe, and southwestern Asia ...

Brassica oleracea is the species of plant that includes many common foods as cultivars, including cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kale, Brussels sprouts, savoy, and Chinese kale ...

Scope of article

In some cases the definition of the article topic in the opening paragraph may be insufficient to fully constrain the scope of the article. In particular, it may be necessary to identify material that is not within scope. For instance, the article on fever notes that an elevated core body temperature due to hyperthermia is not within scope. These explanations may best be done at the end of the lead to avoid cluttering and confusing the first paragraph. This information and other meta material in the lead is not expected to appear in the body of the article.


Main pages: Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Biography § Lead section, and Wikipedia:Biographies of living persons

A summary of the key points in the main guideline on this:

For more information on biographical leads in general, see the main guideline: Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Biography

Biographies' first sentence

Further information: Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Biography § Opening paragraph

Under the main guideline on this, the opening paragraph of a biographical article should neutrally describe the person, provide context, establish notability and explain why the person is notable, and reflect the balance of reliable sources.

The first sentence should usually state:

  1. Name(s) and title(s), if any (see also WP:NCNOB). Handling of the subject's name is covered under MOS:NAMES.
  2. Dates of birth and death (if found in secondary sources – do not use primary sources for birth dates of living persons or other private details about them). If specific day–month–year dates for birth/death are given elsewhere in the article, then a simple year–year range may be sufficient to provide context.
  3. Context (location, nationality, etc.) for the activities that made the person notable.
  4. One, or possibly more, noteworthy positions, activities, or roles that the person held, avoiding subjective or contentious terms.
  5. The main reason the person is notable (key accomplishment, record, etc.)


Cleopatra VII Philopator (Greek: Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ; 69 – August 12, 30 BC), was queen of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, and its last active ruler.

Francesco Petrarca (Italian: [franˈtʃesko peˈtrarka]; July 20, 1304 – July 19, 1374), commonly anglicized as Petrarch (/ˈptrɑːrk, ˈpɛ-/), was a scholar and poet of Renaissance Italy, who was one of the earliest humanists.

Cesar Estrada Chavez (March 31, 1927 – April 23, 1993) was an American labor leader and civil rights activist who, with Dolores Huerta, co-founded the National Farm Workers Association, which later became the United Farm Workers (UFW) ...

François Maurice Adrien Marie Mitterrand (26 October 1916 – 8 January 1996) was a French statesman who was President of France from 1981 to 1995, ...

However, try to not overload the first sentence by describing everything notable about the subject; instead, spread relevant information over the lead section.

Alternative biographical names

Main page: Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Biographies § Names

The basic instructions for biographical names are summarized below; the main guideline on this provides additional detail.

Alternative names

See also: Wikipedia:Article titles § Treatment of alternative names, Wikipedia:Naming conventions (geographic names), and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Biography § Names

The article title appears at the top of a reader's browser window and as a large level 1 heading above the editable text of an article, circled here in dark red. The name or names given in the first sentence does not always match the article title. This page gives advice on the contents of the first sentence, not the article title.

By the design of Wikipedia's software, an article can have only one title. When this title is a name, significant alternative names for the topic should be mentioned in the article. These may include alternative spellings, longer or shorter forms, historical names, and significant names in other languages. Indeed, alternative names can be used in article text in contexts where they are more appropriate than the name used as the title of the article. For example, the city now called "Gdańsk" can be referred to as "Danzig" in suitable historical contexts.

The editor needs to balance the desire to maximize the information available to the reader with the need to maintain readability. Use this principle to decide whether mentioning alternative names in the first sentence, elsewhere in the article, or not at all.

The title can be followed in the first sentence by one or two alternative names in parentheses.

Separate section usage

If there are three or more alternative names, they should not be included in the first sentence as this creates clutter. Instead, the names may be footnoted, or moved elsewhere in the article such as in a "Names" or "Etymology" section. As an exception, a local official name different from a widely accepted English name should be retained in the lead.

Archaic names, including names used before the standardization of English orthography should be clearly marked as such, i.e., (archaic: name), and should not be placed in the first sentence.

Foreign language

See also: Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Foreign names

Wikipedia's naming conventions recommend the use of English. However, where the subject of an article is best known in English-language sources by its non-English name (e.g., Taj Mahal, Champs-Élysées), the non-English title may be appropriate for the article. Relevant foreign-language names, such as those of people who do not write their names in English, are encouraged.

If the subject of the article is closely associated with a non-English language, a single foreign language equivalent name may be included in the lead sentence, usually in parentheses. For example, an article about a location in a non-English-speaking country typically includes the local-language equivalent:

Chernivtsi Oblast (Ukrainian: Чернівецька область, Chernivetska oblast) is an oblast (province) in western Ukraine, bordering on Romania and Moldova.

Do not include foreign equivalents in the text of the lead sentence for alternative names or for particularly lengthy names, as this clutters the lead sentence and impairs readability. Do not include foreign equivalents in the lead sentence just to show etymology. Foreign-language names should be moved to a footnote or elsewhere in the article if they would otherwise clutter the first sentence.[O]

Separate languages should be divided by semicolons; romanizations of non-Latin scripts, by commas. Do not boldface foreign names not normally used in English. Some foreign terms should be italicized. These cases are described in the Manual of Style for text formatting.

The Inuit (plural; pronounced /ˈɪnjuɪt/; Inuktitut: ᐃᓄᐃᑦ 'the people') are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada and Alaska ...



Where the article is a stub and has no section headings, a lead may not be necessary. Although Wikipedia encourages expanding stubs, this may be impossible if reliably sourced information is not available. Once an article has been sufficiently expanded, generally to around 400 or 500 words, editors should consider introducing section headings and removing the stub classification. Note that as the lead is recommended to be one to four paragraphs in length, articles consisting of up to four full paragraphs usually do not need a lead.


The appropriate length of the lead section depends on the total length of the article. As a general guideline—but not absolute rule—the lead should usually be no longer than four paragraphs. The length of the lead should conform to readers' expectations of a short, but useful and complete, summary of the topic. A lead that is too short leaves the reader unsatisfied; a lead that is too long is intimidating, difficult to read, and may cause the reader to lose interest halfway. The following suggestions about lead length may be useful:

Article length Lead length
Fewer than 2,500 words One or two paragraphs
2,500–5,000 words Two or three paragraphs
More than 5,000 words Three or four paragraphs

Most featured articles have a lead length of about three paragraphs, containing 10 to 18 sentences, or 250 to 400 words.

Lead sections that reflect or expand on sections in other articles are discussed at Summary style. Journalistic conventions for lead sections are discussed at News style.

Editing the lead section

All users can edit the lead by clicking the edit link of the whole article. By default, there is no edit link just for the lead section, but registered users can get it by enabling one or both of the following preferences (both require JavaScript):

Comparison to the news-style lead

Wikipedia leads are not written in news style. Although there are some similarities, such as putting the most important information first and making it possible for any reader to understand the subject even if they only read the lead, there are some differences. The lead paragraph (sometimes spelled "lede")[P] of newspaper journalism is a compressed summary of only the most important facts about a story. These basic facts are sometimes referred to as the "five Ws": who, what, when, where, and why. Journalistic leads normally are only one or two sentences long. By contrast, in Wikipedia articles, the first sentence is usually a definition, the lead is longer, and it ultimately provides more information, as its purpose is to summarize the article, not just introduce it.

Comparison of journalistic and encyclopedic leads for the Bhopal disaster
Journalistic lead Encyclopedic lead
Toxic gas leaking from an American-owned insecticide plant in central India killed at least 410 people overnight, many as they slept, officials said today. At least 12,000 were reported injured in the disaster in the city of Bhopal, 2,000 of whom were hospitalized.
—Hazarika, Sanjoy (3 December 1984) "Gas leak in city kills at least 410 in city of Bhopal" The New York Times
The Bhopal disaster or Bhopal gas tragedy was a chemical accident on the night of 2–3 December 1984 at the Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL) pesticide plant in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. In what is considered the world's worst industrial disaster, over 500,000 people in the small towns around the plant were exposed to the highly toxic gas methyl isocyanate (MIC). Estimates vary on the death toll, with the official number of immediate deaths being 2,259. In 2008, the Government of Madhya Pradesh paid compensation to the family members of 3,787 victims killed in the gas release, and to 574,366 injured victims. A government affidavit in 2006 stated that the leak caused 558,125 injuries, including 38,478 temporary partial injuries and approximately 3,900 severely and permanently disabling injuries. Others estimate that 8,000 died within two weeks, and another 8,000 or more have since died from gas-related diseases.


For a list of template messages related to the clean-up of lead sections, see Wikipedia:Template messages/Cleanup § Introduction. Editors are encouraged to improve leads rather than simply tag them.

See also


  1. ^ See meta:Research:Which parts of an article do readers read.
  2. ^ Do not violate WP:Neutral point of view by giving undue attention to less important controversies in the lead section.
  3. ^ For example:
    This Manual of Style is a style guide containing ...


    This style guide, known as the Manual of Style, contains ...
  4. ^ For example, in the article "United Kingdom":
    The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK, or Britain, is a sovereign island country located off the north-western coast of continental Europe.
  5. ^ For example, in the article "Matrix (mathematics)":
    In mathematics, a matrix (plural matrices) is a rectangular array of numbers, symbols, or expressions, arranged in rows and columns.
  6. ^ For example, use:
    Mercury is the first planet from the Sun ...


    Mercury (planet) is the first planet from the Sun ...
  7. ^ For example, instead of:
    A trusted third party is an entity that facilitates interactions between two parties who both trust the third party.
    In cryptography, a trusted third party is an entity that facilitates interactions between two parties who both trust the third party.
  8. ^ For example:
    Camping is an outdoor activity involving overnight stays away from home in a shelter ...
    Camping refers to an outdoor activity involving overnight stays ...
  9. ^ For example:
    Irregardless is a word sometimes used in place of regardless or irrespective ...


    Irregardless is a word sometimes used ...
  10. ^ For example:
    Amalie Emmy Noether [ˈnøːtɐ] (23 March 1882 – 14 April 1935) was a German mathematician known for her groundbreaking contributions to abstract algebra and her contributions to theoretical physics.

    This example not only tells the reader that the subject was a mathematician, it also indicates her field of expertise and work she did outside of it. The years of her birth and death provide time context. The reader who goes no further in this article already knows when she lived, what work she did, and why she is notable. (Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Biographies has more on the specific format for biography articles.)

  11. ^ For example:
    Donkey Kong is a fictional ape in the Donkey Kong and Mario video game series.
  12. ^ "Usually" here can account for cases like "Foo, also known as Bar, Baz, or Quux", where the "Baz" item is actually not a redirect from "Baz", but maybe "Baz (chemistry)", and so it wouldn't fit an absolute redirect requirement, but would be visually confusing if de-boldfaced between the other two. "Usually" isn't blanket license to boldface things for emphasis.
  13. ^ Many, but not all, articles repeat the article title in bold face in the first line of the article. Linking the article to itself produces boldface text; this practice is discouraged because a page move results in a useless circular link through a redirect. Linking part of the bolded text is also discouraged because it changes the visual effect of bolding; some readers may miss the visual cue which is the purpose of using bold face in the first place.
  14. ^ Disambiguation pages are navigational aides rather than articles and where there is a primary topic for a term, the introductory line for that term's disambiguation page does typically have that term both linked and bolded; see MOS:DABPRIMARY
  15. ^ a b For example, an excessive lead at Genghis Khan at one time read:
    Genghis Khan (English pronunciation: /ˈɡɛŋɡɪs ˈkɑːn/ or /ˈɛŋɡɪs ˈkɑːn/;[1][2] Cyrillic: Чингис Хаан, Chingis Khaan, IPA: [tʃiŋɡɪs xaːŋ] ; Mongol script: , Činggis Qaɣan; Chinese: 成吉思汗; pinyin: Chéng Jí Sī Hán; probably May 31, 1162[3] – August 25, 1227), born Temujin (English pronunciation: /təˈmɪn/; Mongolian: Тэмүжин, Temüjin IPA: [tʰemutʃiŋ] ; Middle Mongolian: Temüjin;[4] traditional Chinese: 鐵木真; simplified Chinese: 铁木真; pinyin: Tiě mù zhēn) and also known by the temple name Taizu (Chinese: 元太祖; pinyin: Yuán Tàizǔ; Wade–Giles: T'ai-Tsu), was the founder and Great Khan (emperor) of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.

    This was later reduced to:

    Genghis Khan (born Temüjin; c. 1162–25 August 1227), also known as Chinggis Khan,[a] was the founder and first khagan of the Mongol Empire, which later became the largest contiguous land empire in history.
  16. ^ See WP:NOTALEDE for previous discussion of why "lede" is avoided in this guideline; in summary: it gives a false impression about the purpose, nature, and style of Wikipedia leads.

Special explanatory note

  1. ^ Spanish: Guerra hispano-estadounidense or Guerra hispano-americana; Filipino: Digmaang Espanyol–Amerikano). Some historians prefer alternative titles, e.g.:
    • Louis A. Pérez (1998), The war of 1898: the United States and Cuba in history and historiography, UNC Press Books, ISBN 978-0-807-84742-8, retrieved October 31, 2015
    • Benjamin R. Beede (1994), The War of 1898, and US interventions, 1898–1934: an encyclopedia, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 978-0-824-05624-7, retrieved October 31, 2015
    • Thomas David Schoonover; Walter LaFeber (2005), Uncle Sam's War of 1898 and the Origins of Globalization, University Press of Kentucky, ISBN 978-0-813-19122-5, retrieved October 31, 2015((citation)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
    • Virginia Marie Bouvier (2001), Whose America?: the war of 1898 and the battles to define the nation, Praeger, ISBN 978-0-275-96794-9, retrieved October 31, 2015


  1. ^ As of March 2020, Alexa's entry for reports that the average Wikipedia user spends 3 minutes and 52 seconds on the site per day. " Competitive Analysis, Marketing Mix and Traffic". Archived from the original on May 1, 2019.
  2. ^ November 2020 RfC