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Signing your posts on talk pages (normally using four tildes: ~~~~), both for the article and non-article namespaces, is required, since it facilitates discussion by identifying the author of a particular comment. Other users can then navigate to a talk page and address their comments to the specific, relevant user(s). Discussion is an important part of collaborative editing, because it helps all users to understand the progress and evolution of a work.

Comments posted on user talk pages, article talk pages and other discussion pages must be properly signed. Signature use that is intentionally and persistently disruptive may lead to blocks.

When editing a page, main namespace pages (which are all Wikipedia articles) should not be signed, because the content is a shared work, based on the contributions of many people, and one editor should not be singled out or "credited" above others.

Purpose of signatures

Signatures on Wikipedia identify you as a user and your contributions to Wikipedia. They encourage civility, collaboration, and communication by identifying the author of a particular comment and the date and time at which it was made. Because of that, having an uncivil signature (especially one that makes any kind of personal attacks toward someone else) is prohibited and, in some cases, the user will be blocked from editing until the signature is changed. In most cases, anything that is not allowed as an account's username (in whole or in part) is also not allowed to be in a signature either.

Furthermore, signatures also serve a technical purpose: various user scripts and talk-page archiving bots, including lowercase sigmabot III, rely on their timestamps to know when to archive old threads. It's because of this that it's also important to not change the timestamp of any signatures, as doing so can lead to stale threads persisting longer, and after they would've otherwise been archived.

When signatures should and should not be used

Any posts made to any type of discussion page must be signed (this does not include adding WikiProject boxes and other such administrative templates). Note that, as stated below, if you choose to edit those kinds of pages without logging in, then you should still sign your posts—regardless of whether or not you have an account. Edits to articles must not be signed, as signatures on Wikipedia are not intended to indicate ownership or authorship of any article. Instead, the page history identifies who made edits. Signatures do not translate from ~~~~ in edit summaries. In other instances, and when posts should not be signed, specific instructions are provided to specify this on the specific page. Files that are used in articles, including image and sound files, should also not contain any signatures.

How to sign your posts

Preferred option

Standard signature

There are three ways to sign your posts:

  1. At the end of your comments simply type four tildes (~), like this: ~~~~.
  2. If you are using the edit toolbar option (by default, it appears above the edit box), click the signature icon[Note 1]
    OOjs UI icon signature-ltr.svg
    to add two hyphens and four tildes like this: --~~~~.
  3. Use the reply tool or new discussion tool that are available as beta features in your user preferences. Both of these features will automatically insert a signature, without needing to add any wikicode.

The four tildes will be automatically replaced with your signature after you have published the changes, as follows:

Wikimarkup Resulting code Resulting display
~~~~ [[User:Example|Example]] ([[User talk:Example|talk]]) 14:56, 19 September 2022 (UTC)[Note 2] Example (talk) 14:56, 19 September 2022 (UTC)Reply[reply]

Since typing four tildes adds the time and date to your resulting signature, this is the preferred option for signing your posts in discussions.

Note that if you choose to contribute without logging in, regardless of whether you have an account, you must still sign your posts. In this case, your IP address will take the place of a username, and will link to your contributions history. Your IP address will look like something similar to or 2001:DB8:CEEE:21B:DB60:07FE:4277:63FF.

If, for some reason, you are not getting the above results when signing, see the SineBot Frequently Asked Questions for tips.

Other options

Using three tildes

Typing three tildes results in the following:

Wikimarkup Resulting code Resulting display
~~~ [[User:Example|Example]] ([[User talk:Example|talk]]) Example (talk)

However, since this does not date-stamp your signature, you may wish to sign this way only when leaving general notices on your user page or user talk page. This is also a convenient shortcut (rather than typing out the full code) when you want to provide a link to your user page.

Using five tildes

Typing five tildes will convert to a date stamp with the current date and time, without adding your signature, like this:

Wikimarkup Resulting code Resulting display
~~~~~ 14:56, 19 September 2022 (UTC) 14:56, 19 September 2022 (UTC)

In general, when communicating with others, you should use one of the previous options and not only a timestamp. There are exceptions to this such as, when requesting assistance from the Third Opinion project the requested format for signing is the five tilde signature to slightly help improve neutrality from the responding volunteer, or when updating one of your submitted posts on a talk page by appending (updated ~~~~~) to your already existing signature.

In some templates, this is the preferred way to add the date.

Customizing your signature

Every editor's default signature (as defined by MediaWiki:Signature) will display when ~~~~ is typed. This looks like:

Example (talk) 14:56, 19 September 2022 (UTC)

Unregistered users, or users not logged in, may choose to manually sign with a pseudonym or tag (e.g. anon.), as their IP address will be stored in the page history. If you choose to sign your posts in such a way, you must still finish your signature with four tildes (such as Anonymous editing as ~~~~) to help aid others with reading the thread easily, and with communicating back with you.

Customizing how everyone sees your signature

Screenshot of the Special:Preferences page, containing the section Raw Signature.
Screenshot of the Special:Preferences page, containing the section Raw Signature.

Registered users can customize their signatures by going to Special:Preferences and changing the field "Signature". This changes the signature that is left when you enter ~~~~ into discussions. It can be used to sign your posts with a nickname, or with custom formatting, or both.

This technique only applies where you have left your signature onto a page while logged into your account. It also doesn't affect how your username appears in your watchlist, in any logs or page histories, or where someone else has added a link to your user page in a discussion. Modifying your signature in your user preferences will only apply to the future signatures that you leave moving forward. Since adding ~~~~ to discussions simply results in those characters being replaced by your signature before the edit is saved, any existing signatures that you've left on previous or existing discussions will not be automatically updated or changed.

Treat as wiki markup

If you do not check the "Treat the above as wiki markup" box, the exact content you enter will be used as your signature. For example, if User:Example had set their signature to read <span style="color:#C00000">NICKNAME</span>, thereafter the signature (generated when they mark a post with ~~~~) would be:

<span style="color:#C00000">NICKNAME</span> (talk) 14:56, 19 September 2022 (UTC)

If you do check the "Treat the above as wiki markup" box, you can describe your signature using "raw" wikitext (such as <span> and wiki-markup) which will be substituted unchanged when you sign your posts. If User:Example had set their signature to read [[User:Example|Ex@''mple'']]<sup>[[User talk:Example|t@lk]]</sup>, the signature generated by ~~~~ would be:

Ex@mplet@lk 14:56, 19 September 2022 (UTC)

In this case, you are responsible yourself for linking to your user page (e.g. User:Example).

To visibly include the pipe (|) or equals (=) characters in your signature, you must escape them, or they will break templates unexpectedly when your signature is present. To escape the | symbol, use the following special code: &#124; (including everything from the ampersand to the semi-colon). To escape the = character, use &#61;.

Putting two or more exclamation points (!!) in a row in your signature can break tables in which your signature appears. Use &#33;&#33; as a substitute in order to avoid having two exclamation points in a row.

Customizing how you see your signature

To change how your signature appears to you, e.g. to make it easier to spot, without affecting how it appears to other users, you can create a personal CSS style sheet. For example, to display your username in bold white text on an orange background (like Your username), add the following to Special:MyPage/common.css, replacing Your username with your actual username:

#bodyContent a[title="User:Your username"] { background-color: #ffa500; color: #ffffff; font-weight: bold; }

When you use this technique, bright colors can help you to more quickly scan long pages that contain [[User:Your username]], including Talk pages, page histories, your watchlist, and if anyone links to you in a discussion. Colors to use for this can be researched via the Web colors article, and you can update your common.css file at any time to modify the display style.

Guidelines and policies

Because these signatures are seen by everyone, be aware of the guidelines and policies summarized below:

Syntax guidance

If you attempt to save a signature with certain types of errors, you will see an error message. These errors can be a little tricky to diagnose, but here are some tips:

Signature forgery

Never use another editor's signature. Impersonating another editor by using their username or signature is forbidden. Altering the markup code of your signature to make it look substantially like another user's signature may also be considered a form of impersonation. Editing the code of your signature to link it to another editor's user page is not permitted. It is also ineffective, as the change log of the page records the IP address and (if applicable) username of all editors; as such, any impersonators can easily be caught if the signature in the diff view differs from the editor's default signature. While not an absolute requirement, it is common practice for a signature to resemble to some degree the username it represents.

If you encounter a user whose signature is disruptive or appears to be impersonating another account, it is appropriate to ask that user to consider changing their signature to meet the requirements of this policy. When making such a request, always be polite, and assume good faith; do not immediately assume that the user has intentionally selected a disruptive or inappropriate signature. If you are asked to change your signature, please avoid interpreting a polite request as an attack. Since the success of Wikipedia is based on effective teamwork, both parties should work together to find a mutually acceptable solution.

Signature formatting has been the subject of numerous Requests for Comment, and has also resulted in some very heated debates by some of the editors involved, and on both sides of the discussion. When dealing with potentially problematic signatures, simply being polite is often sufficient and can prevent the situation from escalating into a dispute.

Appearance and color

Your signature must not blink, scroll, or otherwise cause inconvenience to or annoy other editors.

For guidance on how to use color and other effects to customize the appearance of your signature, see this tutorial.

Font tags

<font>...</font> tags were deprecated in HTML4 and are entirely obsolete in HTML5. This means that the popular browsers may drop support for them at some point. Wikipedia is already preparing for this by delinting code project-wide through Linter. When support is finally dropped, the tags will be ignored in all signatures; any properties such as color and font family will revert to their default values. For this reason, it is recommended that you use <span>...</span> tags and CSS properties instead. For usage examples, see Wikipedia:Signature tutorial § Real-life examples. You may request additional coding assistance at Wikipedia:Help desk.

A change to your signature definition does not affect signatures created before then. Therefore, if you currently use <font>...</font> tags in your signature, switching to <span>...</span> tags now will reduce the number of your signatures (including those in the archives of talk spaces) that will render incorrectly after the browsers drop support for <font>...</font>. Moreover, refactoring old signatures from you and other users (including in archive pages) by changing <font> tags to <span> tags can help prepare the project for this eventual loss of support.


See also: Phabricator:T68006

Images of any kind must not be used in signatures for the following reasons.


Keep signatures short, both in display and in markup.

Extremely long signatures with a lot of HTML/wiki markup make page editing and discussion more difficult for the following reasons:

The software will automatically truncate both plain and raw signatures to 255 characters of code in the Signature field. If substitution of templates or another page is used, please be careful to verify that your signature does not violate the 255-character length limit when the templates are expanded, as the software will not do this automatically.

Overriding custom signatures

Unclutter signature minimiser

Custom-styled Unclutter and Comments in Local Time reformatting signatures and timestamps in a Wikipedia discussion.
Custom-styled Unclutter and Comments in Local Time reformatting signatures and timestamps in a Wikipedia discussion.

If you prefer not to see other users' custom signatures, you can use the custom JavaScript module Unclutter. By default, Unclutter scans non-special non-article pages for timestamped signatures, wraps them up and replaces with a text of the form:

Example (annotation) (talkctbactlogsig)

This technique displays the actual username to you and is extensively configurable. It doesn't affect how anyone else sees the signatures. See User:Kephir/gadgets/unclutter for more details.

While this script works in practice for most signatures found on the English Wikipedia, there are several unavoidable limitations which make Unclutter fail to recognise every possible signature. Signatures which violate policies laid out on this page may not be recognised. Unclutter is not an excuse to violate or decline to enforce the signature policy.

Using custom CSS

Overriding custom signature formatting (→more examples)
Overriding custom signature formatting (→more examples)

It's also possible to use your personal common.css style sheet to override the formatting of other users' signatures.

This allows you to decide how links to user pages should be displayed to you when you are logged-in. For example, you could highlight Your username in bold reversed mauve and Other signatures in normal mauve. This approach works by reversing a variety of commonly used signature formatting techniques, but it doesn't attempt to replace the text content of the signature. For example, if User:Example has customized their signature to read Ex@mple, changing the formatting would display Ex@mple rather than their actual name Example.

No other users will see your custom effects. You can remove or modify them at any time by changing the instructions in your style sheet. The change will apply to all pages regardless of how old they may be. For an example stylesheet, see User:Pointillist/reformat-signatures.css.


Internal links

Signatures must include at least one direct internal link to your user page, user talk page, or contributions page; this allows other editors easy access to your talk page and contributions log. The lack of such a link is widely viewed as obstructive.

If, while making modifications, you accidentally disable this link, see Help:How to fix your signature. When you insert your signature on your talk page or user page, a link to that page will appear black, bold and inactive, so test your signature elsewhere, such as the sandbox.

Disruptive links

It is better to put information on your user page rather than in your signature. Brief additional internal links are generally tolerated when used to facilitate communication or to provide general information, but undesirable if seen as canvassing for some purpose.

Do not place any disruptive internal links (especially when combined with custom formatting, for example CLICK HERE!!!) in your signature.

External links

Do not include links to external websites in your signature.

Mass posting of links to a particular website is strongly discouraged on Wikipedia. Posting a link to an external website with each comment you make on a talk page could be taken as link spamming, or an attempt to improve your website's ranking on search engines (which doesn't actually work in the first place). If you want to tell other Wikipedians about a website with which you are associated, you can do so on your user page.

Transclusion of templates (or other pages)

  • Transclusions of templates, Lua modules, parser functions, and TemplateStyles in signatures (like those which appear as ((User:Name/sig)), ((#invoke:...)), ((#if:...)) or <templatestyles ... />) are forbidden for the following reasons:
    • Certain automated scripts (bots) are used to automatically archive particularly active talk pages. These bots read the source of the talk page, but don't transclude templates, and so don't recognize the template as a signature.
    • Signature templates are vandalism targets, and will be forever, even if the user leaves the project.
    • Signature templates are a small but unnecessary drain on the servers. Transcluded signatures require extra processing—whenever you change your signature source, all talk pages you have posted on must be re-cached.
    • User mention notifications will not work if the mentioning user's signature is contained in a template.
    • If you try to use a transcluded signature, it will automatically be converted to ((SUBST:User:Name/sig)).
  • Substitutions of templates in signatures is permissible but discouraged, as the template that is substituted may be vandalized without the user knowing.
    • Users who choose to substitute their signature are required to be highly vigilant of their signature whenever they sign.
    • Substitution must not be used to circumvent the normal restrictions on signature content, including the use of images, obnoxious markup, or excessive length.

Simple text signatures, which are stored along with the page content and use no more resources than the comments themselves, avoid these problems.


Signatures must not contain categories. Categorizing talk pages by who has edited them is unhelpful, and the same information can be found by using your contributions list. Many of the various edit counting utilities also provide this data.

Non-Latin usernames

Editors with non-Latin usernames are welcome to edit in Wikipedia. However, non-Latin scripts, such as Arabic, Armenian, Chinese, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, Indic scripts, Japanese, Korean, Persian, Thai and others, are illegible to most other contributors of the English Wikipedia. Not everyone uses a keyboard that has immediate access to non-Latin characters, and names that cannot be pronounced may be difficult to remember. As a courtesy to the rest of the contributors, users with such usernames are encouraged to sign their posts (at least in part) with Latin characters. For an example refer to User:Παράδειγμα with the signature Παράδειγμα/Paradigma.

A signature consisting of or ending with characters from a right-to-left script will appear (in modern browsers) when viewing pages as



--19 ,14:56 ‎שֵׁם‎ September 2022 (UTC)

and similarly misordered text in the edit box. Adding a left-to-right marker symbol, at the end of the raw signature (HTML code: &lrm;), will resolve this. Or, if you include both Latin and a right-to-left script, such as Hebrew or Arabic, in your signature, consider putting Latin second, where it will be directly next to the timestamp.

Dealing with unsigned comments

"WP:UNSIGNED" redirects here. For the actual template, see Template:Unsigned.

The templates ((unsigned)) and ((unsigned IP)) can be used at the end of an unsigned comment to attach the username or IP to the comment. None of these templates automatically populates (fills in) the username or IP of the poster or the time of the post. That information is best copied from the history page and pasted into the following templates. All of the unsigned templates must be substituted.

Wikimarkup Resulting code Resulting display
((subst:unsigned|username or IP)) ((subst:unsigned|Example)) — Preceding unsigned comment added by Example (talkcontribs)
((subst:unsigned|username or IP|date)) ((subst:unsigned|Example|14:56, 19 September 2022 (UTC))) — Preceding unsigned comment added by Example (talkcontribs) 14:56, 19 September 2022 (UTC)Reply[reply]
((subst:unsigned IP|IP address)) ((subst:unsigned IP| — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk)
((subst:unsigned IP|IP address|date)) ((subst:unsigned IP||14:56, 19 September 2022 (UTC))) — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 14:56, 19 September 2022 (UTC)Reply[reply]

The templates ((unsigned2)) and ((unsignedIP2)) do almost the same as ((unsigned)) and ((unsigned IP)) when used with two parameters, but the ordering of the parameters is reversed. The resulting display is the same. These templates may be useful when copying and pasting from the edit history, where the timestamp appears before the username.

Wikimarkup Resulting code Resulting display
((subst:unsigned2|date|username or ip)) ((subst:unsigned2|14:56, 19 September 2022 (UTC)|Example)) — Preceding unsigned comment added by Example (talkcontribs) 14:56, 19 September 2022 (UTC)Reply[reply]
((subst:unsignedIP2|date|IP address)) ((subst:unsignedIP2|14:56, 19 September 2022| — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 14:56, 19 September 2022 (UTC)Reply[reply]

The template ((xsign)) is a wrapper for ((unsigned)) and ((unsigned IP)) that will parse the username and date string copied and pasted directly from the edit history. The resulting display is the same.

Wikimarkup Resulting code Resulting display
((subst:xsign|date/username string)) ((subst:xsign|14:56, 19 September 2022 Example)) — Preceding unsigned comment added by Example (talkcontribs) 14:56, 19 September 2022 (UTC)Reply[reply]
((subst:xsign|date/IP string)) ((subst:xsign|14:56, 19 September 2022 — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 14:56, 19 September 2022 (UTC)Reply[reply]

It is also a good idea to notify users, especially new users, that they should sign their comments. You may use the template ((uw-tilde)) on the user's talk page or one of the welcome messages for new users.

Wikimarkup Resulting code Resulting display
((subst:uw-tilde)) ((subst:uw-tilde))
Information icon
Hello and welcome to Wikipedia. When you add content to talk pages and Wikipedia pages that have open discussion (but never when editing articles), please be sure to sign your posts. There are two ways to do this. Either:
  1. Add four tildes ( ~~~~ ) at the end of your comment, or
  2. With the cursor positioned at the end of your comment, click on the signature button OOjs UI icon signature-ltr.svg located above the edit window.

This will automatically insert a signature with your username or IP address and the time you posted the comment. This information is necessary to allow other editors to easily see who wrote what and when.

Thank you.

((subst:uw-tilde|Article|Additional text)) ((subst:uw-tilde|Article name|Comments go here.))
Information icon
Hello and welcome to Wikipedia. When you add content to talk pages and Wikipedia pages that have open discussion, such as at Article name, (but never when editing articles), please be sure to sign your posts. There are two ways to do this. Either:
  1. Add four tildes ( ~~~~ ) at the end of your comment, or
  2. With the cursor positioned at the end of your comment, click on the signature button OOjs UI icon signature-ltr.svg located above the edit window.

This will automatically insert a signature with your username or IP address and the time you posted the comment. This information is necessary to allow other editors to easily see who wrote what and when.

Comments go here.

Also, the template ((undated)) can be used at the end of comments where the user gave their username but no timestamp:

Wikimarkup Resulting code Resulting display
((subst:undated|date)) ((subst:undated|14:56, 19 September 2022 (UTC))) — Preceding undated comment added 14:56, 19 September 2022 (UTC)

Automatic adding of signatures

The bot SineBot signs comments on talk pages and pages in Category:Non-talk pages that are automatically signed, for unregistered users and users who have fewer than 800 edits. To re-enable autosigning of your unsigned comments, you can place ((YesAutosign)) on your user page or user talk page.

Dealing with problematic signatures

Wikipedia's Username policy describes accepted practices and behavior in naming and operating a user account on Wikipedia that apply to both usernames and signatures. A purpose of your signature is to identify you as a contributor. If your signature is unnecessarily confusing, editors may request that you change it. Our guidelines for talk page usage also permit editors to change signatures that contravene this guideline back to the standard form. An editor with a confusing signature may be blocked sooner than usual for other inappropriate behavior such as disruption or vandalism, if their confusing signature contributes to the disruption.

Signatures that link to, but do not display, the user's username (for example by signing with a nickname, as in [[User:Example|User:Nickname]] or [[User:Example|Nickname]]) can be confusing for editors (particularly newcomers). The actual username always appears in the page history, so using just the nickname on the relevant talk page can make your signed comments appear to be from a different person. Alternatives include changing your username and including your account name in addition to the username, e.g., in the form [[User:Example|User:Example]]/Nickname.

The timestamp must adhere to the system-generated format (HH:MM, D MM YYYY (UTC)) and must not be customized. This is necessary for clear communications and for archiving bots to function correctly. Timestamps that are customized may be considered disruptive and editors using them may be blocked accordingly.

Persistent failure to sign after being reminded may become disruptive and be subject to sanctions.


UseModWiki, the wiki software in use on the English Wikipedia from its inception to 25 January 2002, did not have markup to create a signature, so signatures had to be made manually where desired. (c.f., for example, several such signatures in this diff et al.) The modern tilde feature was a part of the earliest MediaWiki coding from mid-2001; the original developer of MediaWiki, Magnus Manske, intended it to resemble scribbled physical signatures like that of his father.[Note 5] Images in signatures have been banned since 2006, but had been discouraged beforehand.

The concept of not signing one's contributions to the main namespace has also not always been here. The first ever revision to the page WikiPedia, from 15 January 2001, indicated that "You can [write an article] anonymously or give yourself credit," and indeed several pages from early 2001 have signatures at the end of them, such as here and here.

See also


  1. ^ If your browser is set to not show pictures, the button will be called "Your signature with timestamp". If the browser's settings don't allow JavaScript, the buttons will not appear.
  2. ^ The actual code is slightly more complicated, turning the talk page link into a link to the top of one's talk page when used at one's talk page itself. It can be found at MediaWiki:Signature.
  3. ^ A 2021 RfC was closed with consensus against signatures being required to correspond exactly to usernames and no consensus to require that signatures be easily recognizable to a new user as referring to the username they link to.
  4. ^ The Web Content Accessibility Guidelines specify a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1 for text, and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Accessibility § Color requires 7:1 "where feasible". To use named CSS colors on a white background, refer to Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Accessibility/CSS colors for text on white for recommended colors. For other usage, use this Contrast ratio calculator to help determine if the colors will be visible to everyone. Signatures do not always appear on white backgrounds. Other colors for calculations range from the Monobook skin's very pale blue ( #F8FCFF ) to the closed discussion Hidden archive tan ( #F2DFCE ) title bar. Other tools for checking contrast are described at Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Accessibility § Color.
  5. ^ See this Twitter exchange for further information.