The latest official IPA chart, revised in 2020

Here is a basic key to the symbols of the International Phonetic Alphabet. For the smaller set of symbols that is sufficient for English, see Help:IPA/English. Several rare IPA symbols are not included; these are found in the main IPA article or on the extensive IPA chart. For the Manual of Style guideline for pronunciation, see Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation.

For each IPA symbol, an English example is given where possible; here "RP" stands for Received Pronunciation. The foreign languages that are used to illustrate additional sounds are primarily the ones most likely to be familiar to English speakers: French, Standard German and Spanish. For symbols not covered by those, recourse is taken to the populous languages Standard Chinese, Hindustani, Arabic and Russian. For sounds still not covered, other well-analyzed languages are used, such as Swahili, Zulu and Turkish.

The left-hand column displays the individual symbols in square brackets ([a] ). Click on "listen" to hear the sound; click on the symbol itself for a dedicated article with a more complete description and examples from multiple languages. Consonant sounds are spoken once followed by a vowel and once between vowels.

If the characters do not display, you may need to install a supporting font. Free fonts with good IPA support include Gentium Plus (serif) and Andika (sans-serif).

Main symbols

The symbols are arranged by similarity to letters of the Latin alphabet. Symbols which do not resemble any Latin letter are placed at the end, the others section.

Symbol Examples Description
A
[a] Modern RP cat, German Mann, French gare The RP vowel is often transcribed with æ for historical reasons. For many English speakers, the first part of the ow sound in cow.
[ä] Mandarin 他 tā, American English father, Spanish casa, French patte
[ɐ] RP cut, German Kaiserslautern (In transcriptions of English, [ɐ] is usually written ʌ.)
[ɑ] RP father, French pâte, Dutch bad
[ɑ̃] French Caen, sans, temps Nasalized [ɑ].
[ɒ] Canadian English lot, Persian ف‍‍ارسی / fârsi Like [ɑ], but with the lips slightly rounded.
[ʌ] American English cut Like [ɔ], but without the lips being rounded. (When ʌ is used for English, it may really be [ɐ] or [ɜ].)
[æ] GA cat
B
[b] English babble
[ɓ] Swahili bwana Like a [b] said with a gulp. See implosive consonants.
[β] Spanish la Bamba, Kinyarwanda abana "children", Korean 무궁화 [muɡuŋβwa̠] mugunghwa Like [b], but with the lips not quite closed.
[ʙ] Nias simbi [siʙi] "lower jaw" Sputtering.
C
[c] Turkish kebap "kebab", Czech stín "shadow", Greek και "and" Between English tune (RP) and cute. Sometimes used instead for [tʃ] in languages like Hindi.
[ç] German Ich More of a y-coloration (more palatal) than [x]. Some English speakers have a similar sound in huge. To produce this sound, try whispering loudly the word "ye" as in "Hear ye!".
[ɕ] Mandarin 西安 Xi'an, Polish ściana More y-like than [ʃ]; something like English she.
[ɔ] see under O
D
[d] English dad
[ɗ] Swahili Dodoma Like [d] said with a gulp.
[ɖ] American English harder Like [d] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
[ð] English the, bathe
[dz] English adds, Italian zero
[] English judge
[] Polish niewie "bear" Like [dʒ], but with more of a y-sound.
[] Polish em "jam" Like [dʒ] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
E
[e] Scottish English day, Australian English bet, Spanish fe; French clé, German Klee Similar to American English hey, before the y sets in.
[ɘ] Australian English bird
[ə] English above, Hindi अब [əb] (ab) "now"
[ɚ] American English runner
[ɛ] British, Irish, North American English bet, New Zealand English bat
[ɛ̃] French Saint-Étienne, vin, main Nasalized [ɛ].
[ɜ] RP bird (long)
[ɝ] American English bird
F
[f] English fun
[ɟ] see under J
[ʄ] see under J
G
[ɡ] English gag (Should look like . No different from a Latin "g")
[ɠ] Swahili Uganda Like [ɡ] said with a gulp.
[ɢ] Like [ɡ], but further back, in the throat. Found in Persian and some Arabic dialects for /q/, as in Muammar Gaddafi.
[ʒ] see under Z English beige.
H
[h] American English house
[ɦ] English ahead, when said quickly.
[ʰ] The extra puff of air in English top [tʰɒp] compared to stop [stɒp], or to French or Spanish [t].
[ħ] Arabic ‏مُحَمَّدMuhammad Far down in the throat, like [h], but stronger.
[ʜ] Iraqi Arabic حَي [ʜaj] "alive" Corresponds to /ħ/ (ح) in Standard Arabic.
[ɥ] see under Y
[ɮ] see under L
I
[i] English sea, French ville, Spanish Valladolid
[ɪ] British, Irish, North American English sit, New Zealand English set
[ɨ] Russian ты "you" Often used for unstressed English roses.
J
[j] English yes, hallelujah, German Junge
[ʲ] In Russian Ленин [ˈlʲenʲɪn] Indicates a sound is more y-like.
[ʝ] Spanish cayo (some dialects) Like [j], but stronger.
[ɟ] Turkish gör "see", Czech díra "hole" Between English dew (RP) and argue. Sometimes used instead for [dʒ] in languages like Hindi.
[ʄ] Swahili jambo Like [ɟ] said with a gulp.
K
[k] English kick, skip
L
[l] English leaf
[ɫ] English wool
Russian малый [ˈmɑɫɨj] "small"
"Dark" el.
[ɬ] Welsh llwyd [ɬʊɪd] "grey"
Zulu hlala [ɬaːla] "sit"
By touching the roof of mouth with the tongue and giving a quick breath out. Found in Welsh placenames like Llangollen and Llanelli and Nelson Mandela's Xhosa name Rolihlahla.
[ɭ] Like [l] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
[ɺ] A flapped [l], like [l] and [ɾ] said together.
[ɮ] Zulu dla "eat" Rather like [l] and [ʒ], or [l] and [ð], said together.
[ʟ]
M
[m] English mime
[ɱ] English symphony Like [m], but the lips touch the teeth as they do in [f].
[ɯ] see under W
[ʍ] see under W
N
[n] English nun
[ŋ] English sing, Māori nga
[ɲ] Spanish Peña, French champagne Rather like English canyon (/nj/ said quickly).
[ɳ] Hindi वरुण [ʋəruɳ] Varuna Like [n] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
[ɴ] Castilian Spanish Don Juan [doɴˈχwan] Like [ŋ], but further back, in the throat.
O
[o] Modern RP, Australian and New Zealand English caught (long)
Spanish no, French eau, German Boden
Somewhat reminiscent of American English no. The RP vowel is usually transcribed with ɔː for historical reasons.
[ɔ] Modern RP, Australian and New Zealand English cot
German Oldenburg, French Garonne
The RP vowel is usually transcribed with ɒ for historical reasons.
[ɔ̃] French Lyon, son Nasalized [ɔ].
[ø] New Zealand English nurse, French feu, bœufs, German Goethe Like [e], but with the lips rounded like [o].
[ɵ] Modern RP foot, Dutch hut, French je, Swedish dum Halfway between [o] and [ø]. Similar to [ʊ] but with the tongue slightly more down and front. The RP vowel is typically transcribed with ʊ, the Dutch vowel is often transcribed with ʏ or œ, whereas the French vowel is typically transcribed with ə.
[œ] French bœuf, seul, German Göttingen Like [ɛ], but with the lips rounded like [ɔ].
[œ̃] French brun, parfum Nasalized [œ].
[ɶ]
[θ] see under Others
[ɸ] see under Others
P
[p] English pip
Q
[q] Arabic ‏قُرْآنQur’ān Like [k], but further back, in the throat.
R
[r] Spanish perro, Scottish English borrow "Rolled R". (Often used for other rhotics, such as English [ɹ], when there's no ambiguity.)
[ɾ] Spanish pero, Tagalog daliri, Malay kabar, American English kitty/kiddie "Flapped R".
[ʀ] Dutch rood and German rot (some speakers) A trill in the back of the throat. Found for /r/ in some conservative registers of French.
[ɽ] Urdu ساڑی [saːɽiː] "saree" Like flapped [ɾ], but with the tongue curled back.
[ɹ] most accents of English borrow
[ɻ] Tamil புழு Puu "Worm", Mandarin 人民日报 Rénmín Rìbào "People's Daily", American English borrow, butter Like [ɹ], but with the tongue curled or pulled back, as pronounced by many English speakers.
[ʁ] French Paris, German Riemann (some dialects) Said back in the throat, but not trilled.
S
[s] English sass
[ʃ] English shoe
[ʂ] Mandarin 少林 (Shàolín), Russian Пушкин (Pushkin) Acoustically similar to [ʃ], but with the tongue curled or pulled back.
T
[t] English tot, stop
[ʈ] Hindi टमाटर [ʈəmaːʈəɾ] (amāar) "tomato" Like [t], but with the tongue curled or pulled back.
[ts] English cats, Russian царь tsar
[] English church
[] Mandarin 北京 Běijīng (listen), Polish ciebie "you" Like [tʃ], but with more of a y-sound.
[] Mandarin 真正 zhēnzhèng, Polish czas Like [tʃ] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
U
[u] American English food, French vous "you", German Schumacher
[ʊ] American English foot, German Bundesrepublik
[ʉ] Modern RP, Australian English food (long) Like [ɨ], but with the lips rounded as for [u].
[ɥ] see under Y
[ɯ] see under W
V
[v] English verve
[ʋ] Hindi वरुण [ʋəɾʊɳə] "Varuna" Between [v] and [w]. Used by some Germans and Russians for v/w, and by some speakers of British English for r.
[ɤ] see under Y
[ɣ] see under Y
[ʌ] see under A
W
[w] English wow
[ʷ] Indicates a sound has lip rounding, as in English rain
[ʍ] what (some dialects) like [h] and [w] said together
[ɯ] Turkish kayık "caïque", Scottish Gaelic gaol Like [u], but with the lips flat; something like [ʊ].
[ɰ] Spanish agua Like [w], but with the lips flat.
X
[x] Scottish English loch, German Bach, Russian хлеб [xlʲep] "bread", Spanish joven between [k] and [h]
[χ] northern Standard Dutch Scheveningen, Castilian Spanish Don Juan [doɴˈχwan] Like [x], but further back, in the throat. Some German and Arabic speakers have [χ] for [x].
Y
[y] French rue, German Bülow Like [i], but with the lips rounded as for [u].
[ʏ] Scottish English foot, German Düsseldorf Like [ɪ], but with the lips rounded as for [ʊ].
[ɣ] Arabic ‏غَالِيghālī and Swahili ghali "expensive", Spanish suegro Sounds rather like French [ʁ] or between [ɡ] and [h].
[ɤ] Mandarin 河南 Hénán, Scottish Gaelic taigh Like [o] but without the lips rounded, something like a cross of [ʊ] and [ʌ].
[ʎ] Italian tagliatelle, Portuguese mulher Like [l], but more y-like. Rather like English volume.
[ɥ] French lui Like [j] and [w] said together.
Z
[z] English zoo
[ʒ] English vision, French journal
[ʑ] old-styled Russian позже [ˈpoʑːe] "later", Polish źle More y-like than [ʒ], something like beigey.
[ʐ] Russian жир "fat" Like [ʒ] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
[ɮ] see under L
Others
[θ] English thigh, bath
[ɸ] Japanese 富士 [ɸɯdʑi] Fuji, Māori [ˌɸaːɾeːˈnuiː] wharenui Like [p], but with the lips not quite touching
[ʔ] English uh-oh, Hawaii, German die Angst The 'glottal stop', a catch in the breath. For some people, found in button [ˈbʌʔn̩], or between vowels across words: Deus ex machina [ˌdeɪəsˌʔɛksˈmɑːkɪnə]; in some nonstandard dialects, in a apple [əˈʔæpl̩].
[ʕ] Arabic ‏عَرَبِيّʻarabī "Arabic" A light, voiced sound deep in the throat, articulated with the root of the tongue against the pharynx (back of the throat).
[ǀ] English tsk-tsk! or tut-tut!, Zulu icici "earring" (The English click used for disapproval.) Several distinct sounds, written as digraphs, including [kǀ], [ɡǀ], [ŋǀ]. The Zimbabwean MP Ncube has this click in his name, as did Cetshwayo.
[ǁ] English tchick! tchick!, Zulu ixoxo "frog" (The English click used to urge on a horse.) Several distinct sounds, written as digraphs, including [kǁ], [ɡǁ], [ŋǁ]. Found in the name of the Xhosa.
[ǃ] Zulu iqaqa "polecat" (The English click used to imitate the trotting of a horse.) A hollow popping sound, like a cork pulled from a bottle. Several distinct sounds, written as digraphs, including [kǃ], [ɡǃ], [ŋǃ].
[ʘ] ǂ’Amkoe ʘoa "two" Like a kissing sound.
[ǂ] Khoekhoe ǂgā-amǃnâ [ǂàʔám̀ᵑǃã̀] "to put in the mouth" Like an imitation of a chewing sound.

Marks added to letters

Several marks can be added above, below, before or after letters. These are here shown on a carrier letter such as the vowel a. A more complete list is given at International Phonetic Alphabet § Diacritics and prosodic notation.

Symbol Example Description
Signs above a letter
[ã] French vin blanc [vɛ̃ blɑ̃] "white wine" A nasal vowel, as with a Texas twang
[ä] Portuguese vá [vä] "go" A central vowel pronounced with the tongue position in the middle of the mouth; neither forward nor back
[ă] English police [pə̆ˈliˑs] An extra-short speech sound (usually a vowel)
Signs below a letter
[a̯] English cow [kʰaʊ̯], koi [kʰɔɪ̯] This vowel does not form a syllable of its own, but runs into the vowel next to it. (In English, the diacritic is generally left off: [kaʊ].)
[n̥] English boy [b̥ɔɪ̯], doe [d̥oʊ̯]

(see also)

Sounds like a loud whisper; [n̥] is like a whispered breath through the nose. [l̥] is found in Tibetan Lhasa.
[n̩] English button A consonant without a vowel (English [n̩] is often transcribed /ən/.)
[d̪] Spanish dos, French deux The tongue touches the teeth more than it does in English.
Signs next to a letter
[kʰ] English come Aspirated consonant, pronounced with a puff of air. Similarly [tʰ tsʰ tʃʰ tɕʰ].
[k’] Zulu ukuza "come" Ejective. Like a popped [k], pushed from the throat. Similarly [tʼ tʃʼ tsʼ tɬʼ].
[aː] English shh! [ʃː] Long. Often used with English vowels or diphthongs: Mayo /ˈmeːoː/ for [ˈmeɪ̯ɜʊ̯], etc.
[aˑ] RP caught [ˈkʰoˑt] Semi-long. (Although the vowel is different, this is also longer than cot [ˈkʰɔt].)
[ˈa] pronunciation
[pɹ̥əʊ̯ˌnɐnsiˈeɪʃn̩]
Main stress. The mark denotes the stress of the following syllable.
[ˌa] Weaker stress. The mark denotes the stress of the following syllable.
[.] English courtship [ˈkʰɔrt.ʃɪp] Syllable break (this is often redundant and therefore left off)

Brackets

Two types of brackets are commonly used to enclose transcriptions in the IPA:

A third kind of bracket is occasionally seen:

Lastly,

Rendering issues

IPA typeface support is increasing, and is now included in several typefaces such as the Times New Roman versions that come with various recent computer operating systems. Diacritics are not always properly rendered, however. IPA typefaces that are freely available online include Gentium, several from the SIL (such as Charis SIL, and Doulos SIL), Dehuti, DejaVu Sans, and TITUS Cyberbit, which are all freely available; as well as commercial typefaces such as Brill, available from Brill Publishers, and Lucida Sans Unicode and Arial Unicode MS, shipping with various Microsoft products. These all include several ranges of characters in addition to the IPA. Modern Web browsers generally do not need any configuration to display these symbols, provided that a typeface capable of doing so is available to the operating system.

Particularly, the following symbols may be shown improperly depending on your font:

Open-tail G

These two characters should look similar:

ɡ

If in the box to the left you see the symbol rather than a lower-case open-tail g, you may be experiencing a well-known bug in the font MS Reference Sans Serif; switching to another font may fix it.

On your current font: [ɡ],

and in several other fonts:

Small capital OE ligature

On macOS, iOS, and iPadOS, ɶ, which is in small caps and represents an open front rounded vowel, may appear the same as œ, which is lowercase and represents a open-mid front rounded vowel. This occurs with the font Helvetica (which Apple users see on desktop) but not with San Francisco (the font Apple users see on mobile) as of iOS/iPadOS 16.

Greek chi

Some Android devices show χ, the Greek chi, which represents a voiceless uvular fricative, as the same as x, which represents a voiceless velar fricative:

Small capital inverted R

Apple's system font San Francisco has a bug that shows ʁ, an inverted small capital R, which represents a voiced uvular fricative, as a turned small capital R .

Tie bar

The tie bar is intended to cover both letters of an affricate or doubly articulated consonant. However, if your browser uses Arial Unicode MS to display IPA characters, the following incorrectly formed sequences (letter, letter, tie bar) may look better than the correct order (letter, tie bar, letter) due to a bug in that font:

ts͡, tʃ͡, tɕ͡, dz͡, dʒ͡, dʑ͡, tɬ͡, kp͡, ɡb͡, ŋm͡.

Here is how the proper configuration displays in your default IPA font:

t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m,

and in several other fonts:

  • Arial: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m
  • Arial Unicode MS: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m
  • Biolinum: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m
  • Bitstream Cyberbit: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m
  • Cambria: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m
  • Calibri: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m
  • Charis SIL: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m
  • Chrysanthi: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m
  • Code2000: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m
  • DejaVu Sans: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m
  • Doulos SIL: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m
  • Everson Mono: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m
  • Gentium: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m
  • GentiumAlt: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m
  • Gentium Plus: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m
  • Helvetica: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m
  • Helvetica Neue: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m
  • Hiragino Kaku Gothic: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m
  • Linux Libertine: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m
  • Lucida Grande: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m
  • Lucida Sans: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m
  • Matrix: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m
  • Quivira: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m
  • STIX: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m
  • Segoe UI: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m
  • Times New Roman: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m
  • TITUS Cyberbit Basic: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m
  • Unifont: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m
Angle brackets

True angle brackets, ⟨ ⟩, are unsupported by several common fonts. Here is how they display in your default settings:

⟨...⟩ (unformatted)
⟨...⟩ (default IPA font)
⟨...⟩ (default Unicode font),

and in several specific fonts:

Registered users can specify their own font for IPA text by editing their user stylesheet. They can also edit their global stylesheet, which works across all Wikimedia projects. For instance, the following code would cause IPA to be displayed in the font Charis SIL:

.IPA {
	font-family: "Charis SIL";
}

Computer input using on-screen keyboard

Online IPA keyboard utilities are available and they cover a range of IPA symbols and diacritics:

For iOS there are free IPA keyboard layouts, e.g. IPA Phonetic Keyboard.

See also

External links