Voiced postalveolar affricate
d̠ʒ
IPA Number104 135
Audio sample
Encoding
Entity (decimal)d​͡​ʒ
Unicode (hex)U+0064 U+0361 U+0292
X-SAMPAdZ or d_rZ

The voiced palato-alveolar sibilant affricate, voiced post-alveolar affricate or voiced domed postalveolar sibilant affricate, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The sound is transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet with ⟨d͡ʒ⟩ (formerly the ligature ⟨ʤ⟩), or in some broad transcriptionsɟ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA representation is dZ. Alternatives commonly used in linguistic works, particularly in older or American literature, are ⟨ǰ⟩, ⟨ǧ⟩, ⟨ǯ⟩, and ⟨dž⟩. It is familiar to English speakers as the pronunciation of ⟨j⟩ in jump. For Albanian speakers, the sound is close to the expressed by the diagraph Xh.

Features

Features of the voiced postalveolar affricate:

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Abkhaz аџыр [ad͡ʒər] 'steel' See Abkhaz phonology
Adyghe джанэ [d͡ʒaːna]  'dress'
Albanian xham [d͡ʒam] 'glass'
Amharic እን [ɨnd͡ʒəra] 'injera'
Arabic Modern Standard[1] جَرَس [d͡ʒaras] 'bell' In other standards and dialects, corresponds to [ɡ] or [ʒ]. See Arabic phonology
Hejazi جَزْمَة [d͡ʒazma] 'shoes' Pronounced [ʒ] by some speakers. See Hejazi Arabic phonology
Armenian Eastern[2] ջուր [d͡ʒuɾ] 'water'
Western ճանճ [d͡ʒɑnd͡ʒ] 'musca (fly)'
Assyrian ܓ̰ܝܪܐ ǧyoro [d͡ʒjɑɾɑ] 'to pee' Used in native terminology. Used predominantly in Urmia and some Jilu dialects. [ɟ] is used in other varieties.
Azerbaijani ağac [ɑɣɑd͡ʒ] 'tree'
Bengali [d͡ʒɔl] 'water' Contrasts with the aspirated form. See Bengali phonology
Bulgarian джудже [d͡ʒʊˈd͡ʒɛ] 'dwarf' See Bulgarian phonology
Catalan jutge [ˈʒud͡ʒə] 'judge' See Catalan phonology
Chechen джерво / dzhyerwo [d͡ʒjerwo] 'previously married woman'
Chinese Quzhou dialect / zon [d͡ʒõ] 'heavy'
Coptic ϫ [d͡ʒe] 'that'
Czech čba [lɛːd͡ʒba] 'treatment' See Czech phonology
Dhivehi ޖަރާސީމު / jaraaseemu [d͡ʒaraːsiːmu] 'germs' See Dhivehi phonology
English gene [ˈd͡ʒiːn] 'gene' See English phonology
Esperanto manĝaĵo [manˈd͡ʒaʒo̞] 'food' See Esperanto phonology
French adjonction [ad͡ʒɔ̃ksjɔ̃] 'addition' Rare. See French phonology
Georgian[3] იბე [d͡ʒibɛ] 'pocket'
German Standard[4] Dschungel [ˈd͡ʒʊŋəl] 'jungle' Laminal or apico-laminal and strongly labialized.[4] Some speakers may merge it with /t͡ʃ/. See Standard German phonology
Goemai [example needed] [d͡ʒaːn] 'twins'
Hebrew ג׳וק [d͡ʒuk] 'cockroach' Only used in loanwords. See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindustani Hindi जाना [d͡ʒäːnäː] 'to go' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Hindustani phonology
Urdu جانا
Hungarian lándzsa [laːnd͡ʒɒ] 'spear' Rare, mostly in loanwords. See Hungarian phonology
Indonesian jarak [ˈd͡ʒaraʔ] 'distance'
Italian[5] gemma [ˈd͡ʒɛmma] 'gem' [dʒ] occurs when letter 'G' is before front vowels [e], [ [i] and [ɛ], while when 'G' is in front of vowels [o], [a], [u] and [ɔ] the phoneme changes to a voiced velar plosive.
Kabyle lǧiran [id͡ʒiræn] 'the neighbors'
Kashubian[6] [example needed]
Kazakh жиһаз [d͡ʒihaz] 'furniture' See Kazakh phonology
Kurdish Northern cîger [d͡ʒiːˈɡɛɾ] 'lung' See Kurdish phonology
Central جەرگ [d͡ʒɛɾg] 'liver'
Southern [d͡ʒæɾg]
Kyrgyz жаман [d͡ʒaman] 'bad' See Kyrgyz phonology
Latvian dai [dad͡ʒi] 'thistles' See Latvian phonology
Limburgish Hasselt dialect[7] djèn [d͡ʒɛːn²] 'Eugene' See Hasselt dialect phonology
Lithuanian iaugsmingas [d͡ʒɛʊɡʲsʲˈmʲɪnɡɐs] 'gladsome' See Lithuanian phonology
Macedonian џемпер [ˈd͡ʒɛmpɛr] 'sweater' See Macedonian phonology
Malay jahat [d͡ʒahat] 'evil'
Maltese ġabra [d͡ʒab.ra] 'collection'
Manchu ᡠᠸᡝ [d͡ʒuwe] 'two'
Marathi [d͡ʒəj] 'victory' Contrasts with the aspirated form. Allophone [dʑ] and [d̪z]. See Marathi phonology
Occitan Languedocien jove [ˈd͡ʒuβe] 'young' See Occitan phonology
Provençal [ˈd͡ʒuve]
Odia ମି/jami [d͡ʒɔmi] 'land' Contrasts with aspirated form.See Odia phonology
Ojibwe ᑭᐌᐦ / iicikiwee [iːd͡ʒikiwẽːʔ] 'brother' See Ojibwe phonology
Pashto جګ [d͡ʒeɡ] 'high'
Persian کجا [kod͡ʒɒ] 'where' See Persian phonology
Polish Standard liczba [ˈlid͡ʐ.ba] 'number'
Gmina Istebna dziwny [ˈd͡ʒivn̪ɘ] 'strange' /ɖ͡ʐ/ and /d͡ʑ/ merge into [d͡ʒ] in these dialects. In standard Polish, /d͡ʒ/ is commonly used to transcribe what actually is a laminal voiced retroflex affricate.
Lubawa dialect[8]
Malbork dialect[8]
Ostróda dialect[8]
Warmia dialect[8]
Portuguese Most Brazilian dialects[9] grande [ˈɡɾɐ̃d͡ʒ(i)] 'big' Allophone of /d/ before /i, ĩ/ (including when the vowel is elided) and other instances of [i] (e.g. epenthesis), marginal sound otherwise.
Most dialects jambalaya [d͡ʒɐ̃bɐˈlajɐ] 'jambalaya' In free variation with /ʒ/ in a few recent loanwords. See Portuguese phonology
Romanian ger [ˈd͡ʒɛ̝r] 'frost' See Romanian phonology
Sardinian Campidanese géneru [ˈd͡ʒɛneru] 'son-in-law'
Scottish Gaelic Dia [d͡ʒia] 'God' See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Serbo-Croatian Some speakers џем / em [d͡ʒê̞m] 'jam' May be laminal retroflex instead, depending on the dialect. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Bosnian ђаво / đavo [d͡ʒâ̠ʋo̞ː] 'devil' Most Croatian and some Bosnian speakers merge /d͡ʒ/ and /d͡ʑ/, either to [d͡ʒ] or laminal [ɖ͡ʐ].
Croatian
Silesian Gmina Istebna[10] [example needed] These dialects merge /ɖ͡ʐ/ and /d͡ʑ/ into [d͡ʒ].
Jablunkov[10] [example needed]
Somali joog [d͡ʒoːɡ] 'stop' See Somali phonology
Tagalog diyan [d͡ʒän] 'there' Used to pronounce the multigraphs ⟨dy⟩ and ⟨diy⟩ in native words and ⟨j⟩ in loanwords outside Spanish. For more information, see Tagalog phonology.
Turkish acı [äˈd͡ʒɯ] 'pain' See Turkish phonology
Turkmen jar [d͡ʒär] 'ravine'
Tyap jem [d͡ʒem] 'hippopotamus'
Ubykh [amd͡ʒan] '?' See Ubykh phonology
Ukrainian[11] джерело [d͡ʒɛrɛˈlɔ] 'source' See Ukrainian phonology
Uyghur جوزا [d͡ʒozɑ] 'desk' See Uyghur phonology
West Frisian siedzje [ˈʃɪd͡ʒə] 'to sow' See West Frisian phonology
Yiddish דזשוכע [d͡ʒʊxə] 'insect' See Yiddish phonology
Zapotec Tilquiapan[12] dxan [d͡ʒaŋ] 'god'

Voiced postalveolar non-sibilant affricate

Voiced postalveolar non-sibilant affricate
d̠ɹ̠˔
dɹ̝˗
Audio sample

Features

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
English Australian[13] dream [d̠͡ɹ̠˔ʷɪi̯m] 'dream' Phonetic realization of the stressed, syllable-initial sequence /dr/.[13][14][15][16] In General American and Received Pronunciation, the less common alternative is alveolar [d͡ɹ̝].[14] See Australian English phonology and English phonology
General American[14][15]
Received Pronunciation[14][15]
Port Talbot[16] [d̠͡ɹ̠˔iːm]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Watson (2002:16)
  2. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009:13)
  3. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006:255)
  4. ^ a b Mangold (2005:51–52)
  5. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004:117)
  6. ^ Jerzy Treder. "Fonetyka i fonologia". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
  7. ^ Peters (2006:119)
  8. ^ a b c d Dubisz, Karaś & Kolis (1995:62)
  9. ^ Barbosa & Albano (2004:228)
  10. ^ a b Dąbrowska (2004:?)
  11. ^ Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995), p. 4.
  12. ^ Merrill (2008:108)
  13. ^ a b Cox & Fletcher (2017), p. 144.
  14. ^ a b c d Cruttenden (2014), pp. 177, 186–188, 192.
  15. ^ a b c Wells (2008).
  16. ^ a b Connolly (1990), p. 121.

References