Voiced postalveolar affricate
d̠ʒ
IPA Number104 135
Audio sample
Encoding
Entity (decimal)d​͡​ʒ
Unicode (hex)U+0064 U+0361 U+0292
X-SAMPAdZ or d_rZ

The voiced palato-alveolar sibilant affricate, voiced post-alveolar affricate or voiced domed postalveolar sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The sound is transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet with d͡ʒ (formerly the ligature ʤ), or in some broad transcriptions ɟ, and the equivalent X-SAMPA representation is dZ. Alternatives commonly used in linguistic works, particularly in older or American literature, are ⟨ǰ⟩, ⟨ǧ⟩, ⟨ǯ⟩, and ⟨dž⟩. It is familiar to English speakers as the pronunciation of ⟨j⟩ in jump.

Features

Features of the voiced postalveolar affricate:

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Abkhaz аџыр/adžyr [ad͡ʒər] 'steel' See Abkhaz phonology
Adyghe джанэ/canä [d͡ʒaːna] 'dress'
Albanian xham [d͡ʒam] 'glass'
Amharic እንራ/înjera [ɨnd͡ʒəra] 'injera'
Arabic Modern Standard[1] جَـرَس/jaras [d͡ʒaras] 'bell' In other standards and dialects, corresponds to [ɡ] or [ʒ]. See Arabic phonology
Hejazi جــيب/jēb [d͡ʒe̞ːb] 'pocket' Pronounced [ʒ] by some speakers. See Hejazi Arabic phonology
Armenian Eastern[2] ջուր/džur [d͡ʒuɾ] 'water'
Western ճանճ/džandža [d͡ʒɑnd͡ʒ] 'musca (fly)'
Assyrian ܓ̰ܝܪܐ ǧyoro [d͡ʒjɑɾɑ] 'to pee' Used in native terminology. Used predominantly in Urmia and some Jilu dialects. [ɟ] is used in other varieties.
Azerbaijani can [d͡ʒɑn] 'soul'
Bengali ল/jol [d͡ʒɔl] 'water' Contrasts with the aspirated form. See Bengali phonology
Bulgarian джудже/džudže [d͡ʒʊˈd͡ʒɛ] 'dwarf' See Bulgarian phonology
Catalan jutge [ˈʒud͡ʒə] 'judge' See Catalan phonology
Chechen джерво / cyervo [d͡ʒjerwo] 'previously married woman'
Chinese Quzhou dialect / zon [d͡ʒõ] 'heavy'
Coptic ϫ [d͡ʒe] 'that'
Czech džbán [d͡ʒbaːn] 'jug' See Czech phonology
Dhivehi ޖަރާސީމު / jaraaseemu [d͡ʒaraːsiːmu] 'germs' See Dhivehi phonology
Dutch jeans [d͡ʒiːns] 'jeans' Some say [ʒiːns]
English jeans [ˈd͡ʒiːnz] 'jeans' See English phonology
Esperanto manĝaĵo [manˈd͡ʒaʒo̞] 'food' See Esperanto phonology
Estonian äss [ˈd̥ʒæsː] 'jazz' Rare, occurs only in loanwords. See Estonian phonology
Finnish onkki [ˈdʒo̞ŋkːi] 'junk (ship)' Rare, occurs only in loanwords. See Finnish phonology
French adjonction [ad͡ʒɔ̃ksjɔ̃] 'addition' Rare. See French phonology
Georgian[3] იბე/džibe [d͡ʒibɛ] 'pocket'
German Standard[4] Dschungel [ˈd͡ʒʊŋəl] 'jungle' Laminal or apico-laminal and strongly labialized.[4] Some speakers may merge it with /t͡ʃ/. See Standard German phonology
Goemai [example needed] [d͡ʒaːn] 'twins'
Hebrew Standard ג׳וק/ǧuq [d͡ʒuk] 'cockroach' Only used in loanwords. See Modern Hebrew phonology
Temani גָּדוֹל‎/ğaḏol [d͡ʒaðol] 'big, great' Yemenite Hebrew pronunciation of gimel with dageš. See Yemenite Hebrew
Hindustani Hindi जाना/jānā [d͡ʒäːnäː] 'to go' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Hindustani phonology
Urdu جـانا/jana
Hungarian lándzsa [laːnd͡ʒɒ] 'spear' Rare, mostly in loanwords. See Hungarian phonology
Indonesian jarak [ˈd͡ʒaraʔ] 'distance'
Italian[5] gemma [ˈd͡ʒɛmma] 'gem' [dʒ] occurs when letter 'G' is before front vowels [e], [i] and [ɛ], while when 'G' is in front of vowels [o], [a], [u] and [ɔ] the phoneme changes to a voiced velar plosive.
Kabyle lǧiran [id͡ʒiræn] 'the neighbors'
Kashubian[6] [example needed]
Kurdish Northern cîger [d͡ʒiːˈɡɛɾ] 'lung' See Kurdish phonology
Central جــەرگ [d͡ʒɛɾg] 'liver'
Southern [d͡ʒæɾg]
Kyrgyz жаман / jaman [d͡ʒaman] 'bad' See Kyrgyz phonology
Ladino djudyó/גﬞודיו [d͡ʒudˈjo] 'Jew'
Latvian dai [dad͡ʒi] 'thistles' See Latvian phonology
Limburgish Hasselt dialect[7] djèn [d͡ʒɛːn²] 'Eugene' See Hasselt dialect phonology
Lithuanian iaugsmingas [d͡ʒɛʊɡʲsʲˈmʲɪnɡɐs] 'gladsome' See Lithuanian phonology
Macedonian џемпер/džemper [ˈd͡ʒɛmpɛr] 'sweater' See Macedonian phonology
Malay jahat [d͡ʒahat] 'evil'
Maltese ġabra [d͡ʒab.ra] 'collection'
Manchu ᡠᠸᡝ/juwe [d͡ʒuwe] 'two'
Marathi य/joy [d͡ʒəj] 'victory' Contrasts with the aspirated form. Allophone [dʑ] and [d̪z]. See Marathi phonology
Occitan Languedocien jove [ˈd͡ʒuβe] 'young' See Occitan phonology
Provençal [ˈd͡ʒuve]
Odia ମି/jami [d͡ʒɔmi] 'land' Contrasts with aspirated form.See Odia phonology
Ojibwe iijikiwenh [iːd͡ʒikiwẽːʔ] 'brother' See Ojibwe phonology
Pashto جــګ [d͡ʒeɡ] 'high'
Persian کـجـا [kod͡ʒɒ] 'where' See Persian phonology
Polish Standard liczba [ˈlid͡ʐ.ba] 'number'
Gmina Istebna dziwny [ˈd͡ʒivn̪ɘ] 'strange' /ɖ͡ʐ/ and /d͡ʑ/ merge into [d͡ʒ] in these dialects. In standard Polish, /d͡ʒ/ is commonly used to transcribe what actually is a laminal voiced retroflex affricate.
Lubawa dialect[8]
Malbork dialect[8]
Ostróda dialect[8]
Warmia dialect[8]
Portuguese Most Brazilian dialects[9] grande [ˈɡɾɐ̃d͡ʒ(i)] 'big' Allophone of /d/ before /i, ĩ/ (including when the vowel is elided) and other instances of [i] (e.g. epenthesis), marginal sound otherwise.
Most dialects jambalaya [d͡ʒɐ̃bɐˈlajɐ] 'jambalaya' In free variation with /ʒ/ in a few recent loanwords. See Portuguese phonology
Romanian ger [ˈd͡ʒɛ̝r] 'frost' See Romanian phonology
Sardinian Campidanese géneru [ˈd͡ʒɛneru] 'son-in-law'
Scottish Gaelic Dia [d͡ʒia] 'God' See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Serbo-Croatian Some speakers џем / em [d͡ʒê̞m] 'jam' May be laminal retroflex instead, depending on the dialect. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Bosnian ђаво / đavo [d͡ʒâ̠ʋo̞ː] 'devil' Most Croatian and some Bosnian speakers merge /d͡ʒ/ and /d͡ʑ/, either to [d͡ʒ] or laminal [ɖ͡ʐ].
Croatian
Silesian Gmina Istebna[10] [example needed] These dialects merge /ɖ͡ʐ/ and /d͡ʑ/ into [d͡ʒ].
Jablunkov[10] [example needed]
Slovene enačba [eˈnáːd͡ʒbà] 'equation' Allophone of /t͡ʃ/ before voiced obstruents in native words. As a phoneme present only in loanwords. See Slovene phonology
Somali joog [d͡ʒoːɡ] 'stop' See Somali phonology
Tagalog diyan [d͡ʒän] 'there' Used to pronounce the multigraphs ⟨dy⟩ and ⟨diy⟩ in native words and ⟨j⟩ in loanwords outside Spanish. For more information, see Tagalog phonology.
Tatar Mishar Dialect[11] can / җан [d͡ʒɑn] 'soul' In standard Tatar (Kazan dialect), the sound for letter c (җ) is ⟨ʑ⟩.
Turkish acı [äˈd͡ʒɯ] 'pain' See Turkish phonology
Turkmen jar [d͡ʒär] 'ravine'
Tyap jem [d͡ʒem] 'hippopotamus'
Ubykh [amd͡ʒan] '?' See Ubykh phonology
Ukrainian[12] джерело/džerelo [d͡ʒɛrɛˈlɔ] 'source' See Ukrainian phonology
Uyghur joza / جوزا [d͡ʒozɑ] 'desk' See Uyghur phonology
Uzbek jahon / жаҳон [d͡ʒaˈhɒn] 'world'
West Frisian siedzje [ˈʃɪd͡ʒə] 'to sow' See West Frisian phonology
Yiddish דזשוכע [d͡ʒʊxə] 'insect' See Yiddish phonology
Zapotec Tilquiapan[13] dxan [d͡ʒaŋ] 'god'

Voiced postalveolar non-sibilant affricate

Voiced postalveolar non-sibilant affricate
d̠ɹ̠˔
dɹ̝˗
Audio sample

Features

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
English Australian[14] dream [d̠͡ɹ̠˔ʷɪi̯m] 'dream' Phonetic realization of the stressed, syllable-initial sequence /dr/.[14][15][16] In General American and Received Pronunciation, the less common alternative is alveolar [d͡ɹ̝].[15] See Australian English phonology and English phonology
General American[15][16]
Received Pronunciation[15][16]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Watson (2002:16)
  2. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009:13)
  3. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006:255)
  4. ^ a b Mangold (2005:51–52)
  5. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004:117)
  6. ^ Jerzy Treder. "Fonetyka i fonologia". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
  7. ^ Peters (2006:119)
  8. ^ a b c d Dubisz, Karaś & Kolis (1995:62)
  9. ^ Barbosa & Albano (2004:228)
  10. ^ a b Dąbrowska (2004:?)
  11. ^ Leitzinger, Antero: Mishäärit – Suomen vanha islamilainen yhteisö. Helsinki: Kirja-Leitzinger, 1996. ISBN 952-9752-08-3. (p. 45)
  12. ^ Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995), p. 4.
  13. ^ Merrill (2008:108)
  14. ^ a b Cox & Fletcher (2017), p. 144.
  15. ^ a b c d Cruttenden (2014), pp. 177, 186–188, 192.
  16. ^ a b c Wells (2008).

References