Voiceless alveolar trill
IPA Number122 402A
Audio sample

The voiceless alveolar trill differs from the voiced alveolar trill /r/ only by the vibrations of the vocal cord. It occurs in a few languages, usually alongside the voiced version, as a similar phoneme or an allophone.

Proto-Indo-European *sr developed into a sound spelled , with the letter for /r/ and the diacritic for /h/, in Ancient Greek. It was probably a voiceless alveolar trill and became the regular word-initial allophone of /r/ in standard Attic Greek that has disappeared in Modern Greek.


Features of the voiceless alveolar trill:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Dharumbal[2] barhi [ˈbar̥i] 'stone' Contrasts with /r/.
Estonian[3] [example needed] Word-final allophone of /r/ after /t, s, h/.[3] See Estonian phonology
Dutch herinvoering [ɦɛr̥ɪnvuːrɪŋ] 'reinstatement' Possible word-final allophone of /r/;
Icelandic hrafn [ˈr̥apn̥] 'raven' Contrasts with /r/. For some speakers it may actually be a voiceless flap. Also illustrates [n̥]. See Icelandic phonology
Konda[4] puRi [pur̥i] 'ant hill' Contrasts r ɽ/.[5]
Lezgian[6] крчар/krčar [ˈkʰr̥t͡ʃar] 'horns' Allophone of /r/ between voiceless obstruents
Limburgish Hasselt dialect[7] geer [ɣeːr̥] 'odour' Possible word-final allophone of /r/; may be uvular [ʀ̥] instead.[8] See Hasselt dialect phonology
Moksha нархне/närhn'e [ˈnar̥nʲæ] 'these grasses' Contrasts with /r/: нарня [ˈnarnʲæ] "short grass". It has the palatalized counterpart /r̥ʲ/: марьхне [ˈmar̥ʲnʲæ] "these apples", but марьня [ˈmarʲnʲæ] "little apple"
Nivkh Amur dialect р̌ы/řy [r̥ɨ] 'door' Contrasts with /r/. In the Sakhalin dialect, typically fricated r̝̊.
Northern Qiang [example needed] Contrasts with /r/
Polish krtań [ˈkr̥täɲ̟] 'larynx' Allophone of /r/ when surrounded by voiceless consonants, or word finally after voiceless consonants. See Polish phonology
Ukrainian[9] центр/centr [t̪͡s̪ɛn̪t̪r̥] 'centre' Word-final allophone of /r/ after /t/.[9] See Ukrainian phonology
Welsh Rhagfyr [ˈr̥aɡvɨr] 'December' Contrasts with /r/. See Welsh phonology
Yaygirr dirha [ˈdir̥a] 'tooth' Contrasts with /r/.
Zapotec Quiegolani[10] rsil [r̥sil] 'early' Allophone of /r/.[10]

Voiceless alveolar fricative trill

Voiceless alveolar fricative trill
IPA Number122 402A 429

The voiceless alveolar fricative trill is not known to occur as a phoneme in any language, except possibly the East Sakhalin dialect of Nivkh. It occurs allophonically in Czech.


Features of the voiceless alveolar fricative trill:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Czech[11][12] tři sta [ˈt̪r̝̊ɪs̪t̪ä] 'three hundred' Allophone of /r̝/ after voiceless consonants;[13][12] may be a tapped fricative instead.[12] See Czech phonology
Norwegian Areas around Narvik[14] norsk [nɔr̝̊k] 'Norwegian' Allophone of the sequence /ɾs/ before voiceless consonants.[14]
Some subdialects of Trøndersk[14]
Nivkh (East) Sakhalin dialect р̌ы [r̝̊ɨ] 'door' Contrasts with /r/. In the Amur dialect, typically realized as .
Polish Some dialects przyjść [ˈpr̝̊ɘjɕt͡ɕ] 'to come' Allophone of /r̝/ after voiceless consonants for speakers that do not merge it with /ʐ/. Present in areas from Starogard Gdański to Malbork and those south, west and northwest of them, area from Lubawa to Olsztyn to Olecko to Działdowo, south and east from Wieleń, around Wołomin, southeast from Ostrów Mazowiecka and west from Siedlce, from Brzeg to Opole and those north of them, and roughly from Racibórz to Nowy Targ. Most speakers, including speakers of standard Polish, pronounce it the same as /ʂ/, and speakers maintaining the distinction (which is mostly the elderly) sporadically do so too.
Silesian Gmina Istebna [example needed] Allophone of /r̝/ after voiceless consonants. It's pronounced the same as /ʂ/ in most Polish dialects
Jablunkov [example needed]

See also


  1. ^ Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:228)
  2. ^ Terrill (2002), p. 4.
  3. ^ a b Asu & Teras (2009), p. 368.
  4. ^ Emeneau (1970), p. 70.
  5. ^ Krishnamurti (2003), p. 70.
  6. ^ Haspelmath (1993:35)
  7. ^ Peters (2006)
  8. ^ While Peters (2006) does not state that explicitly, he uses the symbol for many instances of the word-final /r/.
  9. ^ a b Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995:8)
  10. ^ a b Regnier (1993:11)
  11. ^ Dankovičová (1999:70–71)
  12. ^ a b c Šimáčková, Podlipský & Chládková (2012:226)
  13. ^ Dankovičová (1999:70)
  14. ^ a b c Fabiánová (2011:34–35)


  • Asu, Eva Liina; Teras, Pire (2009), "Estonian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 39 (3): 367–372, doi:10.1017/s002510030999017x
  • Dankovičová, Jana (1999), "Czech", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 70–74, ISBN 0-521-65236-7
  • Danyenko, Andrii; Vakulenko, Serhii (1995), Ukrainian, Lincom Europa, ISBN 9783929075083
  • Emeneau, Murray Barnson (1970), Dravidian Comparative Phonology: A Sketch, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India: Annamalai University
  • Fabiánová, Martina (2011), Srovnání české a norské fonetiky (PDF)
  • Haspelmath, Martin (1993), A Grammar of Lezgian, Mouton Grammar Library, vol. 9, Berlin; New York: Mouton de Gruyter, ISBN 3-11-013735-6
  • Krishnamurti, Bhadriraju (2003-01-16). The Dravidian Languages. Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/cbo9780511486876. ISBN 978-0-521-77111-5. S2CID 62636490.
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19815-6.
  • Peters, Jörg (2006), "The dialect of Hasselt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (1): 117–124, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002428
  • Regnier, Sue (1993), "Quiegolani Zapotec Phonology", Work Papers of the Summer Institute of Linguistics, 37, University of Dakota: 37–63
  • Šimáčková, Šárka; Podlipský, Václav Jonáš; Chládková, Kateřina (2012), "Czech spoken in Bohemia and Moravia" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 42 (2): 225–232, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000102
  • Terrill, Angela (2002), Dharumbal: The Language of Rockhampton, Australia, Canberra: Pacific Linguistics, ISBN 0-85883-462-6