|Voiced palatal fricative|
The voiced palatal fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) that represents this sound is ⟨ʝ⟩ (crossed-tail j), and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is
j\. It is the non-sibilant equivalent of the voiced alveolo-palatal sibilant.
In broad transcription, the symbol for the palatal approximant, ⟨j⟩, may be used for the sake of simplicity.
The voiced palatal fricative is a very rare sound, occurring in only 7 of the 317 languages surveyed by the original UCLA Phonological Segment Inventory Database. In Dutch, Kabyle, Margi, Modern Greek, and Scottish Gaelic, the sound occurs phonemically, along with its voiceless counterpart, and in several more, the sound occurs as a result of phonological processes.
To produce this sound, the tip of the tongue is placed against the roof of the mouth behind the upper front teeth; then, while exhaling, the space between the tongue and the palate is narrowed, creating a friction-like sound similar to the ⟨s⟩ sound (IPA: [ʒ]) in the English word leisure.
There is also the voiced post-palatal fricative in some languages, which is articulated slightly more back compared with the place of articulation of the prototypical voiced palatal fricative but not as back as the prototypical voiced velar fricative. The International Phonetic Alphabet does not have a separate symbol for that sound, but it can be transcribed as ⟨ʝ̠⟩, ⟨ʝ˗⟩ (both symbols denote a retracted ⟨ʝ⟩), ⟨ɣ̟⟩ or ⟨ɣ˖⟩ (both symbols denote an advanced ⟨ɣ⟩). The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are
Especially in broad transcription, the voiced post-palatal fricative may be transcribed as a palatalized voiced velar fricative (⟨ɣʲ⟩ in the IPA,
G_j in X-SAMPA).
Features of the voiced palatal fricative:
|Catalan||Majorcan||figuera||[fiˈʝeɾə]||'fig tree'||Occurs in complementary distribution with [ɟ]. Corresponds to [ɣ] in other varieties. See Catalan phonology|
|Danish||Standard||talg||[ˈtʰælˀʝ]||'tallow'||Possible word-final allophone of /j/ when it occurs after /l/. See Danish phonology|
|Dutch||Standard||ja||[ʝaː]||'yes'||Frequent allophone of /j/, especially in emphatic speech. See Dutch phonology|
|German||Standard||Jacke||[ˈʝäkə]||'jacket'||Most often transcribed in IPA with ⟨j⟩; also described as an approximant [j] and a sound variable between a fricative and an approximant. See Standard German phonology|
|Cypriot||ελιά||[e̞ˈʝːɐ]||'olive'||Allophone of /ʎ/|
|Hungarian||dobj be||[dobʝ bɛ]||'throw in'||An allophone of /j/. See Hungarian phonology|
|Irish||an ghrian||[ənʲ ˈʝɾʲiən̪ˠ]||'the sun'||See Irish phonology|
|Italian||Southern dialects||figlio||[ˈfiʝːo]||'son'||Corresponds to /ʎ/ in standard Italian. See Italian phonology|
|Korean||사향노루 / sahyangnoru||[sɐʝɐŋnoɾu]||'Siberian musk deer'||The sound is sometimes heard by people when /h/ is between voiced and combined with /i/, /t/ and /j/, See Korean phonology|
|Lithuanian||ji||[ʝɪ]||'she'||Most often transcribed in IPA with ⟨j⟩; also described as an approximant [j]. See Lithuanian phonology|
|Mapudungun||kayu||[kɜˈʝʊ]||'six'||This phoneme corresponds to the letter Y in Mapudungün. See Mapuche language|
|Burmese||[example needed]||Allophone of /j/, particularly word initially.|
|Norwegian||Urban East||gi||[ʝiː]||'to give'||Allophone of /j/, especially before and after close vowels and in energetic speech. See Norwegian phonology|
|Russian||яма||[ˈʝämə]||'pit'||Allophone of /j/ in emphatic speech. See Russian phonology|
|Scottish Gaelic||dhiubh||[ʝu]||'of them'||See Scottish Gaelic phonology|
|Spanish||sayo||[ˈsäʝo̞]||'smock'||May also be represented by ⟨ll⟩ in many dialects. See Spanish phonology and Yeísmo|
|Swedish||jord||[ʝɯᵝːɖ] (help·info)||'soil'||Allophone of /j/. See Swedish phonology|
|Vietnamese||Middle Vietnamese||Gió [𩙋]||[ʝɔB1]（Tonkinese dialect）||'wind'||See Middle Vietnamese phonology|
|Belarusian||геаграфія||[ɣ̟e.äˈɣɾäfʲijä]||'geography'||Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɣʲ⟩. See Belarusian phonology|
|Dutch||Standard Belgian||gaan||[ɣ̟aːn]||'to go'||May be velar [ɣ] instead. See Dutch phonology|
|German||Standard||Riese||[ˈɣ̟iːzə]||'giant'||Allophone of the fricative /ʁ/ before and after front vowels. See Standard German phonology|
|Greek||Standard Modern||γένος||[ˈʝ̠e̞no̞s̠] (help·info)||'gender'||See Modern Greek phonology|
|Limburgish||Weert dialect||gèr||[ɣ̟ɛ̈ːʀ̝̊]||'gladly'||Allophone of /ɣ/ before and after front vowels. See Weert dialect phonology|
|Lithuanian||Hiustonas||[ˈɣ̟ʊs̪t̪ɔn̪ɐs̪]||'Houston'||Very rare; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɣʲ⟩. See Lithuanian phonology|
|Russian||Standard||других гимнов||[d̪rʊˈɡ̟ɪɣ̟ ˈɡ̟imn̪əf]||'of other anthems'||Allophone of /x/ before voiced soft consonants; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɣʲ⟩. The example also illustrates [ɡ̟]. See Russian phonology|
|Southern||гимн||[ɣ̟imn̪]||'anthem'||Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɣʲ⟩; corresponds to [ɡʲ] in standard Russian. See Russian phonology|
|Mapudungun||[example needed]||Allophone of /ɣ/ before the front vowels /ɪ, e/.|