Near-open front unrounded vowel
æ
IPA Number325
Encoding
Entity (decimal)æ
Unicode (hex)U+00E6
X-SAMPA{
Braille
Audio sample

The near-open front unrounded vowel, or near-low front unrounded vowel, or Short A[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨æ⟩, a lowercase of the ⟨Æligature. Both the symbol and the sound are commonly referred to as "ash".

The rounded counterpart of [æ], the near-open front rounded vowel (for which the IPA provides no separate symbol) has been reported to occur allophonically in Danish;[2][3] see open front rounded vowel for more information.

In practice, ⟨æ⟩ is sometimes used to represent the open front unrounded vowel; see the introduction to that page for more information.

In IPA transcriptions of Hungarian and Valencian, this vowel is typically written with ⟨ɛ⟩.

Features

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans Standard[4] perd [pæːrt] 'horse' Allophone of /ɛ/, in some dialects, before /k χ l r/. See Afrikaans phonology
Arabic Standard[5] كتاب / kitāb [kiˈtæːb] 'book' Allophone of /a/ in the environment of plain labial and coronal consonants as well as /j/ (depending on the speaker's accent). See Arabic phonology
Bambam[6] bätä [ˈbætæ] 'stem'
Bashkir[7] йәй / yäy audio speaker icon[jæj]  'summer'
Bengali[8] /ek [æk] 'one' Allophone of /ɛ/ or /e/. See Bengali phonology
Catalan Majorcan[9] tesi [ˈt̪æzi] 'thesis' Main realization of /ɛ/. See Catalan phonology
Valencian[9]
Danish Standard[2][10] dansk [ˈtænsk] 'Danish' Most often transcribed in IPA with ⟨a⟩ – the way it is realized by certain older or upper-class speakers.[11] See Danish phonology
Dutch[12] pen [pæn] 'pen' Allophone of /ɛ/ before /n/ and the velarized or pharyngealized allophone of /l/. In non-standard accents this allophone is generalized to other positions, where [ɛ] is used in Standard Dutch.[13] See Dutch phonology
English Cultivated New Zealand[14] cat audio speaker icon[kʰæt]  'cat' Higher in other New Zealand varieties. See New Zealand English phonology
General American[15] See English phonology
Conservative Received Pronunciation[16] Fully open [a] in contemporary RP.[16] See English phonology
Estonian[17] väle [ˈvæ̠le̞ˑ] 'agile' Near-front.[17] See Estonian phonology
Finnish[18] mäki [ˈmæki] 'hill' See Finnish phonology
French Parisian[19] bain [bæ̃] 'bath' Nasalized; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɛ̃⟩. See French phonology
Quebec[20] ver [væːʁ] 'worm' Allophone of /ɛ/ before /ʁ/ or in open syllables, and of /a/ in closed syllables.[20] See Quebec French phonology
German Standard Austrian[21] erlauben [æˈlɑɔ̯bn̩] 'allow' Variant of pretonic [ɛɐ̯].[21] See Standard German phonology
West Central German accents[22] oder [ˈoːdæ] 'or' Used instead of [ɐ].[22] See Standard German phonology
Northern accents[23] alles [ˈa̝ləs] 'everything' Lower and often also more back in other accents.[23] See Standard German phonology
Western Swiss accents[24] spät [ʃpæːt] 'late' Open-mid [ɛː] or close-mid [] in other accents; contrasts with the open-mid /ɛː/.[25] See Standard German phonology
Greek Macedonia[26] γάτα/gáta [ˈɣætæ] 'cat' See Modern Greek phonology
Thessaly[26]
Thrace[26]
Pontic[27] καλάθια/kaláthia [kaˈlaθæ] 'baskets'
Hungarian[28] nem [næm] 'no' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɛ⟩. See Hungarian phonology
Kazakh әйел/äiel [æ̝ˈje̘l̪ʲ] 'woman' Varies between near-open and open-mid.
Kurdish Sorani (Central) گاڵته/ gältyä [gäːɫtʲæ] 'joke' Equal to Palewani (Southern) front [a]. See Kurdish phonology
Lakon[29] rävräv [ræβræβ] 'evening'
Limburgish[30][31][32] twelf [ˈtβ̞æ̠ləf] 'twelve' Front[31][32] or near-front,[30] depending on the dialect. The example word is from the Maastrichtian dialect, in which the vowel is near-front.
Lithuanian jachtą [ˈjæːxt̪aː] 'yacht' (accusative) See Lithuanian phonology
Luxembourgish[33] Käpp [kʰæpʰ] 'heads' See Luxembourgish phonology
Norwegian Urban East[34][35] lær [læːɾ] 'leather' See Norwegian phonology
Persian[36][37] هشت/hašt [hæʃt] 'eight'
Portuguese Some dialects[38] pedra [ˈpædɾɐ] 'stone' Stressed vowel. In other dialects closer /ɛ/. See Portuguese phonology
Some European speakers[39] também [tɐˈmæ̃] 'also' Stressed vowel, allophone of nasal vowel /ẽ̞/.
Romanian Bukovinian dialect[40] piele [ˈpæle] 'skin' Corresponds to [je] in standard Romanian. Also identified in some Central Transylvanian sub-dialects.[40] See Romanian phonology
Russian[41][42] пять / pja audio speaker icon[pʲætʲ]  'five' Allophone of /a/ between palatalized consonants. See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian Zeta-Raška dialect[43] дан/dan [d̪æn̪] 'day' Regional reflex of Proto-Slavic *ь and *ъ. Sometimes nasalised.[43]
Sinhala[44] ඇය/æya [æjə] 'she'
Swedish Central Standard[45][46][47] ära audio speaker icon[²æːɾä]  'hono(u)r' Allophone of /ɛː, ɛ/ before /r/. See Swedish phonology
Stockholm[47] läsa [²læːsä] 'to read' Realization of /ɛː, ɛ/ for younger speakers. Higher [ɛː, ɛ̝ ~ ɛ] for other speakers
Turkish[48] sen [s̪æn̪] 'you' Allophone of /e/ before syllable-final /m, n, l, r/. In a limited number of words (but not before /r/), it is in free variation with [].[48] See Turkish phonology

See also

Notes

  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ a b Grønnum (1998:100)
  3. ^ Basbøll (2005:46)
  4. ^ Donaldson (1993:3)
  5. ^ Holes (2004:60)
  6. ^ Campbell (1991:5)
  7. ^ Berta (1998:183)
  8. ^ "Bengali romanization table" (PDF). Bahai Studies. Bahai Studies. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
  9. ^ a b Rafel (1999:14)
  10. ^ Basbøll (2005:45)
  11. ^ Basbøll (2005:32)
  12. ^ Collins & Mees (2003:92, 129)
  13. ^ Collins & Mees (2003:92, 128–129, 131)
  14. ^ Gordon & Maclagan (2004:609)
  15. ^ Wells (1982:486)
  16. ^ a b Gimson (2014:119–120)
  17. ^ a b Asu & Teras (2009:368)
  18. ^ Suomi, Toivanen & Ylitalo (2008:21)
  19. ^ Collins & Mees (2013:226)
  20. ^ a b Walker (1984:75)
  21. ^ a b Moosmüller, Schmid & Brandstätter (2015:342)
  22. ^ a b Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015:40)
  23. ^ a b Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015:64)
  24. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015:65)
  25. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015:34, 64–65)
  26. ^ a b c Newton (1972:11)
  27. ^ Revithiadou & Spyropoulos (2009:41)
  28. ^ Szende (1994:92)
  29. ^ François (2005:466)
  30. ^ a b Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999:159)
  31. ^ a b Peters (2006:119)
  32. ^ a b Verhoeven (2007:221)
  33. ^ Gilles & Trouvain (2013:70)
  34. ^ Vanvik (1979:13)
  35. ^ Popperwell (2010:16, 21–22)
  36. ^ Majidi & Ternes (1991)
  37. ^ Campbell (1995)
  38. ^ Portuguese: A Linguistic Introduction – by Milton M. Azevedo Page 186.
  39. ^ Lista das marcas dialetais e ouros fenómenos de variação (fonética e fonológica) identificados nas amostras do Arquivo Dialetal do CLUP (in Portuguese)
  40. ^ a b Pop (1938), p. 29.
  41. ^ Jones & Ward (1969:50)
  42. ^ Yanushevskaya & Bunčić (2015:224–225)
  43. ^ a b Okuka 2008, p. 171.
  44. ^ Perera & Jones (1919:5)
  45. ^ Eliasson (1986:273)
  46. ^ Thorén & Petterson (1992:15)
  47. ^ a b Riad (2014:38)
  48. ^ a b Göksel & Kerslake (2005:10)

References