Received Pronunciation (RP) is the accent traditionally regarded as the standard and most prestigious form of spoken British English.[1][2] For over a century, there has been argument over such questions as the definition of RP, whether it is geographically neutral, how many speakers there are, whether sub-varieties exist, how appropriate a choice it is as a standard and how the accent has changed over time.[3] The name itself is controversial. RP is an accent, so the study of RP is concerned only with matters of pronunciation; other areas relevant to the study of language standards such as vocabulary, grammar and style are not considered.

History

RP has most in common with the dialects of South East Midlands, namely London, Oxford and Cambridge.[4] By the end of the 15th century, "Standard English" was established in the City of London, though it did not begin to resemble RP until the late 19th century.[5][6]

The introduction of the term Received Pronunciation is usually credited to the British phonetician Daniel Jones. In the first edition of the English Pronouncing Dictionary (1917) he named the accent "Public School Pronunciation", but for the second edition in 1926 he wrote: "In what follows I call it Received Pronunciation, for want of a better term."[7] However, the term had been used much earlier by P. S. Du Ponceau in 1818[8] and the Oxford English Dictionary cites quotations back to about 1710.[9] A similar term, received standard, was coined by Henry C. K. Wyld in 1927.[10] The early phonetician Alexander John Ellis used both terms interchangeably, but with a much broader definition than Jones's, saying, "There is no such thing as a uniform educated pron. of English, and rp. and rs. is a variable quantity differing from individual to individual, although all its varieties are 'received', understood and mainly unnoticed".[11]

According to Fowler's Modern English Usage (1965), "the correct term is 'the Received Pronunciation'. The word 'received' conveys its original meaning of 'accepted' or 'approved', as in 'received wisdom'."[12]

Alternative names

Some linguists have used the term "RP" while expressing reservations about its suitability.[13][14][15] The Cambridge-published English Pronouncing Dictionary (aimed at those learning English as a foreign language) uses the phrase "BBC Pronunciation" on the basis that the name "Received Pronunciation" is "archaic" and that BBC News presenters no longer suggest high social class and privilege to their listeners.[16] Other writers have also used the name "BBC Pronunciation".[17][18] The term The Queen's English has also been used by some writers,[4] though the term is more appropriately used to cover grammar as well as pronunciation.[citation needed]

The phonetician Jack Windsor Lewis frequently criticised the name "Received Pronunciation" in his blog: he has called it "invidious",[19] a "ridiculously archaic, parochial and question-begging term"[20] and noted that American scholars find the term "quite curious".[21] He used the term "General British" (to parallel "General American") in his 1970s publication of A Concise Pronouncing Dictionary of American and British English[22] and in subsequent publications.[23] The name "General British" is adopted in the latest revision of Gimson's Pronunciation of English.[24] Beverley Collins and Inger Mees use the term "Non-Regional Pronunciation" for what is often otherwise called RP, and reserve the term "Received Pronunciation" for the "upper-class speech of the twentieth century".[25] Received Pronunciation has sometimes been called "Oxford English", as it used to be the accent of most members of the University of Oxford.[4] The Handbook of the International Phonetic Association uses the name "Standard Southern British". Page 4 reads:

Standard Southern British (where 'Standard' should not be taken as implying a value judgment of 'correctness') is the modern equivalent of what has been called 'Received Pronunciation' ('RP'). It is an accent of the south east of England which operates as a prestige norm there and (to varying degrees) in other parts of the British Isles and beyond.[26]

In her book Kipling's English History (1974) Marghanita Laski refers to this accent as "gentry". "What the Producer and I tried to do was to have each poem spoken in the dialect that was, so far as we could tell, ringing in Kipling's ears when he wrote it. Sometimes the dialect is most appropriately, Gentry. More often, it isn't."[27]

Sub-varieties

Faced with the difficulty of defining a single standard of RP, some researchers have tried to distinguish between sub-varieties:

Characteristics and status

Traditionally, Received Pronunciation has been associated with high social class. It was the "everyday speech in the families of Southern English persons whose men-folk [had] been educated at the great public boarding-schools"[33] and which conveyed no information about that speaker's region of origin before attending the school. An 1891 teacher's handbook stated, “It is the business of educated people to speak so that no-one may be able to tell in what county their childhood was passed”.[34] Nevertheless, in the 19th century some British prime ministers, such as William Ewart Gladstone, still spoke with some regional features.[35]

Opinions differ over the proportion of Britons who speak RP. Trudgill estimated 3% in 1974,[36] but that rough estimate has been questioned by J. Windsor Lewis.[37] Upton notes higher estimates of 5% (Romaine, 2000) and 10% (Wells, 1982) but refers to these as "guesstimates" not based on robust research.[38]

The claim that RP is non-regional is disputed, since it is most commonly found in London and the southeast of England. It is defined in the Concise Oxford English Dictionary as "the standard accent of English as spoken in the South of England",[39] and alternative names such as “Standard Southern British” have been used.[40] Despite RP's historic high social prestige in Britain,[41] being seen as the accent of those with power, money, and influence, it may be perceived negatively by some as being associated with undeserved, or accidental, privilege[42][43] and as a symbol of the southeast's political power in Britain.[43] Based on a 1997 survey, Jane Stuart-Smith wrote, "RP has little status in Glasgow, and is regarded with hostility in some quarters".[44] A 2007 survey found that residents of Scotland and Northern Ireland tend to dislike RP.[45] It is shunned by some with left-wing political views, who may be proud of having accents more typical of the working classes.[46]

Since the Second World War, and increasingly since the 1960s, a wider acceptance of regional English varieties has taken hold in education and public life.[47][48] Nonetheless, surveys from 1969 to 2022 consistently show that RP is perceived as the most prestigious accent of English in the United Kingdom. In 2022, 25% of British adults reported being mocked for their regional accent at work, and 46% in social situations.[2]

Use

Media

In the early days of British broadcasting speakers of English origin almost universally used RP. The first director-general of the BBC, Lord Reith, encouraged the use of a 'BBC accent' because it was a "style or quality of English which would not be laughed at in any part of the country". He distinguished the BBC accent from the 'Oxford accent', to which he was "vehemently opposed".[49] In 1926 the BBC established an Advisory Committee on Spoken English with distinguished experts, including Daniel Jones, to advise on the correct pronunciation and other aspects of broadcast language. The Committee proved unsuccessful and was dissolved after the Second World War.[50] While the BBC did advise its speakers on pronunciation, there was never a formalised official BBC pronunciation standard.[51] A notable departure from the use of pure RP came with the Yorkshire-born newsreader Wilfred Pickles during the Second World War; his accent allowing listeners to more clearly distinguish BBC broadcasts from German propaganda, though Pickles had modified his accent to be closer to RP.[52][53] Since the Second World War RP has played a much smaller role in broadcast speech. RP remains the accent most often heard in the speech of announcers and newsreaders on BBC Radio 3 and Radio 4, and in some TV channels, but non-RP accents are now more widely encountered.[54]

Dictionaries

Most English dictionaries published in Britain (including the Oxford English Dictionary) now give phonetically transcribed RP pronunciations for all words. Pronunciation dictionaries represent a special class of dictionary giving a wide range of possible pronunciations: British pronunciation dictionaries are all based on RP, though not necessarily using that name. Daniel Jones transcribed RP pronunciations of words and names in the English Pronouncing Dictionary. Cambridge University Press continues to publish this title, as of 1997 edited by Peter Roach. Two other pronunciation dictionaries are in common use: the Longman Pronunciation Dictionary,[55] compiled by John C. Wells (using the name "Received Pronunciation"), and Clive Upton's Oxford Dictionary of Pronunciation for Current English,[56] (now republished as The Routledge Dictionary of Pronunciation for Current English).[57]

Language teaching

Pronunciation forms an essential component of language learning and teaching; a model accent is necessary for learners to aim at, and to act as a basis for description in textbooks and classroom materials. RP has been the traditional choice for teachers and learners of British English.[58] However, the choice of pronunciation model is difficult, and the adoption of RP is in many ways problematic.[59][60]

Phonology

Consonants

Consonant phonemes[61]
Labial Dental Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Stop p b t d k ɡ
Affricate
Fricative f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ h
Approximant l r j w

Nasals and liquids (/m/, /n/, /ŋ/, /r/, /l/) may be syllabic in unstressed syllables.[62] The consonant /r/ in RP is generally a postalveolar approximant,[62] which would normally be expressed with the sign [ɹ] in the International Phonetic Alphabet, but the sign /r/ is nonetheless traditionally used for RP in most of the literature on the topic.

Voiceless plosives (/p/, /t/, /k/, /tʃ/) are aspirated at the beginning of a syllable, unless a completely unstressed vowel follows. (For example, the /p/ is aspirated in "impasse", with primary stress on "-passe", but not "compass", where "-pass" has no stress.) Aspiration does not occur when /s/ precedes in the same syllable, as in "spot" or "stop". When a sonorant /l/, /r/, /w/, or /j/ follows, this aspiration is indicated by partial devoicing of the sonorant.[63] /r/ is a fricative when devoiced.[62]

Syllable final /p/, /t/, /tʃ/, and /k/ may be either preceded by a glottal stop (glottal reinforcement) or, in the case of /t/, fully replaced by a glottal stop, especially before a syllabic nasal (bitten [ˈbɪʔn̩]).[63][64] The glottal stop may be realised as creaky voice; thus, an alternative phonetic transcription of attempt [əˈtʰemʔt] could be [əˈtʰemm̰t].[62]

As in other varieties of English, voiced plosives (/b/, /d/, /ɡ/, /dʒ/) are partly or even fully devoiced at utterance boundaries or adjacent to voiceless consonants. The voicing distinction between voiced and voiceless sounds is reinforced by a number of other differences, with the result that the two of consonants can clearly be distinguished even in the presence of devoicing of voiced sounds:

  1. Aspiration of voiceless consonants syllable-initially.
  2. Glottal reinforcement of /p, t, k, tʃ/ syllable-finally.
  3. Shortening of vowels before voiceless consonants.

As a result, some authors prefer to use the terms "fortis" and "lenis"[65] in place of "voiceless" and "voiced". However, the latter are traditional and in more frequent usage.

The voiced dental fricative (/ð/) is more often a weak dental plosive; the sequence /nð/ is often realised as [n̪n̪] (a long dental nasal).[66][67][68] /l/ has velarised allophone ([ɫ]) in the syllable rhyme.[69] /h/ becomes voiced ([ɦ]) between voiced sounds.[70][71]

Vowels

Monophthongs of a fairly conservative variety of RP. From Roach (2004, p. 242)
Monophthongs of a fairly conservative variety of RP. From Roach (2004, p. 242)
Monophthongs of a modern variety of RP. Adapted from Cruttenden (2014)
Monophthongs of a modern variety of RP. Adapted from Cruttenden (2014)
Ranges of the weak vowels in RP and GA. From Wells (2008, p. XXV)
Ranges of the weak vowels in RP and GA. From Wells (2008, p. XXV)
Allophones of some RP monophthongs, from Collins & Mees (2003:92, 95, 101). The red ones occur before dark /l/,[72] and the blue one occurs before velars.[73]
Allophones of some RP monophthongs, from Collins & Mees (2003:92, 95, 101). The red ones occur before dark /l/,[72] and the blue one occurs before velars.[73]
Monophthongs ("Short")
Front Central Back
Close ɪ ʊ
Mid e ə
Open æ ʌ ɒ

Examples of short vowels: /ɪ/ in kit, mirror and rabbit, /ʊ/ in foot and cook, /e/ in dress and merry, /ʌ/ in strut and curry, /æ/ in trap and marry, /ɒ/ in lot and orange, /ə/ in ago and sofa.

Monophthongs ("Long")
Front Central Back
Close
Mid ɛː ɜː ɔː (listen)
Open ɑː

Examples of long vowels: /iː/ in fleece, /uː/ in goose, /ɛː/ in bear, /ɜː/ in nurse and furry, /ɔː/ in north, force and thought, /ɑː/ in father and start.

The long mid front vowel /ɛː/ is elsewhere transcribed with the traditional symbol ⟨⟩. The predominant realisation in contemporary RP is monophthongal.[74]

"Long" and "short" vowels

Many conventional descriptions of the RP vowel system group the non-diphthongal vowels into the categories "long" and "short". This should not be taken to mean that English has minimal pairs in which the only difference is vowel length. "Long" and "short" are convenient cover terms for a number of phonetic features. The long-short pairings shown above include also differences in vowel quality.

The vowels called "long" high vowels in RP /iː/ and /uː/ are slightly diphthongized, and are often narrowly transcribed in phonetic literature as diphthongs [ɪi] and [ʊu].[75]

Vowels may be phonologically long or short (i.e. belong to the long or the short group of vowel phonemes) but their length is influenced by their context: in particular, they are shortened if a voiceless (fortis) consonant follows in the syllable, so that, for example, the vowel in 'bat' [bæʔt] is shorter than the vowel in 'bad' [bæd]. The process is known as pre-fortis clipping. Thus phonologically short vowels in one context can be phonetically longer than phonologically long vowels in another context.[62] For example, the vowel called "long" /iː/ in 'reach' /riːtʃ/ (which ends with a voiceless consonant) may be shorter than the vowel called "short" /ɪ/ in the word 'ridge' /rɪdʒ/ (which ends with a voiced consonant). Wiik,[76] cited in (Cruttenden 2014), published durations of English vowels with a mean value of 17.2 csec. for short vowels before voiced consonants but a mean value of 16.5 csec for long vowels preceding voiceless consonants.[77]

In natural speech, the plosives /t/ and /d/ often have no audible release utterance-finally, and voiced consonants are partly or completely devoiced (as in [b̥æd̥]); thus the perceptual distinction between pairs of words such as 'bad' and 'bat', or 'seed' and 'seat' rests mostly on vowel length (though the presence or absence of glottal reinforcement provides an additional cue).[78]

Unstressed vowels are both shorter and more centralised than stressed ones. In unstressed syllables occurring before vowels and in final position, contrasts between long and short high vowels are neutralised and short [i] and [u] occur (e.g. happy [ˈhæpi], throughout [θɹuˈaʊʔt]).[79] The neutralisation is common throughout many English dialects, though the phonetic realisation of e.g. [i] rather than [ɪ] (a phenomenon called happy-tensing) is not as universal.

Unstressed vowels vary in quality:

Diphthongs and triphthongs

Diphthongs of RP. From Roach (2004, p. 242)
Diphthongs of RP. From Roach (2004, p. 242)
Diphthong Example
Closing
/eɪ/ (listen) /beɪ/ bay
/aɪ/ (listen) /baɪ/ buy
/ɔɪ/ (listen) /bɔɪ/ boy
/əʊ/ (listen) /bəʊ/ beau
/aʊ/ /baʊ/ bough
Centring
/ɪə/ /bɪə/ beer
/ʊə/ /bʊə/ boor

The centring diphthongs are gradually being eliminated in RP. The vowel /ɔə/ (as in door, boar) had largely merged with /ɔː/ by the Second World War, and the vowel /ʊə/ (as in poor, tour) has more recently merged with /ɔː/ as well among most speakers,[82] although the sound /ʊə/ is still found in conservative speakers, and in less common words such as boor. See CUREFORCE merger. More recently /eə/ has become a pure long vowel /ɛː/, as explained above. /ɪə/ is increasingly pronounced as a monophthong [ɪː], although without merging with any existing vowels.[83]

The diphthong /əʊ/ is pronounced by some RP speakers in a noticeably different way when it occurs before /l/, if that consonant is syllable-final and not followed by a vowel (the context in which /l/ is pronounced as a "dark l"). The realization of /əʊ/ in this case begins with a more back, rounded and sometimes more open vowel quality; it may be transcribed as [ɔʊ] or [ɒʊ]. It is likely that the backness of the diphthong onset is the result of allophonic variation caused by the raising of the back of the tongue for the /l/. If the speaker has "l-vocalization" the /l/ is realized as a back rounded vowel, which again is likely to cause backing and rounding in a preceding vowel as coarticulation effects. This phenomenon has been discussed in several blogs by John C. Wells.[84][85][86] In the recording included in this article the phrase "fold his cloak" contains examples of the /əʊ/ diphthong in the two different contexts. The onset of the pre-/l/ diphthong in "fold" is slightly more back and rounded than that in "cloak".

RP also possesses the triphthongs /aɪə/ as in tire, /aʊə/ as in tower, /əʊə/ as in lower, /eɪə/ as in layer and /ɔɪə/ as in loyal. There are different possible realisations of these items: in slow, careful speech they may be pronounced as a two-syllable triphthong with three distinct vowel qualities in succession, or as a monosyllabic triphthong. In more casual speech the middle vowel may be considerably reduced, by a process known as smoothing, and in an extreme form of this process the triphthong may even be reduced to a single long vowel.[87] In such a case the difference between /aʊə/, /aɪə/, and /ɑː/ in tower, tire, and tar may be neutralised with all three units realised as [ɑː] or [äː]. This type of smoothing is known as the towertire, towertar and tiretar mergers.

Triphthongs[64]
As two syllables Triphthong Loss of mid-element Further simplified as Example
[aɪ.ə] [aɪə] [aːə] [aː] tire
[ɑʊ.ə] [ɑʊə] [ɑːə] [ɑː] tower
[əʊ.ə] [əʊə] [əːə] [ɜː] lower
[eɪ.ə] [eɪə] [ɛːə] [ɛː] layer
[ɔɪ.ə] [ɔɪə] [ɔːə] [ɔː] loyal

BATH vowel

See also: Trap–bath split

There are differing opinions as to whether /æ/ in the BATH lexical set can be considered RP. The pronunciations with /ɑː/ are invariably accepted as RP.[88] The English Pronouncing Dictionary does not admit /æ/ in BATH words and the Longman Pronunciation Dictionary lists them with a § marker of non-RP status.[89] John Wells wrote in a blog entry on 16 March 2012 that when growing up in the north of England he used /ɑː/ in "bath" and "glass", and considers this the only acceptable phoneme in RP.[90] Others have argued that /æ/ is too categorical in the north of England to be excluded. Clive Upton believes that /æ/ in these words must be considered within RP and has called the opposing view "south-centric".[91] Upton's Oxford Dictionary of Pronunciation for Current English gives both variants for BATH words. A. F. Gupta's survey of mostly middle-class students found that /æ/ was used by almost everyone who was from clearly north of the isogloss for BATH words. She wrote, "There is no justification for the claims by Wells and Mugglestone that this is a sociolinguistic variable in the north, though it is a sociolinguistic variable on the areas on the border [the isogloss between north and south]".[92] In a study of speech in West Yorkshire, K. M. Petyt wrote that "the amount of /ɑː/ usage is too low to correlate meaningfully with the usual factors", having found only two speakers (both having attended boarding schools in the south) who consistently used /ɑː/.[93]

Jack Windsor Lewis has noted that the Oxford Dictionary's position has changed several times on whether to include short /æ/ within its prescribed pronunciation.[94] The BBC Pronouncing Dictionary of British Names uses only /ɑː/, but its author, Graham Pointon, has stated on his blog that he finds both variants to be acceptable in place names.[95]

Some research has concluded that many people in the North of England have a dislike of the /ɑː/ vowel in BATH words. A. F. Gupta wrote, "Many of the northerners were noticeably hostile to /ɡrɑːs/, describing it as 'comical', 'snobbish', 'pompous' or even 'for morons'."[92] On the subject, K. M. Petyt wrote that several respondents "positively said that they did not prefer the long-vowel form or that they really detested it or even that it was incorrect".[96] Mark Newbrook has assigned this phenomenon the name "conscious rejection", and has cited the BATH vowel as "the main instance of conscious rejection of RP" in his research in West Wirral.[97]

French words

John Wells has argued that, as educated British speakers often attempt to pronounce French names in a French way, there is a case for including /ɒ̃/ (as in bon), and /æ̃/ and /ɜ̃:/ (as in vingt-et-un), as marginal members of the RP vowel system.[98] He also argues against including other French vowels on the grounds that not many British speakers succeed in distinguishing the vowels in bon and banc, or in rue and roue.[98] However, the Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary draws a distinction between /ɒ̃/ (there rendered as /ɔː̃/) and the unrounded /ɑː̃/ of banc for a total of four nasal vowels.[99]

Alternative notation

Not all reference sources use the same system of transcription. Clive Upton devised a separate system for the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (1993) and this is now used in many other Oxford University Press dictionaries.

The linguist Geoff Lindsey has argued that the system of transcription for RP has become outdated and has proposed a new system as a replacement, rather than RP.[100][101]

Lindsey's system is as follows, differences between it and standard transcription are depicted with the usual transcription in brackets.

Lindsey's Monophthongs and Diphthongs
Short Long (triggering r-liaison) +j diphthong +w diphthong
/a/ (æ) /ɑː/ /ɑj/ (aɪ) /aw/ (aʊ)
/ɛ/ (e) /ɛː/ /ɛj/ (eɪ)
/ɪ/ /ɪː/ (ɪə) /ɪj/ (iː)
/ɔ/ (ɒ) /oː/ (ɔː) /oj/ (ɔɪ)
/ɵ/ (ʊ) /ɵː/ (ʊə) /ʉw/ (uː)
/ə/ /əː/ (ɜː) /əw/ (əʊ)
/ʌ/

Historical variation

Like all accents, RP has changed with time. For example, sound recordings and films from the first half of the 20th century demonstrate that it was usual for speakers of RP to pronounce the /æ/ sound, as in land, with a vowel close to [ɛ], so that land would sound similar to a present-day pronunciation of lend. RP is sometimes known as the Queen's English, but recordings show that even Queen Elizabeth II had changed her pronunciation over the past 50 years, no longer using an [ɛ]-like vowel in words like land.[102] The change in RP may be observed in the home of "BBC English". The BBC accent of the 1950s is distinctly different from today's: a news report from the 1950s is recognisable as such, and a mock-1950s BBC voice is used for comic effect in programmes wishing to satirise 1950s social attitudes such as the Harry Enfield Show and its "Mr. Cholmondley-Warner" sketches.[103]

A comparison of the formant values of /iː æ ɑː ɔː ʊ uː/ for older (black) and younger (light blue) RP speakers. From de Jong et al. (2007, p. 1814)
A comparison of the formant values of /iː æ ɑː ɔː ʊ uː/ for older (black) and younger (light blue) RP speakers. From de Jong et al. (2007, p. 1814)

A few illustrative examples of changes in RP during the 20th century and early 21st are given below. A more comprehensive list (using the name 'General British' in place of 'RP') is given in Gimson's Pronunciation of English.[104]

Vowels and diphthongs

Consonants

Word-specific changes

A number of cases can be identified where changes in the pronunciation of individual words, or small groups of words, have taken place.

Comparison with other varieties of English

Spoken specimen

The Journal of the International Phonetic Association regularly publishes "Illustrations of the IPA" which present an outline of the phonetics of a particular language or accent. It is usual to base the description on a recording of the traditional story of the North Wind and the Sun. There is an IPA illustration of British English (Received Pronunciation).

The female speaker is described as having been born in 1953, and educated at Oxford University. To accompany the recording there are three transcriptions: orthographic, phonemic and allophonic.

Phonemic

ðə ˈnɔːθ ˈwɪnd ən ðə ˈsʌn wə dɪˈspjuːtɪŋ ˈwɪtʃ wəz ðə ˈstrɒŋɡə, wen ə ˈtrævl̩ə ˌkeɪm əˌlɒŋ ˈræpt ɪn ə ˈwɔːm ˈkləʊk. ðeɪ əˈɡriːd ðət ðə ˈwʌn hu ˈfɜːst səkˈsiːdɪd ɪn ˈmeɪkɪŋ ðə ˈtrævlə ˌteɪk hɪz ˈkləʊk ɒf ʃʊd bi kənˌsɪdəd ˈstrɒŋɡə ðən ði ˈʌðə. ˈðen ðə ˌnɔːθ wɪnd ˈbluː əz ˈhɑːd əz i ˈkʊd, bət ðə ˈmɔː hi ˈbluː ðə ˌmɔː ˈkləʊsli dɪd ðə ˈtrævlə ˈfəʊld hɪz ˌkləʊk əˈraʊnd hɪm, ænd ət ˈlɑːst ðə ˈnɔːθ wɪnd ˌɡeɪv ˈʌp ði əˈtempt. ˈðen ðə ˈsʌn ˌʃɒn aʊt ˈwɔːmli, ænd əˈmiːdiətli ðə ˈtrævlə ˈtʊk ɒf ɪz ˈkləʊk. n̩ ˌsəʊ ðə ˈnɔːθ ˈwɪn wəz əˈblaɪdʒd tʊ kənˈfes ðət ðə ˈsʌn wəz ðə ˈstrɒŋɡr̩ əv ðə ˈtuː.

Allophonic

ðə ˈnɔːθ ˈw̥ɪnd ən̪n̪ə ˈsʌn wə dɪˈspj̊u̟ːtɪŋ ˈwɪʔtʃ wəz ðə ˈstɹ̥ɒŋɡə, wen ə ˈtɹ̥ævl̩ə ˌkʰeɪm əˌlɒŋ ˈɹæptʰ ɪn ə ˈwɔːm ˈkl̥əʊkˣ. ðeɪ əˈɡɹ̥iːd̥ ð̥əʔ ðə ˈwʌn ɦu ˈfɜːs səkˈsiːdɪd ɪmˈmeɪxɪŋ ðə ˈtɹ̥ævlə ˌtʰeɪk̟x̟ɪs ˈkl̥əʊk ɒf ʃʊbbi kʰənˌsɪdəd̥ ˈstɹɒŋɡə ð̥ən̪n̪i ˈʌðə. ˈðen̪n̪ə ˌnɔːθ w̥ɪnd ˈbluː əz̥ ˈhɑːd̥ əs i ˈkʊd, bət̬ ð̥ə ˈmɔː hi ˈblu̟ː ðə ˌmɔ ˈkl̥əʊsl̥i d̥ɨd ð̥ə ˈtɹ̥æv̥lə ˈfəʊld̥ hɪz̥ ˌkl̥əʊkʰ əˈɹaʊnd hɪm, ænd ət ˈl̥ɑːst ð̥ə ˈnɔːθ w̥ɪnd ˌɡ̊eɪv̥ ˈʌp ði̥ əˈtʰemʔt. ˈðen̪n̪ə ˈsʌn ˌʃɒn aʊt ˈwɔːmli, ænd əˈmiːdiətl̥i ð̥ə ˈtɹ̥ævlə ˈtʰʊk ɒf ɪz̥ ˈkl̥əʊkˣ. n̩ ˌsəʊ ðə ˈnɔːθ ˈw̥ɪn wəz̥ əˈblaɪdʒ̊ tʰɵ kʰənˈfes ð̥əʔ ð̥ə ˈsʌn wəz̥z̥ə ˈstɹ̥ɒŋɡɹ̩ əv̥ ð̥ə ˈtʰu̟ː.

Orthographic

The North Wind and the Sun were disputing which was the stronger, when a traveller came along wrapped in a warm cloak. They agreed that the one who first succeeded in making the traveller take his cloak off should be considered stronger than the other. Then the North Wind blew as hard as he could, but the more he blew the more closely did the traveller fold his cloak around him, and at last the North Wind gave up the attempt. Then the Sun shone out warmly, and immediately the traveller took off his cloak. And so the North Wind was obliged to confess that the Sun was the stronger of the two.[133]

Notable speakers

David Attenborough's voice
Stephen Fry's voice

The following people have been described as RP speakers:

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ Wells (2008), p. xix, paragraph 2.1.
  2. ^ a b "Bias against working-class and regional accents has not gone away, report finds". The Guardian. 3 November 2022. Retrieved 3 November 2022.
  3. ^ Cruttenden (2014), pp. 74–81.
  4. ^ a b c Robinson, Jonnie. "Received Pronunciation". British Library. Retrieved 22 November 2019.
  5. ^ Crystal (2003), pp. 54–5.
  6. ^ Crystal (2005), pp. 243–4.
  7. ^ Jones (1926), p. ix.
  8. ^ DuPonceau (1818), p. 259.
  9. ^ "Oxford English Dictionary". Oxford English Dictionary (subscription required). Oxford University Press. Retrieved 31 August 2022.
  10. ^ Wyld (1927), p. 23.
  11. ^ Ellis (1869), p. 3.
  12. ^ "Regional Voices – Received Pronunciation". British Library.
  13. ^ Cruttenden (2008), pp. 77–80.
  14. ^ Jenkins (2000), pp. 13–6.
  15. ^ Wells (1982), p. 117.
  16. ^ Jones (2011), p. vi.
  17. ^ Ladefoged (2004).
  18. ^ Trudgill (1999).
  19. ^ Jack Windsor Lewis. "Review of the Daniel Jones English Pronouncing Dictionary 15th edition 1997". Yek.me.uk. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
  20. ^ Jack Windsor Lewis. "Ovvissly not one of us – Review of the Longman Pronunciation Dictionary". Yek.me.uk. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
  21. ^ Jack Windsor Lewis (19 February 1972). "British non-dialectal accents". Yek.me.uk. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
  22. ^ Windsor Lewis, Jack (1972). A Concise Pronouncing Dictionary of British and American English. Oxford. ISBN 0-19-431123-6.
  23. ^ Jack Windsor Lewis. "Review of CPD in ELTJ". Yek.me.uk. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
  24. ^ a b Cruttenden (2014), pp. 80–2.
  25. ^ Collins & Mees (2003), pp. 3–4.
  26. ^ International Phonetic Association (1999), p. 4.
  27. ^ Laski, M., comp. (1974) Kipling's English History. London: BBC; pp. 7, 12 &c.
  28. ^ Schmitt (2007), p. 323.
  29. ^ Wells (1982).
  30. ^ exotic spices, John Wells's phonetic blog, 28 February 2013
  31. ^ Kortmann, Bernd (2004). Handbook of Varieties of English: Phonology; Morphology, Syntax. Mouton de Gruyter. pp. 217–230. ISBN 978-3110175325. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
  32. ^ British Library. "Sounds Familiar". Retrieved 29 March 2017.
  33. ^ Jones (1917), p. viii.
  34. ^ Burrell, A. (1891). Recitation: a Handbook for Teachers in Public Elementary School. London.
  35. ^ Gladstone's speech was the subject of a book The Best English. A claim for the superiority of Received Standard English, together with notes on Mr. Gladstone's pronunciation, H.C. Kennedy, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1934.
  36. ^ Trudgill, Peter (8 December 2000). "Sociolinguistics of Modern RP". University College London. Retrieved 3 October 2012.
  37. ^ Windsor Lewis, Jack. "A Notorious Estimate". JWL's Blogs. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
  38. ^ Upton, Clive (21 January 2019). "Chapter 14: British English". In Reed, Marnie; Levis, John (eds.). The Handbook of English Pronunciation. John Wiley & Son. p. 251. ISBN 978-1119055266.
  39. ^ Pearsall (1999), p. xiv.
  40. ^ International Phonetic Association (1999).
  41. ^ Hudson (1981), p. 337.
  42. ^ Crystal, David (March 2007). "Language and Time". BBC voices. BBC. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
  43. ^ a b McArthur (2002), p. 43.
  44. ^ Stuart-Smith, Jane (1999). "Glasgow: accent and voice quality". In Foulkes, Paul; Docherty, Gerard (eds.). Urban Voices. Arnold. p. 204. ISBN 0340706082.
  45. ^ "Scottish and Irish accents top list of favourites". The Independent. 13 May 2007.
  46. ^ McArthur (2002), p. 49.
  47. ^ Fishman (1977), p. 319.
  48. ^ Cruttenden (2014), p. 78.
  49. ^ 1967: John REITH explains the "BBC ACCENT" | Lord Reith Looks Back | BBC Archive, retrieved 7 October 2022
  50. ^ Schwyter, Jürg R. (2016). "Schwyter, J.R. 'Dictating to the Mob: The History of the BBC Advisory Committee on Spoken English', 2016, Oxford University Press". Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198736738.001.0001. ISBN 978-0-19-873673-8.
  51. ^ Sangster, Catherine, 'The BBC, its Pronunciation Unit and 'BBC English' in Roach, P., Setter, J. and Esling, J. (eds) Daniel Jones' English Pronouncing Dictionary, 4th Edition, Cambridge University Press, pp. xxviii-xxix
  52. ^ Discussed in Mugglestone (2003, pp. 277–8), but even then Pickles modified his speech towards RP when reading the news.
  53. ^ Zoe Thornton, The Pickles Experiment – a Yorkshire man reading the news, Transactions of the Yorkshire Dialect Society 2012, pp. 4–19.
  54. ^ Roach, Peter; Setter, Jane; Esling, John (2011). Daniel Jones' English Pronouncing Dictionary. Cambridge. p. xii.
  55. ^ Wells (2008).
  56. ^ Upton, Kretzschmar & Konopka (2001).
  57. ^ Upton, Clive; Kretzschmar, William (2017). The Routledge Dictionary of Pronunciation for Current English. Routledge. ISBN 9781138125667.
  58. ^ "Case Studies – Received Pronunciation". British Library. 13 March 2007. Retrieved 27 January 2019. As well as being a living accent, RP is also a theoretical linguistic concept. It is the accent on which phonemic transcriptions in dictionaries are based, and it is widely used (in competition with General American) for teaching English as a foreign language.
  59. ^ Brown, Adam (1991). Pronunciation Models. Singapore University Press. ISBN 9971-69-157-4.
  60. ^ Cruttenden (2014), pp. 325–52.
  61. ^ Roach (2004), pp. 240–1.
  62. ^ a b c d e Roach (2004), p. 241.
  63. ^ a b Roach (2004), p. 240.
  64. ^ a b Gimson (1970).
  65. ^ Stahlke, Herbert F. W. (1 January 2003). "Fortis and lenis obstruents in English". WORD. 54 (2): 191–216. doi:10.1080/00437956.2003.12068832. S2CID 141381109 – via Taylor and Francis+NEJM.
  66. ^ Lodge (2009), pp. 148–9.
  67. ^ Shockey (2003), pp. 43–4.
  68. ^ Roach (2009), p. 112.
  69. ^ Halle & Mohanan (1985), p. 65.
  70. ^ Jones (1967), p. 201.
  71. ^ Cruttenden (2008), p. 204.
  72. ^ Collins & Mees (2003:95, 101)
  73. ^ Collins & Mees (2003:92)
  74. ^ Cruttenden (2014), p. 118.
  75. ^ Roach (2009), p. 24.
  76. ^ Wiik (1965).
  77. ^ Cruttenden (2014), p. 101.
  78. ^ Cruttenden (2014).
  79. ^ Roach (2004), pp. 241, 243.
  80. ^ a b c Wells (2008), p. XXV.
  81. ^ "A World of Englishes: Is /ə/ "real"?". 19 June 2013. Retrieved 5 March 2016.
  82. ^ Roca & Johnson (1999), p. 200.
  83. ^ Cruttenden (2014), p. 154.
  84. ^ Wells, John. "Blog July 2006". Retrieved 24 March 2014.
  85. ^ Wells, John. "Blog July 2009". Retrieved 24 March 2014.
  86. ^ Wells, John. "Blog Nov 2009". Retrieved 24 March 2014.
  87. ^ Roach (2009), pp. 18–9.
  88. ^ Wells (1982), pp. 203ff.
  89. ^ Jack Windsor Lewis (1990). "Review of Longman Pronunciation Dictionary". The Times.
  90. ^ Wells, John (16 March 2012). "English places". John Wells's phonetic blog.
  91. ^ Upton (2004), pp. 222–3.
  92. ^ a b Gupta (2005), p. 25.
  93. ^ Petyt (1985), pp. 166–7.
  94. ^ Point 18 in Jack Windsor Lewis. "The General Central Northern Non-Dialectal Pronunciation of England". Retrieved 4 July 2011.
  95. ^ Pointon, Graham (20 April 2010). "Olivia O'Leary". Linguism: Language in a word.
  96. ^ Petyt (1985), p. 286.
  97. ^ Newbrook (1999), p. 101.
  98. ^ a b Wells (2008), p. xxix.
  99. ^ a b Roach (2011).
  100. ^ Lindsey, Geoff (8 March 2012). "The British English vowel system". speech talk.
  101. ^ Wells, John (12 March 2012). "the Lindsey system". John Wells's phonetic blog.
  102. ^ Language Log (5 December 2006). "Happy-tensing and coal in sex".
  103. ^ Enfield, Harry. "Mr Cholmondley-Warner on Life in 1990". YouTube. Archived from the original on 30 October 2021. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  104. ^ Cruttenden (2014), pp. 83–5.
  105. ^ The Queen's speech to President Sarkozy, "often" pronounced at 4:40.
  106. ^ Wright (1905), p. 5, §12
  107. ^ Jones (1967), p. 115, para 458.
  108. ^ Lindsey, Geoff (3 June 2012). "Funny old vowels". Retrieved 2 October 2016.
  109. ^ Roca & Johnson (1999), pp. 135, 186.
  110. ^ Trudgill (1999), p. 62.
  111. ^ a b Robinson, Jonnie (24 April 2019). "Received Pronunciation". The British Library. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  112. ^ Jones, Daniel (1957). An outline of English phonetics (9th ed.). Heffer. p. 101, para 394. ISBN 978-0521210980.
  113. ^ a b Wells, John (27 January 1994). "Whatever happened to Received Pronunciation?". Retrieved 24 August 2011.
  114. ^ Wikström (2013), p. 45. "It seems to be the case that younger RP or near-RP speakers typically use a closer quality, possibly approaching Cardinal 6 considering that the quality appears to be roughly intermediate between that used by older speakers for the LOT vowel and that used for the THOUGHT vowel, while older speakers use a more open quality, between Cardinal Vowels 13 and 6."
  115. ^ Collins & Mees (2013), p. 207.
  116. ^ de Jong et al. (2007), pp. 1814–5.
  117. ^ Wells (1982), pp. 228–9.
  118. ^ Ward, Ida (1939). The Phonetics of English (3rd ed.). pp. 135–6, para 250.
  119. ^ Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger (2019). Practical English Phonetics and Phonology (4th ed.). Routledge. p. 67. ISBN 978-1-138-59150-9.
  120. ^ Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger (2019). Practical English Phonetics and Phonology (4th ed.). Routledge. p. 69. ISBN 978-1-138-59150-9.
  121. ^ Walker, John (1824). A critical pronouncing dictionary. p. 25.
  122. ^ "an". The Chambers Dictionary (9th ed.). Chambers. 2003. ISBN 0-550-10105-5.
  123. ^ Simpson, J. A., & Weiner, E. S. C. (1989). Oxford English Dictionary (Second ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.
  124. ^ Wordsworth, Dot (6 April 2017). "An historic | The Spectator". www.spectator.co.uk. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  125. ^ Wells (1982), pp. 196ff.
  126. ^ Wells (1982), p. 76.
  127. ^ Wells (1982), p. 245.
  128. ^ a b Wells (1982), pp. 228ff.
  129. ^ Wells (1982), pp. 253ff.
  130. ^ Wells (1982), pp. 167ff.
  131. ^ Wise (1957).
  132. ^ Cruttenden (2008), p. 221.
  133. ^ Roach (2004).
  134. ^ a b c Wells, John (3 May 2011). "the evidence of the vows". John Wells's phonetic blog.
  135. ^ Wells, John (11 July 2007). "Any young U-RP speakers?".
  136. ^ Wells, John (8 November 2010). "David Attenborough". John Wells's phonetic blog.
  137. ^ Cho, Juhyung (1 January 2022). "Vowel changes in the speech of Sir David Attenborough". SNU Working Papers in English Language and Linguistics. 18. hdl:10371/176946. Retrieved 18 March 2022.
  138. ^ Wells, John (8 April 2010). "EE, yet again". John Wells's phonetic blog.
  139. ^ a b c Woods, Vicki (5 August 2011). "When I didn't know owt about posh speak". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022.
  140. ^ a b c Lawson, Lindsey (14 October 2013). "A popular British accent with very few native speakers". The Voice Cafe. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
  141. ^ a b Wells, John (12 June 2008a). "RP back in fashion?".
  142. ^ "RP: A popular British accent with very few native speakers". Examples of speakers of the more "conservative" type of RP are Stephen Fry and Dame Judi Dench.
  143. ^ "British Accents". dialectblog.com. 25 January 2011.
  144. ^ Stadlen, Matthew (10 July 2015). "Joanna Lumley: I'm not posh - and I eat like a horse". Daily Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 9 August 2020.
  145. ^ Klaus J. Kohler (2017) "Communicative Functions and Linguistic Forms in Speech Interaction", published by CUP (page 268)
  146. ^ "Labour MP Angela Rayner : 'I'm proud of my accent'". BBC News. 10 July 2017. Retrieved 9 February 2021. Tory MP Jacob Rees-Mogg struggled with his "posh RP [received pronunciation] accent" when he was trying to get elected in Fife.
  147. ^ "BBC - Voices - Your Voice". www.bbc.co.uk.
  148. ^ "Brian Sewell".
  149. ^ Cooper, Glenda (4 October 2014). "A 'posh' RP voice can break down barriers". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022.
  150. ^ "Has Beckham started talking posh?". BBC News.
  151. ^ Nolan, Dave; Nolan, David (24 November 2011). Emma Watson: The Biography. Kings Road Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84358-871-9. Emma speaks her lines with crystal-clear received pronunciation...

Bibliography

  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003) [First published 1981], The Phonetics of English and Dutch (5th ed.), Leiden: Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004103406
  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger (2013) [First published 2003], Practical Phonetics and Phonology: A Resource Book for Students (3rd ed.), Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-50650-2
  • Cruttenden, Alan (2008), Gimson's Pronunciation of English (7th ed.), London: Hodder, ISBN 978-0340958773
  • Cruttenden, Alan (2014), Gimson's Pronunciation of English (8th ed.), Routledge, ISBN 9781444183092
  • Crystal, David (2003), The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language (2nd ed.), Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-53033-4
  • Crystal, David (2005), The Stories of English, Penguin
  • DuPonceau, Peter S. (1818), "English phonology; or, An essay towards an analysis and description of the component sounds of the English language.", Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, vol. 1, pp. 259–264
  • Ellis, Alexander J. (1869), On early English pronunciation, New York, (1968): Greenwood Press((citation)): CS1 maint: location (link)
  • Elmes, Simon (2005), Talking for Britain: A journey through the voices of our nation, Penguin, ISBN 0-14-051562-3
  • Fishman, Joshua (1977), ""Standard" versus "Dialect" in Bilingual Education: An Old Problem in a New Context", The Modern Language Journal, 61 (7): 315–325, doi:10.2307/324550, JSTOR 324550
  • Gimson, Alfred C. (1970), An Introduction to the pronunciation of English, London: Edward Arnold
  • Gimson, Alfred C. (1980), Pronunciation of English (3rd ed.)
  • Gupta, Anthea Fraser (2005), "Baths and becks" (PDF), English Today, 21 (1): 21–27, doi:10.1017/S0266078405001069, ISSN 0266-0784, S2CID 54620954
  • Halle, Morris; Mohanan, K. P. (1985), "Segmental Phonology of Modern English", Linguistic Inquiry, The MIT Press, 16 (1): 57–116, JSTOR 4178420
  • Hudson, Richard (1981), "Some Issues on Which Linguists Can Agree", Journal of Linguistics, 17 (2): 333–343, doi:10.1017/S0022226700007052, S2CID 144125788
  • International Phonetic Association (1999), Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521637510
  • Jenkins, Jennifer (2000), The Phonology of English as an International Language, Oxford
  • Jones, Daniel (1917), English Pronouncing Dictionary (1st ed.), London: Dent
  • Jones, Daniel (1926), English Pronouncing Dictionary (2nd ed.)
  • Jones, Daniel (1967), An Outline of English Phonetics (9th ed.), Heffer
  • Jones, Daniel (2011), Roach, Peter; Setter, Jane; Esling, John (eds.), Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th ed.), Cambridge University Press
  • de Jong, Gea; McDougall, Kirsty; Hudson, Toby; Nolan, Francis (2007), "The speaker discriminating power of sounds undergoing historical change: A formant-based study", the Proceedings of ICPhS Saarbrücken, pp. 1813–1816
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2004), Vowels and Consonants, Thomson
  • Lodge, Ken (2009), A Critical Introduction to Phonetics, Continuum
  • McArthur, Tom (2002), The Oxford Guide to World English, Oxford University Press
  • McDavid, Raven I. (1965), "American Social Dialects", College English, 26 (4): 254–260, doi:10.2307/373636, JSTOR 373636
  • Mugglestone, Lynda (2003), 'Talking Proper': The Rise of Accent as Social Symbol (2nd ed.), Oxford University Press
  • Newbrook, Mark (1999), "West Wirral: norms, self-reports and usage", in Foulkes, Paul; Docherty, Gerald J. (eds.), Urban Voices, pp. 90–106
  • Pearce, Michael (2007), The Routledge Dictionary of English Language Studies, Routledge
  • Pearsall, Judy, ed. (1999), The Concise Oxford English Dictionary (10th ed.)
  • Petyt, K. M. (1985), Dialect and Accent in Industrial West Yorkshire, John Benjamins Publishing
  • Ramsaran, Susan (1990), "RP: fact and fiction", Studies in the Pronunciation of English: A commemorative volume in honour of A. C. Gimson, Routledge, pp. 178–190
  • Roach, Peter (2004), "British English: Received Pronunciation" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (2): 239–245, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001768, S2CID 144338519
  • Roach, Peter (2009), English Phonetics and Phonology (4th ed.), Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-40718-2
  • Roach, Peter (2011), Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521152532
  • Roca, Iggy; Johnson, Wyn (1999), A Course in Phonology, Blackwell Publishing
  • Rogaliński, Paweł (2011), British Accents: Cockney, RP, Estuary English, Łódź, ISBN 978-83-272-3282-3
  • Schmitt, Holger (2007), "The case for the epsilon symbol (ɛ) in RP DRESS", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 37 (3): 321–328, doi:10.1017/S0025100307003131, S2CID 143444452
  • Shockey, Linda (2003), Sound Patterns of Spoken English, Blackwell
  • Trudgill, Peter (1999), The Dialects of England, Blackwell
  • Upton, Clive (2004), "Received Pronunciation", A Handbook of Varieties of English, Walter de Gruyter, pp. 217–230
  • Upton, Clive; Kretzschmar, William A.; Konopka, Rafal (2001), Oxford Dictionary of Pronunciation for Current English, Oxford: Oxford University Press
  • Wells, John C. (1970), "Local accents in England and Wales", Journal of Linguistics, 6 (2): 231–252, doi:10.1017/S0022226700002632, S2CID 143523909
  • Wells, John C. (1982), Accents of English I: An Introduction, Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-29719-2
  • Wells, John C. (2008), Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.), Longman, ISBN 9781405881180
  • Wiik, K. (1965), Finnish and English Vowels, B, vol. 94, Annales Universitatis Turkensis
  • Wikström, Jussi (2013), "An acoustic study of the RP English LOT and THOUGHT vowels", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 37–47, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000345, S2CID 146863401
  • Wise, Claude Merton (1957), Introduction to phonetics, Englewood Cliffs
  • Wright, Joseph (1905), English Dialect Grammar
  • Wyld, Henry C. K. (1927), A short history of English (3rd ed.), London: Murray

Sources of regular comment on RP

Audio files