Scouse
Liverpool English / Merseyside English
Native toLiverpool
Early forms
Language codes
ISO 639-3
GlottologNone
IETFen-scouse
Speech example (0:25) The voice of musician Ringo Starr, an example of a working-class male from the inner-city Dingle area of Liverpool. Problems playing this file? See media help.
Speech example (0:37) The voice of historian Andrew Hussey, another example of a working-class male from inner-city Liverpool. Problems playing this file? See media help.
Speech example (0:33) The voice of comedian John Bishop, an example of a working-class male from Runcorn, a town near Liverpool which had its local accent changed by large numbers of Liverpudlians moving in during the 1950s.[1] Problems playing this file? See media help.

Scouse (/sks/; formally known as Liverpool English[2] or Merseyside English)[3][4][5] is an accent and dialect of English associated with Liverpool and the surrounding county of Merseyside. The Scouse accent is highly distinctive; having been influenced heavily by Irish, Norwegian, and Welsh immigrants who arrived via the Liverpool docks,[6] it has little in common with the accents of its neighbouring regions or the rest of England.[7] The accent is named after scouse, a stew eaten by sailors and locals.

The development of Liverpool since the 1950s has spread the accent into nearby areas such as the towns of Runcorn and Skelmersdale.[8] Variations within Scouse have been noted: the accent of Liverpool's city centre and northern neighbourhoods is usually described as fast, harsh, and nasal,[9] while the accent found in the southern suburbs of Liverpool is typically referred to as slow, soft, and dark.[10] Popular colloquialisms have shown a growing deviation from the historical Lancashire dialect that was previously found in Liverpool,[8] as well as a growth in the influence of the accent in the wider area.[7][11][12][13][14] Natives and residents of Liverpool are formally referred to as Liverpudlians, but are more often called Scousers.[15][16][17][18]

The northern variation of Scouse has appeared in mainstream British media but, until the 2010s, often served only to be impersonated and mocked in comedy series such as Harry Enfield & Chums and its Scousers sketch.[16] It is consistently voted one of the least popular accents in the UK.[19] Conversely, the Scouse accent as a whole is usually placed within the top two friendliest UK accents, alongside that of Newcastle upon Tyne.[20] The northern variation has become so synonymous with Liverpool that outsiders often mistakenly believe that the Beatles-like south Liverpool accent is dying out, and it is not uncommon for those from the southern suburbs to encounter people who doubt that they are from Liverpool.[21]

Etymology

The word scouse is a shortened form of lobscouse, the origin of which is uncertain.[22] It is related to the Norwegian lapskaus, Swedish lapskojs, and Danish labskovs (skipperlabskovs), as well as the Low German labskaus, and refers to a stew of the same name commonly eaten by sailors. In the 19th century, poorer people in Liverpool, Birkenhead, Bootle and Wallasey commonly ate scouse as it was a cheap dish, and familiar to the families of seafarers. Outsiders tended to call these people scousers.[23] In The Lancashire Dictionary of Dialect, Tradition and Folklore, Alan Crosby suggested that the word only became known nationwide with the popularity of the BBC sitcom Till Death Us Do Part (1965–1975), which featured a Liverpudlian socialist and a Cockney conservative in a regular argument.[17]

Origins

Originally a small fishing village, Liverpool developed as a port, trading particularly with Ireland, and after the 1700s as a major international trading and industrial centre. The city consequently became a melting pot of several languages and dialects, as sailors and traders from different areas (alongside migrants from other parts of Britain, Ireland, and northern Europe) established themselves in the area. Until the mid-19th century, the dominant local accent was similar to that of neighbouring areas of Lancashire. The comedian and comic actor Rob Wilton, for example, who was born in Everton, Liverpool, in 1881 spoke with a dry Lancashire accent or dialect[24][better source needed] rather than a Scouse accent.

The influence of Irish and Welsh migrants, combined with European accents, contributed to a distinctive local Liverpool accent.[25] The first reference to a distinctive Liverpool accent was in 1890.[26] Linguist Gerald Knowles suggested that the accent's nasal quality may have derived from poor 19th-century public health, by which the prevalence of colds for many people over a long time resulted in a nasal accent becoming regarded as the norm and copied by others learning the language.[27]

Academic research

The period of early dialect research in Great Britain did little to cover Scouse. The early researcher Alexander John Ellis said that Liverpool and Birkenhead "had no dialect proper", as he conceived of dialects as speech that had been passed down through generations from the earliest Germanic speakers. Ellis did research some locations on the Wirral, but these respondents spoke in traditional Cheshire dialect at the time and not in Scouse.[28] The 1950s Survey of English Dialects recorded traditional Lancastrian dialect from the town of Halewood and found no trace of Scouse influence. The phonetician John C Wells wrote that "the Scouse accent might as well not exist" in The Linguistic Atlas of England, which was the Survey's principal output.[29]

The first academic study of Scouse was undertaken by Gerald Knowles at the University of Leeds in 1973. He identified the key problem being that traditional dialect research had focused on developments from a single proto-language, but Scouse (and many other urban dialects) had resulted from interactions between an unknown number of languages.[30]

Phonetics and phonology

This section contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. For the distinction between [ ], / / and ⟨ ⟩, see IPA § Brackets and transcription delimiters.

The phonemic notation used in this article is based on the set of symbols used by Watson (2007).

Vowels

Monophthongs

Monophthongs of Scouse (from Watson (2007:357)). /ɛː/ and /ɑː/ show considerable allophonic variation.[31]
Monophthongs of Scouse (from Watson (2007:357)). /ɛː/ and /ɑː/ show considerable allophonic variation.[31]
Diphthongs of Scouse (part 1, from Watson (2007:357))
Diphthongs of Scouse (part 1, from Watson (2007:357))
Diphthongs of Scouse (part 2, from Watson (2007:357)). /ɛʉ/ has a considerable allophonic variation.[31]
Diphthongs of Scouse (part 2, from Watson (2007:357)). /ɛʉ/ has a considerable allophonic variation.[31]
Monophthongs of Scouse[32]
Front Central Back
Short Long Short Long
Close ɪ ʉː ʊ
Mid ɛ ɛː ə ɔː
Open a ɒ ɑː

Diphthongs

Diphthongs of Scouse[32]
Start
point
Endpoint
[-back] [+back]
Close ()
Mid eɪ ɔɪ ɛʉ
Open

Consonants

Lexicon and syntax

Some of the more notable Irish influences include the pronunciation of the name of the letter H with h-adding, so it is said as /h/, and the second person plural "you" as "yous" /jz/. The use of "me" instead of "my" is also present, i.e. "that's me book you got there" instead of "that's my book you've got there".[dubious ] An exception occurs when "my" is emphasised in an example such as "that's my book (not your book)". Other common Scouse features include the use of "giz" instead of "give us", which became famous throughout the UK through Boys from the Blackstuff in 1982; the use of the term "made up" to mean "extremely happy", such as in "I'm made up I didn't go out last night"; and the terms "sound" for "okay" and "boss" for "great", which can also be used to answer questions of wellbeing such as "I'm boss" in reply to "How are you?" and can also be used sarcastically in negative circumstances (the reply "sound" in the case of being told bad news translates to the sarcastic use of "good" or "okay").

International recognition

See also: Category:People from Liverpool

Scouse is highly distinguishable from other English dialects. Because of this international recognition, Keith Szlamp made a request to IANA on 16 September 1996 to make it a recognised Internet dialect.[47] After citing a number of references,[48][49][50][51][18] the application was accepted on 25 May 2000 and now allows Internet documents that use the dialect to be categorised as Scouse by using the language tag "en-Scouse".

Scouse has also become well known as the accent of the Beatles, an international cultural phenomenon.[52] While the members of the band are famously from Liverpool,[53] their accents have more in common with the older Lancashire-like Liverpool dialect found in the southern suburbs; the accent has evolved into Scouse since the 1960s, mostly in the centre and northern areas of the city, with some identifying the improvement of air quality as a potential factor.[52]

See also

Other northern English dialects include:

References

  1. ^ "John Bishop". Desert Island Discs. 24 June 2012. BBC Radio 4. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
  2. ^ Watson (2007:351–360)
  3. ^ Collins & Mees 2013, pp. 193–194.
  4. ^ Coupland, Nikolas; Thomas, Alan R., eds. (1990), English in Wales: Diversity, Conflict, and Change, Multilingual Matters Ltd., ISBN 1-85359-032-0
  5. ^ Howard, Jackson; Stockwell, Peter (2011), An Introduction to the Nature and Functions of Language (2nd ed.), Continuum International Publishing Group, p. 172, ISBN 978-1-4411-4373-0
  6. ^ "The origins of Scouse". www.bbc.co.uk.
  7. ^ a b Dominic Tobin and Jonathan Leake (3 January 2010). "Regional accents thrive against the odds in Britain". The Sunday Times.
  8. ^ a b Patrick Honeybone. "New-dialect formation in nineteenth century Liverpool: a brief history of Scouse" (PDF). Open House Press.
  9. ^ Bona, Emilia (29 September 2019). "11 funny differences between north and south Liverpool". Liverpool Echo.
  10. ^ https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-18983558
  11. ^ Julie Henry (30 March 2008). "Scouse twang spreads beyond Merseyside". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022.
  12. ^ Nick Coligan (29 March 2008). "Scouse accent defying experts and 'evolving'". Liverpool Echo.
  13. ^ Chris Osuh (31 March 2008). "Scouse accent on the move". Manchester Evening News.
  14. ^ Richard Savill (3 January 2010). "British regional accents 'still thriving'". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022.
  15. ^ Chris Roberts, Heavy Words Lightly Thrown: The Reason Behind Rhyme, Thorndike Press, 2006 (ISBN 0-7862-8517-6)
  16. ^ a b Archived at Ghostarchive and the Wayback Machine: "Harry Enfield - The Scousers Visit The Beach" – via www.youtube.com.
  17. ^ a b Alan Crosby, The Lancashire Dictionary of Dialect, Tradition and Folklore, 2000, entry for word Scouser
  18. ^ a b Szlamp, K.: The definition of the word 'Scouser', Oxford English Dictionary
  19. ^ Bona, Emilia (17 August 2015). "Scouse ranked second-least attractive accent in the country". Liverpool Echo.
  20. ^ "News". www.businesswire.com.
  21. ^ "What are the differences between the accents of Liverpool and the Wirral? - Quora". www.quora.com.
  22. ^ "lobscouse" at Oxford English Dictionary; retrieved 13 May 2017
  23. ^ "Scouse" at Oxford English Dictionary; retrieved 13 May 2017
  24. ^ Robb Wilton, character comedian born Robert Wilton Smith in Liverpool 1881. Spoke in Lancashire dialect & delivered monologues. Died 1957 Postcard. 1881–1957.
  25. ^ Paul Coslett, The origins of Scouse, BBC Liverpool, 11 January 2005. Retrieved 6 February 2015
  26. ^ Peter Grant, The Scouse accent: Dey talk like dat, don’t dey?, Liverpool Daily Post, 9 August 2008. Retrieved 18 April 2013
  27. ^ Times Higher Education, Scouse: the accent that defined an era, 29 June 2007. Retrieved 6 February 2015
  28. ^ Knowles, Gerald (1973). "2.2". Scouse: the urban dialect of Liverpool (PhD). University of Leeds. Retrieved 2 December 2017.
  29. ^ Review of the Linguistic Atlas of England, John C Wells, The Times Higher Education Supplement, 1 December 1978
  30. ^ Knowles, Gerald (1973). "3.2". Scouse: the urban dialect of Liverpool (PhD). University of Leeds. Retrieved 2 December 2017.
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Watson (2007), p. 358.
  32. ^ a b c d e f Watson (2007), p. 357.
  33. ^ a b Watson (2007), pp. 357–358.
  34. ^ a b c Collins & Mees (2013), p. 185.
  35. ^ a b c d Wells (1982), p. 373.
  36. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 372.
  37. ^ Gimson (2014), pp. 92, 115.
  38. ^ a b Wells (1982), pp. 361, 372.
  39. ^ a b Roca & Johnson (1999), p. 188.
  40. ^ a b Beal (2004), p. 125.
  41. ^ a b Gimson (2014), pp. 118, 138.
  42. ^ Gimson (2014), p. 125.
  43. ^ Beal (2004), p. 123.
  44. ^ a b c Wells (1982), pp. 372–373.
  45. ^ a b c d e Watson (2007), p. 352.
  46. ^ a b c d e f g Watson (2007), p. 353.
  47. ^ "LANGUAGE TAG REGISTRATION FORM". IANA.org. 25 May 2000. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
  48. ^ Shaw, Frank; Spiegl, Fritz; Kelly, Stan (September 1966). Lern Yerself Scouse. 1: How to Talk Proper in Liverpool. Scouse Press. ISBN 978-0901367013.
  49. ^ Lane, Linacre; Spiegl, Fritz (June 1966). Lern Yerself Scouse. 2: The ABZ of Scouse. Scouse Press. ISBN 978-0901367037.
  50. ^ Minard, Brian (July 1972). Lern Yerself Scouse. 3: Wersia Sensa Yuma?. Scouse Press. ISBN 978-0901367044.
  51. ^ Spiegl, Fritz; Allen, Ken (December 1989). Lern Yerself Scouse. 4: The Language of Laura Norder. Scouse Press. ISBN 978-0901367310.
  52. ^ a b "CLEAN AIR CLEANING UP OLD BEATLES ACCENT". abcnews.go.com. 23 February 2002. Retrieved 29 December 2017.
  53. ^ Unterberger, Richie. Scouse at AllMusic. Retrieved 5 July 2013.

Bibliography

Further reading