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This article contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. For the distinction between [ ], / / and ⟨ ⟩, see IPA § Brackets and transcription delimiters.

A front vowel is a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant. Front vowels are sometimes also called bright vowels because they are perceived as sounding brighter than the back vowels.[1]

Near-front vowels are essentially a type of front vowel; no language is known to contrast front and near-front vowels based on backness alone.

Rounded front vowels are typically centralized, that is, near-front in their articulation. This is one reason they are written to the right of unrounded front vowels in the IPA vowel chart.

Partial list

The front vowels that have dedicated symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet are:

There also are front vowels without dedicated symbols in the IPA:

As above, other front vowels can be indicated with diacritics of relative articulation applied to letters for neighboring vowels, such as ⟨⟩, ⟨⟩ or ⟨ɪ̟⟩ for a near-close front unrounded vowel.

Articulatorily fronted vowels

Fronted vowels are one of three articulatory dimensions of vowel space. The prototypical fronted vowel is [i]. Below it in the chart are fronted vowels with jaw opening.
Fronted vowels are one of three articulatory dimensions of vowel space. The prototypical fronted vowel is [i]. Below it in the chart are fronted vowels with jaw opening.

In articulation, fronted vowels, where the tongue moves forward from its resting position, contrast with raised vowels and retracted vowels. In this conception, fronted vowels are a broader category than those listed in the IPA chart, including [ɪ ʏ], [ɨ ʉ], and, marginally, mid-central vowels. Within the fronted vowels, vowel height (open or close) is determined by the position of the jaw, not by the tongue directly. Phonemic raised and retracted vowels may be phonetically fronted by certain consonants, such as palatals and in some languages pharyngeals. For example, /a/ may be fronted to [æ] next to /j/ or /ħ/.[2]

Effect on preceding consonant

Main article: Palatalization (sound change)

In the history of many languages, for example French and Japanese, front vowels have altered preceding velar or alveolar consonants, bringing their place of articulation towards palatal or postalveolar. This change can be allophonic variation, or it can have become phonemic.

This historical palatalization is reflected in the orthographies of several European languages, including the ⟨c⟩ and ⟨g⟩ of almost all Romance languages, the ⟨k⟩ and ⟨g⟩ in Norwegian, Swedish, Faroese and Icelandic, and the ⟨κ⟩, ⟨γ⟩ and ⟨χ⟩ in Greek. English follows the French pattern, but without as much regularity. However, for native or early borrowed words affected by palatalization, English has generally altered the spelling after the pronunciation (Examples include cheap, church, cheese, churn from /*k/, and yell, yarn, yearn, yeast from /*ɡ/.)

Before back vowel: hard Before front vowel: soft
English ⟨C⟩ call /kɔːl/ cell /sɛl/
English ⟨G⟩ gall /ɡɔːl/ gel /ɛl/
French ⟨C⟩ Calais [kalɛ] (About this soundlisten) cela [səla] (About this soundlisten)
French ⟨G⟩ gare [ɡaʁ] (About this soundlisten) gel [ʒɛl] (About this soundlisten)
Greek ⟨Γ⟩ γάιδαρος [ˈɣai̯ðaros] (About this soundlisten) γη [ʝi] (About this soundlisten)
Greek ⟨Χ⟩ Χανιά [xaˈɲa] (About this soundlisten) χαίρετε [ˈçerete] (About this soundlisten)
Italian ⟨C⟩ caro [ˈkaːro] (About this soundlisten) città [tʃitˈta] (About this soundlisten)
Italian ⟨G⟩ gatto [ˈɡatto] (About this soundlisten) gente [ˈdʒɛnte] (About this soundlisten)
Italian ⟨SC⟩ scusa [ˈskuːza] (About this soundlisten) pesce [ˈpeʃʃe] (About this soundlisten)
Japanese ⟨S⟩ sūdoku [sɯꜜːdokɯ] (About this soundlisten) shiitake [ɕiꜜːtake] (About this soundlisten)[a]
Japanese ⟨T⟩ atatakai [atatakaꜜi] (About this soundlisten) dotchi [dotꜜtɕi] (About this soundlisten)[a]
Swedish ⟨K⟩ karta [ˈkɑ̂ːʈa] (About this soundlisten) kär [ɕæːr] (About this soundlisten)
Swedish ⟨G⟩ god [ɡuːd] (About this soundlisten) göra [ˈjœ̂ːra] (About this soundlisten)
Swedish ⟨SK⟩ skal [skɑːl] (About this soundlisten) skälla [ˈɧɛ̂lːa] (About this soundlisten)
  1. ^ a b Palatalization of /si/, /ti/ etc. is shown in spelling in Hepburn romanization.

See also


  1. ^ Tsur, Reuven (February 1992). The Poetic Mode of Speech Perception. Duke University Press. p. 20. ISBN 0-8223-1170-4.
  2. ^ Scott Moisik, Ewa Czaykowska-Higgins, & John H. Esling (2012) "The Epilaryngeal Articulator: A New Conceptual Tool for Understanding Lingual-Laryngeal Contrasts"