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Quebec English
RegionQuebec, Canada
Native speakers
640,000-1.1 million (L1)
~4.3 million (L2)
Early forms
Latin (English alphabet)
Unified English Braille[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Glottologcana1268
IETFen-u-sd-caqc
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Quebec English encompasses the English dialects (both native and non-native) of the predominantly French-speaking Canadian province of Quebec.[2] There are few distinctive phonological features and very few restricted lexical features common among English-speaking Quebecers. The native English speakers in Quebec generally align to Standard Canadian English, one of the largest and most relatively homogeneous dialects in North America. This standard English accent is common in Montreal, where the vast majority of Quebec's native English speakers live. English-speaking Montrealers have, however, established ethnic groups that retain certain lexical features: Irish, Jewish, Italian, and Greek communities that all speak discernible varieties of English. Isolated fishing villages on the Basse-Côte-Nord of Quebec speak Newfoundland English, and many Gaspesian English-speakers use Maritime English. Francophone speakers of Quebec (including Montreal) also have their own second-language English that incorporates French accent features, vocabulary, etc. Finally, the Kahnawake Mohawks of south shore Montreal and the Cree and Inuit of Northern Quebec speak English with their own distinctive accents, usage, and expressions from their indigenous languages.

Quebec Anglophone English

The following are native-English (anglophone) phenomena unique to Quebec, particularly studied in Montreal English and spoken by the Quebec Anglophone minority in the Montreal area. Before the 1970s, minority-language English had the status of a co-official language in Quebec.[3]

Phonology

Anglophone Montreal speaks Standard Canadian English, which has the Canadian Vowel Shift and Canadian raising,[4] with some additional features:

Vocabulary

Quebec English is heavily influenced by English and French. The phrases and words below show the variation of meaning in the Quebec English dialect.

Delay: an amount of time given before a deadline. "I was given a delay of 2 weeks before my project was due".[3]

An animator: is not an artist but is someone who meets and entertains children.[3]

A sweet carbonated beverage is commonly referred to as a "pop" in many parts of Canada, but in Montreal, it is a "soda" or "soft drink."[9] A straight translation of the French liqueur douce.

A formation - this word in English would normally mean a routine stance used in a professional formation. (i.e. The men stood in formation). In Quebec a formation is a reference to an educational course or training session.[3]

A pass - this phrase originates from Italian speakers, the word pass is often used in phrases such as "I am going to pass by a friend on the way to the movies". The phrase is comparatively used when you are already completing one action but can squeeze in another action on the way to your destination.[3]

In standard English, the phrase "Your bus will pass in 2 minutes" would mean that you are about to miss your bus or that you have already missed your bus. Alternatively in Montreal the phrase pass can also mean to arrive or stop as a way to show that the action will happen in a relatively short time frame. Example: "Your bus will pass in 2 minutes".[3]

Locations within the city are also commonly described using syntax borrowed from French. If a building is at the corner of St. Catherine and Peel streets in downtown Montreal, it may be described as being "on Saint Catherine, corner Peel." This is parallel to the French expression, "Sainte-Catherine, coin Peel" or "angle Peel".[3]

French-language toponyms

English-speakers commonly use French-language toponyms and official names for local institutions and organizations with no official English names. The names are pronounced as in French, especially in broadcast media. Examples include the Régie du logement,[10] the Collège de Maisonneuve, Québec Solidaire, the Parti québécois, Hochelaga-Maisonneuve, and Trois-Rivières.

French loanwords

The use of a limited number of Quebec French terms for everyday place nouns (and occasional items) that have English equivalents; all of them are pronounced with English pronunciations or have undergone English clippings or abbreviations and so are regarded as ordinary English terms by Quebecers. At times, some of them tend to be preceded by the in contexts in which they would normally have a/an.

List of French loanwords
autoroute [ˌɒɾɨˈɹuːt] instead of expressway
branché [bʁãˈʃeɪ̯] instead of trendy (colloquial)[1]
chansonnier instead of songwriter[12]
chez nous [ʃeɪ̯ ˈnuː] instead of "[at] our place"
the dep[13] – instead of corner, variety, or convenience store; from dépanneur
coordinates instead of contact information
echo – ultrasound in reference to an échographie [14]
epicerie – grocery store [14]
fonctionnaire [ˌfõksjɔˈnɛːʁ] or [ˌfɒ̃ʊ̯̃ksjɔˈnaɛ̯ʁ] instead of civil servant[15]
formation instead of training[3]
the gallery – instead of balcony
garderie – nursery [14]
the guichet [ɡiˈʃɛ] – instead of bank machine, even when all ATMs are labelled "ATM";
malaise - instead of malady or ailment[16]
marchémarket
the métro (or metro) instead of the subway, referring to rapid transit in urban areas; from the French chemin de fer métropolitain;[17][18] metro is used outside Canada, though, as in the Washington Metro
nappe – a tablecloth
poutine [puːˈtiːn] – French fries with gravy and cheddar cheese curds
primary one, two, three, in contrast to Canadian English grade one, two, three etc.
resto – restaurant
the SAQ – the official name of the government-run monopoly liquor stores (pronounced "ess-ay-cue" or "sack"), the Société des alcools du Québec. That usage is similar to that in other provinces, like in neighbouring Ontario, where LCBO liquor stores are referred to as the "lick-bo" (for Liquor Control Board of Ontario).
secondary one, two, three, in contrast to Canadian English grade seven, eight, nine etc.
stage – apprenticeship or internship, pronounced as [staːʒ]
subvention – government grant or subsidy. The word exists in both French and English, but it is rarely heard in Canadian English outside Quebec.
tempo – driveway shelter in reference to the French commercial name Abris Tempo [14]
terrasse [tɛˈʁas] – the French pronunciation and spelling of the translation for 'terrace' is common among anglophones in casual speech and is considered acceptable in semiformal expression such as journalism.[19]
undertakingbusiness or enterprise

Pronunciation of French names

The pronunciation of French-language first and last names that uses mostly-French sounds may be mispronounced by speakers of other languages. For example, the pronounced "r" sound and the silent "d" of "Bouchard" may be both pronounced: /buːˈʃɑrd/. French-speakers and Quebec English-speakers are more likely to vary such pronunciations, depending on the manner in which they adopt an English phonological framework. That includes names like Mario Lemieux, Marie-Claire Blais, Jean Charest, Jean Chrétien, Robert Charlebois, and Céline Dion.

Quebec Francophone English

Francophone second-language speakers of English use an interlanguage with varying degrees, ranging from French-accented pronunciation to Quebec Anglophone English pronunciation. High-frequency second-language phenomena by francophones, allophones, and other non-native-speakers occur in the most basic structures of English, both in and outside of Quebec. Commonly called "Frenglish" or "franglais", such phenomena are a product of interlanguage, calques, or mistranslation and thus may not constitute so-called "Quebec English" to the extent that they can be conceived of separately, particularly since such phenomena are similar for Francophone-speakers of English throughout the world, which leaves little to be specific to Quebec.

Phonology

Francophones speaking English often pronounce [t]/[d] instead of [θ]/[ð], and some also pronounce [ɔ] for the phoneme /ʌ/, and some mispronounce some words, some pronounce a full vowel instead of a schwa, such as [ˈmɛseɪdʒ] for message. Since French-speakers greatly outnumber English-speakers in most regions of Quebec, it is more common to hear French in public. Some Anglophones in overwhelmingly-Francophone areas use some of the features (especially the replacement of [θ] and [ð] by [t] and [d]), but their English is remarkably similar to that of other varieties of English in Canada (Poplack, Walker, & Malcolmson 2006 [20]).

Other speakers

There is also a pronunciation (NP) of the phoneme /ŋ/ as /n/ + /ɡ/ (among some Italian Montrealers) or /n/ + /k/ (among some Jewish Montrealers, especially those who grew up speaking Yiddish),[21] such as by high degrees of ethnic connectivity within, for instance, municipalities, boroughs, or neighbourhoods on Montreal Island, such as Saint-Léonard and Outremont/Côte-des-Neiges/Côte Saint-Luc. Such phenomena occur as well in other diaspora areas such as New York City.

Vocabulary and grammar

janitor – building superintendent.
country house – cottage (vacation home).
Close the TV – Turn/shut off the TV.[13]
Close the door. – Lock the door.
Open the light. – Turn on the lights.[13]
Close the light. – Turn off the lights.[13]
Take a decision. – Make a decision. (NB "Take" is the older British version. Compare French Prends/Prenez une décision)
Put your coat. – Put your coat on (from French Mets ton manteau/Mettez votre manteau).
Pass someone money. – Lend someone money.
Pass the vacuum. – Run the vacuum (or do the vacuuming)
He speak/talk to me yesterday. – He spoke/talked to me yesterday. (verb tense)
Me, I work in Laval. – I work in Laval. (vocal stress on "I". From French Moi, je travaille à Laval.)
It/He have many books. – There are many books. (from French il y a meaning "there is/are")
I like the beef and the red wine. – I like beef and red wine. (overuse of definite article to mean "in general". From French J'aime le bœuf et le vin rouge.)
You speak French? – Do you speak French? (absence of auxiliary verb; otherwise it means surprise, disbelief or disappointment when out of context)
We were/are four. – There were/are four of us. (from French "nous sommes" and "nous étions")
We're Tuesday – It's Tuesday. (from French "nous sommes")
I don't find my keys. – I can’t find my keys. (lack of English modal auxiliary verb)
At this moment I wash the dishes. – I’m washing the dishes right now. (verbal aspect)
I can't join you at this moment because I eat. – I can't join you right now because I'm eating. (verbal aspect)
My computer, he don’t work. – My computer won’t work. (human pronoun, subject repetition, uninflected auxiliary verb)
I would like a brownies. – Could I have a brownie? (plural –s thought to be part of the singular word in relexification process; other examples: "a Q-tips", "a pins", "a buns", "a Smarties", "a Doritos", etc.)
I would like shrimps with broccolis. – Could I have some shrimp and broccoli? (use of regular plural instead of English unmarked plural or non-count noun; this is not a case of hypercorrection but of language transfer).
Do you want to wash the dishes? – Will/would you wash the dishes? (lack of English modal verb; modal vouloir from French instead – Voulez-vous faire la vaisselle?)
We have to go in by downstairs – We have to go in downstairs (via the non-standard French 'entrer par')
You're going to broke it! – You're going to break it! (mixing of homonymic French tenses; "cassé", past, versus "casser", infinitive)
a stage – an internship (pronounced as in French, from the French word for internship, "un stage".)
Cégep [seɪ̯ˈʒɛp] (cégep; collégial, cégepien) – the acronym of the public college network preceding university in Quebec.
Chinese pâté [t͡ʃʰaɪ̯ˈniːz pʰætʰˌeɪ̯] or [t͡ʃʰaɪ̯ˈniːz pʰɑːˌtʰeɪ̯]shepherd's pie (pâté chinois; Quebeckers' pâté chinois is similar to shepherd's-pie dishes associated with other cultures)
a cold plate – some cold-cuts (reversed gallicismassiette de viandes froides)
coordinates – for address, phone number, e-mail, etc.
(a) salad – (a head of) lettuce
a subvention – a (government) grant
a parking – a parking lot/space
a location – a rental
a good placement – a good location
That's it. – That is correct. (from C'est ça.)
all-dressed pizza – a deluxe pizza with pepperoni, mushrooms and green peppers (from pizza toute garnie.)
soup, two times – two soups, or two orders of soup (from "deux fois.")

Few anglophone Quebeckers use French grammar or false cognates, but many use French collocations and most understand such high-frequency words and expressions. Some of these cognates are used by many francophones, and others by many allophones and anglophone accultured in allophone environments, of varying English proficiencies, from the bare-minimum level to native-speaker level.

See also

References

  1. ^ "History of Braille (UEB)". Braille Literacy Canada. 2016. Retrieved 2 January 2017.
  2. ^ Ingrid Peritz, "Quebec English elevated to dialect," Montreal Gazette, 20 August 1997
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Boberg, Charles (2012). "English as a minority language in Quebec". World Englishes. 31 (4): 493–502. doi:10.1111/j.1467-971X.2012.01776.x.
  4. ^ Labov, Ash & Boberg (2006), pp. 219–220, 223.
  5. ^ Labov, Ash & Boberg (2006), p. 56.
  6. ^ Labov, Ash & Boberg (2006), p. 97.
  7. ^ Labov, Ash & Boberg (2006), pp. 181–182, 223.
  8. ^ Labov, Ash & Boberg (2006), p. 223.
  9. ^ Labov, Ash & Boberg (2006), p. 290.
  10. ^ "Régie du logement – Welcome". Gouvernement du Québec. 24 November 2006. Archived from the original on 11 December 2006. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  11. ^ Scott, Marian. "One of Montreal's linguistic divides is generational". Montreal Gazette. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
  12. ^ "Former PQ leader Jacques Parizeau dies at 84 | Montreal Gazette".
  13. ^ a b c d Scott, Marian (February 12, 2010). "Our way with words". The Gazette. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
  14. ^ a b c d Andrew-Gee, Eric (2023-09-20). "'Meet me at the dep': How anglos borrowed from French to create a 'Quebec English' all their own". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 2023-09-29.
  15. ^ "Equality Party". Archived from the original on March 6, 2005.
  16. ^ "Leading Montreal AIDS researcher Mark Wainberg dies in Florida | Montreal Gazette".
  17. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". metrodemontreal.com.
  18. ^ "Two separate communication glitches shut métro system, STM says | Montreal Gazette".
  19. ^ Chez Alexandre owner takes down terrasse to comply with city bylaw http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/montreal/chez-alexandre-owner-takes-down-terrasse-to-comply-with-city-bylaw-1.3060453
  20. ^ Shana Poplack, James Walker & Rebecca Malcolmson (2006) An English "like no other"?: Language contact and change in Quebec. Canadian Journal of Linguistics. 185–213.
  21. ^ Scott, Marian (February 15, 2010). "That 'aboat' sums it up". The Gazette. Retrieved 15 March 2011.[permanent dead link]