This article contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. For the distinction between [ ], / / and ⟨ ⟩, see IPA § Brackets and transcription delimiters.
Speech example (0:19) An example of a female from Christchurch (Eleanor Catton). Problems playing this file? See media help.
Speech example (0:59) An example of a male from Auckland. Problems playing this file? See media help.

This article covers the phonological system of New Zealand English. While New Zealanders speak differently depending on their level of cultivation (i.e. the closeness to Received Pronunciation), this article covers the accent as it is spoken by educated speakers, unless otherwise noted. The IPA transcription is one designed by Bauer et al. (2007) specifically to faithfully represent a New Zealand accent, which this article follows in most aspects (see table under § Transcriptions).

Vowels

Variation in New Zealand vowels[1]
Lexical set Phoneme Phonetic realization
Cultivated Broad
DRESS /e/ [] []
TRAP /ɛ/ [æ] [ɛ̝]
KIT /ə/ [ɪ̈] [ə]
NEAR /iə/ [ɪə] [iə]
SQUARE /eə/ [e̞ə]
FACE /æɪ/ [æɪ] [äɪ]
PRICE /aɪ/ [ɑ̟ɪ] [ɒ̝ˑɪ ~ ɔɪ]
GOAT /aʉ/ [ɵ̞ʊ] [äʉ]
MOUTH /æʊ/ [äʊ] [e̞ə]

Monophthongs

Monophthongs of New Zealand English, from Hay, Maclagan & Gordon (2008:21).
Monophthongs of New Zealand English, from Hay, Maclagan & Gordon (2008:21).
Variation of monophthongs in New Zealand English, from Bauer et al. (2007:98).
Variation of monophthongs in New Zealand English, from Bauer et al. (2007:98).

The vowels of New Zealand English are similar to that of other non-rhotic dialects such as Australian English and RP, but with some distinctive variations, which are indicated by the transcriptions for New Zealand vowels in the tables below:[2]

Monophthongs
Front Central Back
short long short long short long
Close e ʊ ʉː
Mid ɛ øː ə ɒ
Open a
TRAP–DRESS–KIT chain shift
æɛɪə
COMMA
KIT
FLEECE
GOOSE
NURSE
STRUT, START
TRAPBATH split
THOUGHT
LOT
FOOT
Changes before /l/
Māori English
Pasifika English

Diphthongs

Part 1 of New Zealand English closing diphthongs, from Bauer et al. (2007:99). [ɒʊ] represents the phonetic outcome of a neutralization of the non-prevocalic sequences /ɒl/ and /aʉl/.
Part 1 of New Zealand English closing diphthongs, from Bauer et al. (2007:99). [ɒʊ] represents the phonetic outcome of a neutralization of the non-prevocalic sequences /ɒl/ and /aʉl/.
Part 2 of New Zealand English closing diphthongs, from Bauer et al. (2007:99).
Part 2 of New Zealand English closing diphthongs, from Bauer et al. (2007:99).
Centring diphthongs of New Zealand English, from Bauer et al. (2007:99). The speaker in question does not differentiate between /iə/ and /eə/.
Centring diphthongs of New Zealand English, from Bauer et al. (2007:99). The speaker in question does not differentiate between /iə/ and /eə/.
Diphthongs
Closing æɪ aɪ oɪ æʊ aʉ
Centring iə eə ʉə
Phonetic quality
CURE
NEARSQUARE merger
Changes before /l/

Transcriptions

Sources differ in the way they transcribe New Zealand English. The differences are listed below. The traditional phonemic orthography for the Received Pronunciation as well as the reformed phonemic orthographies for Australian and General South African English have been added for the sake of comparison.

Transcription systems
New Zealand English Australian South African RP Example words
This article Wells 1982[45] Bauer et al 2007[2] Hay et al 2008[46] Rogers 2014[47]
i ɨj fleece
i i i happy, video
ə ɘ ɪ ə ɪ ɨ ɪ ring, writing
ə kit
ə ə rabbit
ə accept, abbot
a sofa, better
ʌ ɐ ʌ ʌ a ɜ ʌ strut, unknown
ɐː a a ɑː ɑː palm, start
ɪə ɪə ɪə near
ʊ ʊ ʊ ʊ ʊ ʊ ɵ ʊ foot
ʉː / ʉː u ʉ ʉː ʉː goose
ʉə ʊə ʉə ʊə ʊə ʉːə ʉə ʊə cure
ʉː fury
ɔː / sure
ɔ ɔ ɔː thought, north
e e e e e e e e dress
øː ɜː / øː ɵː ɜ ɞ ɜː øː ɜː nurse
ɛ æ ɛ æ ɛ æ ɛ æ trap
ɒ ɒ ɒ ɒ ɒ ɔ ɑ ɒ lot
æɪ ʌɪ æe ei ʌj æɪ face
/ square
ʌʊ ɐʉ ʌw əʉ œʊ əʊ goat
ɔɪ oe ɔi ɔj ɔɪ ɔɪ choice
ɑɪ ɑe ai ɑj ɑɪ price
æʊ æʊ æo æw æɔ ɐʊ mouth

Consonants

New Zealand English consonants are consistent with those from those found in other varieties of English, such as Received Pronunciation.

New Zealand English consonant phonemes[48]
Labial Dental Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal   m   n   ŋ
Plosive pb td kg
Affricate t͡ʃd͡ʒ
Fricative fv θð sz ʃʒ h  
Approximant   l   ɹ   j   w
Rhoticity
Pronunciation of /l/
Pronunciation of ⟨wh⟩
Flapped /t/
Glottal reinforcement
Pronunciation of /hj/
Retraction of /s/
Fronting of ⟨th⟩
Yod dropping

Other features

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Pronunciation of Māori place names

The pronunciations of many Māori place names were anglicised for most of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, but since the 1980s increased consciousness of the Māori language has led to a shift towards using a Māori pronunciation. The anglicisations have persisted most among residents of the towns in question, so it has become something of a shibboleth, with correct Māori pronunciation marking someone as non-local.[62]

Examples[62]
Placename English pronunciation Māori pronunciation
Cape Reinga /ˌkæɪp ɹiːˈɛŋa/ [ˈɾeːiŋɐ]
Hawera /ˈhaːweɹa, -wəɹ-, -aː/ [ˈhɑːwɛɾɐ]
Ōakura /ˈɒkɹə/ [ˈoːɐˌkʉrɐ]
Otahuhu /ˌaʉtəˈhʉːhʉː/ [oːˈtɑːhʉhʉ]
Otorohanga /ˌaʉtɹəˈhaŋa, -ˈhɒŋa/ [ˈoːtɔɾɔhɐŋɐ]
Paraparaumu /ˈpɛɹəpɹɛm/, /ˌpɛɹəpɛˈɹæʊmʉː/ [pɐɾɐpɐˈɾaumʉ]
Pāuatahanui /ˌpaːtəˈnʉ.iː/, /ˈpæʊətaːhəˌnʉːi/ [ˈpɐʉɐtɐhɐnʉi]
Taumarunui /ˌtæʊməɹəˈnʉːiː/ [ˈtaumɐɾʉnʉi]
Te Awamutu /ˌtiː əˈmʉːtʉː/ [tɛ ɐwɐˈmʉtʉ]
Te Kauwhata /ˌtiː kəˈwɒta/ [tɛ ˈkaufɐtɐ]
Waikouaiti /ˈwɛkəwaɪt, -wɒt/ [ˈwɐikɔuˌɐiti]

Some anglicised names are colloquially shortened, for example, Coke /kaʉk/ for Kohukohu, the Rapa /ˈɹɛpa/ for the Wairarapa, Kura /ˈkʉəɹa/ for Papakura, Papatoe /ˈpɛpətaʉiː/ for Papatoetoe, Otahu /ˌaʉtəˈhʉː/ for Otahuhu, Paraparam /ˈpɛɹəpɛɹɛm/ or Pram /pɹɛm/ for Paraparaumu, the Naki /ˈnɛkiː/ for Taranaki, Cow-cop /ˈkæʊkɒp/ for Kaukapakapa and Pie-cock /ˈpaɪkɒk/ for Paekakariki.[citation needed]

There is some confusion between these shortenings, especially in the southern South Island, and the natural variations of the southern dialect of Māori. Not only does this dialect sometimes feature apocope, but consonants also vary slightly from standard Māori. To compound matters, names were often initially transcribed by Scottish settlers, rather than the predominantly English settlers of other parts of the country; as such further alterations are not uncommon. Thus, while Lake Wakatipu is sometimes referred to as Wakatip /ˈwɒkəˌtəp/, Oamaru as Om-a-roo About this sound/ˌɒməˈɹʉː/[62] and Waiwera South as Wy-vra /ˈwaɪvɹa/, these differences may be as much caused by dialect differences – either in Māori or in the English used during transcription – as by the process of anglicisation.[citation needed] An extreme example is The Kilmog /ˈkəlmɒɡ/, the name of which is cognate with the standard Māori Kirimoko.[63]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Gordon & Maclagan (2004), p. 609.
  2. ^ a b Bauer et al. (2007), pp. 98–100.
  3. ^ a b c "Simon Bridges has the accent of New Zealand's future. Get used to it". NZ Herald. 26 February 2018. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
  4. ^ Evans, Zoë; Watson, Catherine I. (2004). An acoustic comparison of Australian and New Zealand English vowel change. pp. 195–200. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.119.6227.
  5. ^ Hay, Maclagan & Gordon (2008), pp. 41–42.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Brooke Chantel Ross (2018). "An Acoustic Analysis of New Zealand: English Vowels in Auckland" (PDF). Victoria University of Wellington. Retrieved 2021-11-21.
  7. ^ a b c d e Bauer et al. (2007), p. 98.
  8. ^ a b c Crystal (2003), p. 354.
  9. ^ Bauer & Warren (2004), p. 587.
  10. ^ a b c Gordon & Maclagan (2004), p. 611.
  11. ^ Wells (1982), p. 606.
  12. ^ a b Bauer & Warren (2004), pp. 585, 587.
  13. ^ a b c Bauer et al. (2007), p. 101.
  14. ^ a b c Hay, Maclagan & Gordon (2008), p. 24.
  15. ^ Bauer & Warren (2004), pp. 587–588.
  16. ^ Wells (1982), pp. 606–607.
  17. ^ Bauer & Warren (2004), pp. 584–585.
  18. ^ Wells (1982), pp. 607–608.
  19. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 607.
  20. ^ Roca & Johnson (1999), p. 188.
  21. ^ Bauer & Warren (2004), pp. 582, 591.
  22. ^ a b Bauer & Warren (2004), p. 591.
  23. ^ Bauer & Warren (2004), pp. 586, 588, 590.
  24. ^ Hay, Maclagan & Gordon (2008), pp. 22–23, 25.
  25. ^ a b Trudgill & Hannah (2008), p. 29.
  26. ^ "The New Zealand accent: a clue to New Zealand identity?" (PDF). arts.canterbury.ac.nz. p. 47-48.[permanent dead link]
  27. ^ "5. – Speech and accent – Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand". Teara.govt.nz. 2013-09-05. Retrieved 2017-01-15.
  28. ^ a b c d "NZE Phonology" (PDF). Victoria University of Wellington. Retrieved 2021-11-14.
  29. ^ a b c Bauer et al. (2007), p. 100.
  30. ^ Bauer & Warren (2004), p. 589.
  31. ^ a b Gordon & Maclagan (2004), pp. 609, 611.
  32. ^ a b c d e f Bauer et al. (2007), p. 99.
  33. ^ Bauer & Warren (2004), p. 582.
  34. ^ Cox & Fletcher (2017), p. 67.
  35. ^ a b c Bauer & Warren (2004), pp. 582, 592.
  36. ^ Gordon & Maclagan (2004), pp. 609–610.
  37. ^ Bauer et al. (2007), pp. 98–99.
  38. ^ a b c Hay, Maclagan & Gordon (2008), p. 26.
  39. ^ Bauer & Warren (2004), p. 592.
  40. ^ a b Gordon et al. (2004), p. 29.
  41. ^ "4. Stickmen, New Zealand's pool movie – Speech and accent – Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand". Teara.govt.nz. 2013-09-05. Retrieved 2017-01-15.
  42. ^ Gordon & Maclagan (2004), p. 610.
  43. ^ "Tracking the New Zealand English NEAR/SQUARE merger using functional principal components analysis" (PDF). September 15–19, 2019.
  44. ^ Wells 1982, p. 609.
  45. ^ Wells (1982), pp. 608–609.
  46. ^ Hay, Maclagan & Gordon (2008), pp. 21–34.
  47. ^ Rogers (2014), p. 117.
  48. ^ a b c Bauer et al. (2007), p. 97.
  49. ^ "Other forms of variation in New Zealand English". Te Kete Ipurangi. Ministry of Education. Archived from the original on 3 June 2013. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  50. ^ Gordon & Maclagan (2004), p. 605.
  51. ^ "5. – Speech and accent – Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand". Teara.govt.nz. 2013-09-05. Retrieved 2017-01-15.
  52. ^ Bauer & Warren (2004), p. 594.
  53. ^ Hogg, R.M., Blake, N.F., Burchfield, R., Lass, R., and Romaine, S., (eds.) (1992) The Cambridge history of the English language. (Volume 5) Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521264785 p. 387. Retrieved from Google Books.
  54. ^ Trudgill & Hannah (2008), p. 31.
  55. ^ Bauer & Warren (2004), p. 595.
  56. ^ a b Trudgill & Hannah (2008), p. 30.
  57. ^ Gordon & Maclagan (2004), pp. 606, 609.
  58. ^ "Earliest New Zealand: The Journals and Correspondence of the Rev. John Butler, Chapter X". New Zealand Electronic Text Centre. Retrieved 24 October 2011.
  59. ^ Wood, Elizabeth (2003). "TH fronting: the substitution of f/v for θ/ð in New Zealand English" (PDF). University of Canterbury. Retrieved 2021-11-14.
  60. ^ a b Nikolenko, p. 412.
  61. ^ Nikolenko, p. 414.
  62. ^ a b c Nikolenko, p. 411.
  63. ^ Goodall, M., & Griffiths, G. (1980) Maori Dunedin. Dunedin: Otago Heritage Books. p. 45: "This hill [The Kilmog]...has a much debated name, but its origins are clear to Kaitahu and the word illustrates several major features of the southern dialect. First we must restore the truncated final vowel (in this case to both parts of the name, 'kilimogo'). Then substitute r for l, k for g, to obtain the northern pronunciation, 'kirimoko'.... Though final vowels existed in Kaitahu dialect, the elision was so nearly complete that pākehā recorders often omitted them entirely."

Bibliography

  • Bauer, Laurie; Warren, Paul (2004), "New Zealand English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive (eds.), A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 580–602, ISBN 3-11-017532-0
  • Bauer, Laurie; Warren, Paul; Bardsley, Dianne; Kennedy, Marianna; Major, George (2007), "New Zealand English", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 37 (1): 97–102, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002830
  • Cox, Felicity; Fletcher, Janet (2017) [First published 2012], Australian English Pronunciation and Transcription (2nd ed.), Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-1-316-63926-9
  • Crystal, David (2003), The Cambridge encyclopedia of the English language (2nd ed.), Cambridge University Press
  • Gordon, Elizabeth; Maclagan, Margaret (2004), "Regional and social differences in New Zealand: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive (eds.), A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 603–613, ISBN 3-11-017532-0
  • Gordon, Elizabeth; Campbell, Lyle; Hay, Jennifer; Maclagan, Margaret; Sudbury, Peter; Trudgill, Andrea, eds. (2004), New Zealand English: Its Origins and Evolution, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
  • Hay, Jennifer; Maclagan, Margaret; Gordon, Elizabeth (2008), New Zealand English, Dialects of English, Edinburgh University Press, ISBN 978-0-7486-2529-1
  • Roca, Iggy; Johnson, Wyn (1999), A Course in Phonology, Blackwell Publishing
  • Rogers, Henry (2014) [First published 2000], The Sounds of Language: An Introduction to Phonetics, Essex: Routledge, ISBN 978-0-582-38182-7
  • Trudgill, Peter; Hannah, Jean (2008), International English: A Guide to the Varieties of Standard English (5th ed.), London: Arnold
  • Nikolenko, A.G., English Lexicology - theory and practice, ISBN 9789663820767
  • Wells, John C. (1982). Accents of English. Volume 3: Beyond the British Isles (pp. i–xx, 467–674). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-52128541-0 .

Further reading

  • Bauer, Laurie (1994), "8: English in New Zealand", in Burchfield, Robert (ed.), The Cambridge History of the English Language, 5: English in Britain and Overseas: Origins and Development, Cambridge University Press, pp. 382–429, ISBN 0-521-26478-2
  • Bauer, Laurie (2015), "Australian and New Zealand English", in Reed, Marnie; Levis, John M. (eds.), The Handbook of English Pronunciation, Malden, MA: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 269–285, ISBN 978-1-118-31447-0
  • Warren, Paul; Bauer, Laurie (2004), "Maori English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive (eds.), A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 614–624, ISBN 3-11-017532-0
  • Wells, John C. (1982), Accents of English 3: Beyond The British Isles, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-28541-4