Not all New Zealanders have the same accent, as the level of cultivation (i.e. the closeness to Received Pronunciation) of every speaker's accent differs. The phonology in this article is of an educated speaker of New Zealand English, and uses a transcription system designed by Bauer et al. (2007) specifically to faithfully represent the New Zealand accent. It transcribes some of the vowels differently, whereas the approximant /r/ is transcribed with the symbol ɹ even in phonemic transcription.[1]

Vowels

Monophthongs of New Zealand English.[2]
Range of the TREACLE vowel, which ranges from central to (more often) back and close to close-mid.[3][4]
Closing and fronting diphthongs of New Zealand English.[5]
Centring diphthongs of New Zealand English.[6]

The vowels of New Zealand English are similar to that of other non-rhotic dialects such as Australian English and RP, but with some distinctive variations, which are indicated by the transcriptions for New Zealand vowels in the tables below:[7]

Monophthongs of New Zealand English
Front Central Back
short long short long short long
Close (i)
(HAPPY)
(/i/)

FLEECE
(//)
ʉː
GOOSE
(//)
(ɯ)
(TREACLE)
(/əl/)
Close-mid e
DRESS
(/ɛ/)
ɘ
KIT / COMMA / LETTER
(/ɪ ə ər/)
ɵː
NURSE
(/ɜːr/)
ʊ
FOOT
(/ʊ/)

THOUGHT / NORTH
(/ɔː ɔːr/)
Open-mid ɛ
TRAP
(/æ/)
ɒ
LOT / CLOTH
(/ɒ/)
Open ɐ
STRUT
(/ʌ/)
ɐː
PALM / BATH / START
(/ɑː ɑː ɑːr/)
Diphthongs of New Zealand English
Bauer et al. WP Keyword
/ɪər/ NEAR
(ʉə) /ʊər/ (CURE)[8]
() /ɛər/ (SQUARE)[9]
oe /ɔɪ/ CHOICE
æe // FACE
æo // MOUTH
ɐʉ // GOAT
(ɒɯ) /l/ (GOLD)
ɑe // PRICE

However, vowel charts show that /e, ɒ/ aren't accurate transcriptions, and /ɪ, ɔ/ approximate the actual pronunciation more closely.[10][2]

Variation in New Zealand vowels
Phoneme Phonetic realization[11]
Lexical set Bauer et al. WP Cultivated Broad
KIT /ɘ/ /ɪ/ [ɪ̠] [ə]
COMMA /ə/ [ə]
DRESS /e/ /ɛ/ [] []
TRAP /ɛ/ /æ/ [æ] [ɛ̝]
FACE /æe/ // [æe̝] [ɐe]
PRICE /ɑe/ // [ɑ̟e] [ɒ̝ˑe], [ɔe]
MOUTH /æo/ // [aʊ] [e̞ə]
GOAT /ɐʉ/ // [ɵʊ] [ɐʉ]
NEAR /iə/ /ɪər/ [i̞ə], [e̝ə] [i̞ə]
SQUARE /eə/ /ɛər/ [e̞ə]

Short front vowel shift

In New Zealand English, the three short front vowels have undergone a chain shift. Recent acoustic studies featuring both Australian and New Zealand voices show the accents were more similar before World War II and the short front vowels have changed considerably since then as compared to Australian English.[12]

Conditioned mergers

Shared with Australian English

Further information: Australian English phonology

Other vowels

Consonants

Other consonants

Other features

Pronunciation of Māori place names

The pronunciations of many Māori place names were anglicised for most of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, but since the 1980s increased consciousness of the Māori language has led to a shift towards using a Māori pronunciation. The anglicisations have persisted most among residents of the towns in question, so it has become something of a shibboleth, with correct Māori pronunciation marking someone as non-local.

Note that this section also uses the transcription system designed by Bauer et al. (2007) specifically for New Zealand English. To compare it with the more usual transcription, see above.

Examples
Placename English pronunciation Te Reo Māori Māori pronunciation
Cape Reinga /ˌkæep ɹiˈɛŋɘ/ ray-i-nga [ˈɾɛːiŋa]
Hawera /ˈhɐːweɹɘ, -wɘɹ-, -ɐː/ ha-we-ra [ˈhaːwɛɾa]
Otahuhu /ˌɐʉtɘˈhʉːhʉː/ o-ta-hu-hu [ɔːˈtaːhʉhʉ]
Otorohanga /ˌɐʉtɹɘˈhɐŋɘ, -ˈhɒŋɘ/ o-to-ra-ha-nga [ˈɔːtɔɾɔhaŋa]
Paraparaumu /ˌpɛɹɘpɛɹˈæomʉː/ pa-ra-pa-rau-mu [paɾapaˈɾaumʉ]
Taumarunui /ˌtæomɘɹɘˈnʉːi/ tau-ma-ra-nu-i [ˈtaumaɾanʉi]
Te Awamutu /ˌtiː ɘˈmʉːtʉː/ te a-wa-mu-tu [tɛ awaˈmʉtʉ]
Te Kauwhata /ˌtiː kɘˈwɒtɘ/ te kau-fa-ta [tɛ ˈkaufata]
Waikouaiti /ˈwɛkɘwɑet, -wɒt/ wai-kou-ai-ti [ˈwaikɔuˌaːiti]

Some anglicised names are colloquially shortened, for example, Coke /kɐʉk/ for Kohukohu, the Rapa /ˈɹɛpɘ/ for the Wairarapa, Kura /ˈkʉəɹɘ/ for Papakura, Papatoe /ˈpɛpɘtɐʉi/ for Papatoetoe, Otahu /ˌɐʉtɘˈhʉː/ for Otahuhu, Paraparam /ˈpɛɹɘpɛɹɛm/ or Pram /pɹɛm/ for Paraparaumu, the Naki /ˈnɛki/ for Taranaki, Cow-cop /ˈkæokɒp/ for Kaukapakapa and Pie-cock /ˈpɑekɒk/ for Paekakariki.

There is some confusion between these shortenings, especially in the southern South Island, and the natural variations of the southern dialect of Māori. Not only does this dialect sometimes feature apocope, but consonants also vary slightly from standard Māori. To compound matters, names were often initially transcribed by Scottish settlers, rather than the predominantly English settlers of other parts of the country; as such further alterations are not uncommon. Thus, while Lake Wakatipu is sometimes referred to as Wakatip,[English IPA needed] Oamaru as Om-a-roo /ɒmɘˈɹʉː/ and Waiwera South as Wy-vra /ˈwɑevɹɘ/, these differences may be as much caused by dialect differences – either in Māori or in the English used during transcription – as by the process of anglicisation. An extreme example is The Kilmog /ˈkɘlmɒg/, the name of which is cognate with the standard Māori Kirimoko.[44]

References

  1. ^ Bauer et al. (2007), pp. 97–98.
  2. ^ a b Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009a).
  3. ^ "NZE Phonology" (PDF). Victoria University of Wellington. p. 3.
  4. ^ Bauer & Warren (2004), p. 585.
  5. ^ Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009b).
  6. ^ Bauer et al. (2007), p. 98–99.
  7. ^ Bauer et al. (2007), pp. 98–100.
  8. ^ Many words that are pronounced with /ʊə/ in traditional RP are often pronounced with /oː/ in New Zealand English.
  9. ^ Merges with /iə/ amongst many young speakers.
  10. ^ Evans, Zoë; Watson, Catherine I. (1998). "An acoustic comparison between New Zealand and Australian English vowels". doi:10.1080/07268609808599567. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  11. ^ Gordon & Maclagan (2004), p. 609.
  12. ^ Evans, Zoë; Watson, Catherine I. (2004). "An acoustic comparison of Australian and New Zealand English vowel change". CiteSeerX 10.1.1.119.6227. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  13. ^ a b c Crystal (2003), p. 354.
  14. ^ Bauer & Warren (2004), p. 587.
  15. ^ Gordon & Maclagan, p. 611.
  16. ^ Trudgill & Hannah (2002), pp. 23–24.
  17. ^ a b "4. Stickmen, New Zealand's pool movie – Speech and accent – Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand". Teara.govt.nz. 2013-09-05. Retrieved 2017-01-15.
  18. ^ Bauer & Warren (2004), pp. 582, 592.
  19. ^ Gordon & Maclagan (2004), p. 610.
  20. ^ a b c d e Trudgill & Hannah (2002), p. 24.
  21. ^ Bauer & Warren (2004), p. 589.
  22. ^ "3. – Speech and accent – Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand". Teara.govt.nz. 2013-09-05. Retrieved 2017-01-15.
  23. ^ "American Accents and Dialects". Dialect Blog. Retrieved 2017-01-15.
  24. ^ "5. – Speech and accent – Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand". Teara.govt.nz. 2013-09-05. Retrieved 2017-01-15.
  25. ^ Gordon et al. (2004), pp. 29.
  26. ^ Bauer & Warren (2004), pp. 582, 591.
  27. ^ "Other forms of variation in New Zealand English". Te Kete Ipurangi. Ministry of Education. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  28. ^ Gordon & Maclagan (2004), p. 605.
  29. ^ "5. – Speech and accent – Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand". Teara.govt.nz. 2013-09-05. Retrieved 2017-01-15.
  30. ^ "The World's Fastest Indian: Anthony Hopkins, Diane Ladd, Iain Rea, Tessa Mitchell, Aaron Murphy, Tim Shadbolt, Annie Whittle, Greg Johnson, Antony Starr, Kate Sullivan, Craig Hall, Jim Bowman, Roger Donaldson, Barrie M. Osborne, Charles Hannah, Don Schain, Gary Hannam, John J. Kelly, Masaharu Inaba: Movies & TV". Amazon.com. Retrieved 2017-01-15.
  31. ^ Bauer & Warren (2004), p. 594.
  32. ^ a b Gordon & Maclagan (2004), p. 611.
  33. ^ Gordon & Maclagan (2004), pp. 606, 609.
  34. ^ The New Zealand accent: a clue to New Zealand identity? Pages 47-48 arts.canterbury.ac.nz
  35. ^ ""The most annoying word of 2012": Whatever. | Linguistics @ Canterbury". Uclinguistics.wordpress.com. 2013-01-02. Retrieved 2017-01-15.
  36. ^ "American Slang: Valspeak - Language Dossier". Language-dossier.webs.com. Retrieved 2017-01-15.
  37. ^ "New Zealand English: "not an accent; it is a disease." | Linguistics @ Canterbury". Uclinguistics.wordpress.com. 2013-01-24. Retrieved 2017-01-15.
  38. ^ "The Kiwi 'aye' versus the Canadian 'eh' – freemos". Freemos.wordpress.com. 2011-06-07. Retrieved 2017-01-15.
  39. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-01-08. Retrieved 2015-01-08. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  40. ^ "Macquarie Dictionary". Macquarie Dictionary. Retrieved 2017-01-15.
  41. ^ Deborah Coddington (2010-04-18). "Deborah Coddington: Yeah, no, we'd like totally label your diction airy - Entertainment - NZ Herald News". Nzherald.co.nz. Retrieved 2017-01-15.
  42. ^ "Slang's 'yeah no' debate not all negative - National". Theage.com.au. 2004-06-11. Retrieved 2017-01-15.
  43. ^ Liberman, Mark (2008-04-03). "Language Log: Yeah no". Itre.cis.upenn.edu. Retrieved 2017-01-15.
  44. ^ Goodall, M., & Griffiths, G. (1980) Maori Dunedin. Dunedin: Otago Heritage Books. p. 45: This hill [The Kilmog]...has a much debated name, but its origins are clear to Kaitahu and the word illustrates several major features of the southern dialect. First we must restore the truncated final vowel (in this case to both parts of the name, 'kilimogo'). Then substitute r for l, k for g, to obtain the northern pronunciation, 'kirimoko'.... Though final vowels existed in Kaitahu dialect, the elision was so nearly complete that pākehā recorders often omitted them entirely.

Bibliography

  • Bauer, Laurie; Warren, Paul (2004), "New Zealand English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive (eds.), A handbook of varieties of English, vol. 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 580–602, ISBN 3-11-017532-0
  • Bauer, Laurie; Warren, Paul; Bardsley, Dianne; Kennedy, Marianna; Major, George (2007), "New Zealand English", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 37 (1): 97–102, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002830
  • Crystal, David (2003), The Cambridge encyclopedia of the English language (2nd ed.), Cambridge University Press
  • Gordon, Elizabeth; Maclagan, Margaret (2004), "Regional and social differences in New Zealand: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive (eds.), A handbook of varieties of English, vol. 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 603–613, ISBN 3-11-017532-0
  • Gordon, Elizabeth; Campbell, Lyle; Hay, Jennifer; Maclagan, Margaret; Sudbury, Peter; Trudgill, Andrea, eds. (2004), New Zealand English: Its Origins and Evolution, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
  • Mannell, Robert; Cox, Felicity; Harrington, Jonathan (2009a), An Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology, Macquarie University
  • Mannell, Robert; Cox, Felicity; Harrington, Jonathan (2009b), An Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology, Macquarie University
  • Trudgill, Peter; Hannah, Jean (2002), International English: A Guide to the Varieties of Standard English (4th ed.), London: Arnold

Further reading

  • Bauer, Laurie (1994), "8: English in New Zealand", in Burchfield, Robert (ed.), The Cambridge History of the English Language, vol. 5: English in Britain and Overseas: Origins and Development, Cambridge University Press, pp. 382–429, ISBN 0-521-26478-2
  • Bauer, Laurie (2015), "Australian and New Zealand English", in Reed, Marnie; Levis, John M. (eds.), The Handbook of English Pronunciation, Malden, MA: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 269–285, ISBN 978-1-118-31447-0
  • Hay, Jennifer; Maclagan, Margaret; Gordon, Elizabeth (2008), New Zealand English, Dialects of English, Edinburgh University Press, ISBN 978-0-7486-2529-1
  • Jilka, Matthias. "Australian English and New Zealand English" (PDF). Stuttgart: Institut für Linguistik/Anglistik, University of Stuttgart. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 April 2014.
  • Warren, Paul; Bauer, Laurie (2004), "Maori English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive (eds.), A handbook of varieties of English, vol. 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 614–624, ISBN 3-11-017532-0
  • Wells, John C. (1982), "8.2 New Zealand", Accents of English 3: Beyond The British Isles, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 605–610, ISBN 0-521-28541-0

See also