|Origin||Houston, Texas, U.S.|
ZZ Top[a] is an American rock band formed in 1969 in Houston, Texas. For 51 years, the band comprised vocalist-guitarist Billy Gibbons, drummer Frank Beard and vocalist-bassist Dusty Hill, until Hill's death in 2021. ZZ Top developed a signature sound based on Gibbons' blues guitar style and Hill and Beard's rhythm section. They are popular for their live performances, sly and humorous lyrics, and the similar appearances of Gibbons and Hill, who were rarely seen without their long beards, sunglasses, and hats.
ZZ Top formed after the demise of Moving Sidewalks, Gibbons' previous band. Within a year, the members signed with London Records and released ZZ Top's First Album (1971). Subsequent releases, such as Tres Hombres (1973) and Fandango! (1975), and those albums' singles, "La Grange" and "Tush", gained extensive radio airplay. By the mid-1970s the band became renowned in North America for its live act, highlighted by its performances during the Worldwide Texas Tour from 1976 to 1977, which was a critical and commercial success.
After a hiatus, ZZ Top returned in 1979 with a new musical direction and image, with Gibbons and Hill wearing sunglasses and matching chest-length beards. With the album El Loco (1981), the group began to experiment with synthesizers and drum machines. They established a more mainstream sound and gained international favor with Eliminator (1983) and Afterburner (1985), which integrated influences from new wave, punk, and dance-rock. The popularity of these albums' music videos, including those for "Gimme All Your Lovin'", "Sharp Dressed Man", and "Legs", helped propel them onto the television channel MTV and made the band one of the more prominent artists in 1980s pop culture. The Afterburner Tour set records for the highest-attended and highest-grossing concert tour of 1986. After gaining additional acclaim with the release of their tenth album Recycler (1990) and its accompanying tour, the group's experimentation continued with mixed success on the albums Antenna (1994), Rhythmeen (1996), XXX (1999), and Mescalero (2003). They most recently released La Futura (2012) and Goin' 50 (2019), a compilation album commemorating the band's 50th anniversary. By the time of Hill's death in 2021, ZZ Top had become the longest-running band with an unchanged lineup in the history of popular music. Per Hill's wishes, he was replaced by their longtime guitar tech Elwood Francis on bass.
ZZ Top has released 15 studio albums and sold an estimated 50 million albums worldwide. They have won three MTV Video Music Awards, and in 2004, the members were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. In 2015, Rolling Stone ranked Gibbons the 32nd greatest guitarist of all time. The band members have supported campaigns and charities including Childline, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, and a fundraiser for the Delta Blues Museum.
The original line-up was formed in Houston and consisted of Gibbons, bassist/organist Lanier Greig, and drummer Dan Mitchell. The name of the band was Gibbons' idea. The band had a small apartment covered with concert posters and he noticed that many performers' names used initials. Gibbons particularly noticed B.B. King and Z. Z. Hill and thought of combining the two into "ZZ King", but considered it too similar to the original name. He then figured that "king is going at the top" which brought him to "ZZ Top".
ZZ Top was managed by Bill Ham, a Waxahachie, Texas, native who had befriended Gibbons a year earlier. They released their first single, "Salt Lick", in 1969, and the B-side contained the song "Miller's Farm". Both songs credited Gibbons as the composer. Immediately after the recording of "Salt Lick", Greig was replaced by bassist Billy Ethridge, a bandmate of Stevie Ray Vaughan, and Mitchell was replaced by Frank Beard of American Blues. Due to lack of interest from the major American record companies, ZZ Top accepted a record deal from London Records, the American affiliate of the British Decca Records label. Unwilling to sign a recording contract, Ethridge quit the band and Dusty Hill, Frank Beard's American Blues bandmate, became his replacement in late 1969. At this moment, all three members of the band were 20 years old. After Hill moved from Dallas to Houston, ZZ Top signed with London in 1970. They performed their first concert together at a Knights of Columbus Hall in Beaumont, Texas, on February 10, 1970. The show was booked by KLVI radio personality Al Caldwell, who was also instrumental in broadcasting the band's first recordings.
In addition to assuming the role as the band's leader, Gibbons became the main lyricist and musical arranger. With the assistance of Ham and engineer Robin Hood Brians, ZZ Top's First Album (1971) was released and exhibited the band's humor, with "barrelhouse" rhythms, distorted guitars, double entendres, and innuendo. The music and songs reflected ZZ Top's blues influences. Following their debut album, the band released Rio Grande Mud (1972), which produced their first charting single, "Francine".
ZZ Top released Tres Hombres in 1973, which reached the No. 8 position on the Billboard 200 albums chart by early 1974. The album's sound was the result of the propulsive support provided by Hill and Beard, and Gibbons' "growling" guitar tone. Stephen Thomas Erlewine wrote that the album "brought ZZ Top their first Top Ten record, making them stars in the process". The album included the boogie-driven "La Grange" (written about the Chicken Ranch, a notorious brothel in La Grange, Texas, that also inspired the musical The Best Little Whorehouse in Texas). On the subsequent tour, the band performed sold-out concerts in the US. During this tour, ZZ Top recorded the live tracks that would fill one side of their 1975 album, Fandango!. Fandango!, which also contained one side of new studio songs, was a top-ten album; its single "Tush" peaked at number 20 on the Billboard Hot 100.
ZZ Top began the Worldwide Texas Tour in May, 1976 to support Fandango!, and the tour would continue through 1977, comprising 98 shows over 18 months. Tejas, recorded during a break in the tour and released in November 1976, was the final ZZ Top album under their contract with London Records. It was not as successful or as positively received as their previous two efforts, but reached number 17 on the Billboard 200. The singles from Tejas, "It's Only Love" and "Arrested for Driving While Blind", both failed to crack the Top 40 on the Billboard Hot 100.
Following the Worldwide Texas Tour, ZZ Top went on hiatus for nearly two years while Beard dealt with drug addiction. Gibbons traveled to Europe, Beard went to Jamaica, and Hill went to Mexico. Hill also spent the period working at Dallas Airport, saying he wanted to "feel normal" and "ground himself" after years spent performing. In 1979, when the group returned to record a new album, Gibbons and Hill were now sporting chest-length beards. ZZ Top signed with Warner Bros. Records and released the album Degüello in late 1979. Their hit singles from this period, "Cheap Sunglasses" and "Pearl Necklace", showed a more modern sound.
While the Degüello album went platinum, it only reached number 24 on the Billboard chart. The album produced two popular singles: "I Thank You", a cover of the David Porter/Isaac Hayes composition originally recorded by Sam & Dave, and the band original "Cheap Sunglasses". The band remained a popular concert attraction and toured in support of Degüello. In April 1980, ZZ Top made their first appearances in Europe, performing for the German music television show Rockpalast (later included on the 2009 DVD Double Down Live: 1980 & 2008) and the BBC show The Old Grey Whistle Test. The band shared the BBC's studio with English electronic group Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark (OMD), whom Gibbons felt "were great". Inspired by OMD, ZZ Top introduced a jerky dancing style to their live show and began to experiment with synthesizers, which featured prominently on the October 1981 album El Loco. The album peaked at number 17 on the Billboard chart, and featured the singles "Tube Snake Boogie", "Pearl Necklace", and "Leila".
Gibbons pushed the band into a more modern direction for Eliminator, released in March 1983. The album featured two Top-40 singles ("Gimme All Your Lovin'" and "Legs"), and two additional Top Rock hits ("Got Me Under Pressure" and "Sharp Dressed Man"), with the extended dance mix of "Legs" peaking at number 13 on the Club Play Singles chart. The album became a critical and commercial success, selling more than 10 million copies while peaking at No. 9 in the U.S. Billboard pop charts. It is the only ZZ Top album reach Diamond status in the US.
Several music videos from the album were in regular rotation on MTV, attracting many new fans. The band won their first MTV Video Music Awards in the categories of Best Group Video for "Legs", and Best Direction for "Sharp Dressed Man". The music videos were included in their Greatest Hits video, which was later released on DVD and quickly went multi-platinum.
Eliminator retained Gibbons's signature guitar style while adding elements of new wave music; electronic band Depeche Mode have been cited as an influence on the album. To compose the songs, Gibbons worked closely with live-in engineer Linden Hudson at the band's rehearsal studio in Texas, setting a faster tempo with drum machines and synthesizers. The main recording sessions were once again supervised in Memphis by Terry Manning who collaborated with Gibbons to replace much of the contributions from Hill and Beard. Singer Jimi Jamison joined Manning to provide backing vocals for the album.
Stage manager David Blayney described how Hudson co-wrote much of the material on the album without receiving credit. The band recorded Hudson's song "Thug" without permission, finally paying him $600,000 in 1986 after he proved in court he held the copyright.[page needed][page needed]
Despite selling fewer copies than Eliminator, Afterburner (1985) became ZZ Top's highest-charting album (No. 4 on the U.S. Billboard chart), with sales of five million copies. All of the singles from Afterburner were Top-40 hits, with "Sleeping Bag" and "Stages" reaching number one on the Mainstream Rock chart. The music video for "Velcro Fly" was choreographed by pop singer Paula Abdul. In 1987, ZZ Top released The Six Pack, a collection of their first five albums plus El Loco. The albums were remixed with new drum and guitar effects for a more "contemporary" sound similar to Eliminator.
Recycler, released in 1990, was ZZ Top's final studio album under contract with Warner Records. Recycler was also the last of a distinct sonic trilogy in the ZZ Top catalogue, marking a return towards a simpler guitar-driven blues sound with less synthesizer and pop bounce than the previous two albums. This move did not entirely suit the fan base that Eliminator and Afterburner had built up, and while Recycler did achieve platinum status, it never matched the sales of those albums. However, the single "My Head's in Mississippi" did reach No. 1 on the Billboard Album Rock Tracks chart that year.
In 1992, Warner released ZZ Top's Greatest Hits, along with a new Rolling Stones-style cut, "Gun Love", and an Elvis-inflected video, "Viva Las Vegas". In 1993, ZZ Top inducted a major influence, Cream, into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.
In 1994, the band signed a $35 million deal with RCA Records, releasing the million-selling Antenna. Subsequent RCA albums, Rhythmeen (1996) and 1999's XXX (the second album to feature live tracks) sold well, but did not reach the levels enjoyed previously. In 2003, ZZ Top released a final RCA album, Mescalero, an album thick with harsh Gibbons guitar and featuring a hidden track—a cover version of "As Time Goes By." RCA impresario Clive Davis wanted to do a collaboration record (in the mode of Carlos Santana's successful Supernatural) for this album. In an interview in Goldmine magazine, Davis stated that artists Pink, Dave Matthews, and Wilco were among the artists slated for the project. ZZ Top performed "Tush" and "Legs" as part of the Super Bowl XXXI halftime show in 1997.
A comprehensive four-CD collection of recordings from the London and Warner Bros. years, Chrome, Smoke & BBQ, was released in 2003. It featured the band's first single (A- and B-side) and several rare B-side tracks, as well as a radio promotion from 1979, a live track, and several extended dance-mix versions of their biggest MTV hits. Three tracks from Billy Gibbons' pre-ZZ band, the Moving Sidewalks, were also included.
In 2004, ZZ Top was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Keith Richards of the Rolling Stones gave the induction speech. ZZ Top gave a brief performance, playing "La Grange" and "Tush".
Expanded and remastered versions of the original studio albums from the 1970s and 1980s are currently[when?] in production. Marketed as "Remastered and Expanded", these releases include additional live tracks which were not present on the original recordings. Three such CDs have been released to date (Tres Hombres, Fandango!, and Eliminator). The first two were released in 2006 and use the original mixes free from echo and drum machines, while Eliminator was released in 2008. The Eliminator re-release also features a collector's edition version containing a DVD featuring several videos and additional live tracks.
The Eliminator Collector's Edition CD/DVD, celebrating the 25th anniversary of the band's iconic RIAA Diamond Certified album, was released September 10, 2008. The release includes seven bonus tracks and a bonus DVD, including four television performances from The Tube in November 1983.
The band performed at the 2009 Houston Livestock Show and Rodeo on the final night on March 22, 2009. In July, the band appeared on VH1's Storytellers, in celebration of their four decades as recording artists.
Billy Gibbons stated in an interview in August 2011 that a new album had been recorded, with initial recording taking place in Malibu, California, before moving to Houston, but was still unnamed and had yet to be mixed and mastered. Gibbons said that the expected release date was sometime in March or April 2012 but, later, a late summer or early fall release date was announced. The album was subsequently released on September 11, 2012.
Entitled La Futura, the album was produced by Rick Rubin. The first single from the album, "I Gotsta Get Paid", debuted in an advertising campaign for Jeremiah Weed Whiskey and appears on the soundtrack of the film Battleship. The song itself is an interpretation of "25 Lighters" by Texan hip hop DJ DMD and rappers Lil' Keke and Fat Pat. The first four songs from La Futura debuted on June 5, 2012, on an EP called Texicali. DJ Screw was a major influence on the album as well, particularly because Gibbons and Screw both worked with engineer G. L. Moon during the late 1990s.
On March 3, 2015 the band began a North American tour with a concert in Red Bank, New Jersey, at the Count Basie Theatre. After rescheduled dates and additions, the tour wrapped up with a concert in Highland Park, Illinois, at the Ravinia Pavilion on August 27, with opening act Blackberry Smoke. Jeff Beck joined ZZ Top for seven concerts on the tour.
On September 9, 2016, ZZ Top released a new live album entitled Tonite at Midnight: Live Greatest Hits from Around the World. In 2017, ZZ Top announced their "2017 Tonnage Tour" which was to last from February 19 to March 14. However, they were forced to cancel last few dates of their tour due to the ailment of bassist Dusty Hill. In 2018, the band announced their six-day Las Vegas run of shows to be held at the Venetian, starting from April 20, 2019.
Gibbons told Las Vegas Review-Journal in April 2020 that the band had been "cooking up another round of wicked sounds for the next ZZ record". On June 21, 2020, Gibbons stated interest in having guitarist Jeff Beck appear on the album.
In July 2021, Hill was forced to leave a tour after a hip injury. ZZ Top performed without him at the Village Commons in New Lenox, Illinois, with Hill's guitar tech Elwood Francis on bass. Five days later, on July 28, ZZ Top announced that Hill had died at his home in Houston at the age of 72. His wife later reported that he had suffered from chronic bursitis. Gibbons confirmed that the band would continue with Francis, per Hill's wishes. Hill had already recorded bass and vocals for ZZ Top's upcoming album.
ZZ Top appeared in a cameo in Back to the Future Part III as an Old West band, playing an acoustic version of their song "Doubleback" with a large fiddle band.
ZZ Top played Super Bowl XXXI in 1997, along with the Blues Brothers and James Brown. ZZ Top also performed at the 2008 Orange Bowl game in Miami, as well as the Auto Club 500 NASCAR event at the Auto Club Speedway in Fontana, California. On June 23, 2008, ZZ Top celebrated the release of their first live concert DVD titled Live from Texas with the world premiere, a special appearance, and charity auction at the Hard Rock Cafe in Houston. The DVD was officially released on June 24, 2008. The featured performance was culled from a concert filmed at the Nokia Theater in Grand Prairie, Texas, on November 1, 2007.
On January 22, 2010, Billy Gibbons accompanied Will Ferrell and others playing Lynyrd Skynyrd's "Free Bird" on Conan O'Brien's last Tonight Show appearance. O'Brien joined in on guitar.
In June 2011, various media sources reported that the new song "Flyin' High" would debut in space. Astronaut and friend of ZZ Top Michael Fossum was given the released single to listen to on his trip to the International Space Station.
On June 4, 2014, ZZ Top opened the CMT Awards ceremony, performing "La Grange" with Luke Bryan and Florida Georgia Line.
The Guardian described ZZ Top as "part traditional, part contrary, and part of the deep seam of Texas weirdness that stretched from the 13th Floor Elevators through to the Butthole Surfers". Texas Monthly described their music as "loud, macho, greasy, and distorted", with "unrepentant misogynistic references". In the early 1980s, ZZ Top embraced synthesizers and drum machines, drawing inspiration from British electronic acts such as Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark and Depeche Mode (while deriving their dance moves from the former). Hill and Gibbons worked as a kind of double act, looking similar and employing simple stage choreography that Hill described as "low-energy, high-impact".
ZZ Top's music has been classified as blues rock, hard rock, boogie rock, Southern rock, blues and Texas blues.
Main article: ZZ Top discography
In addition to recording and performing concerts, ZZ Top has also been involved with films and television. In 1990, the group appeared as the "band at the party" in the film Back to the Future Part III and played the "Three Men in a Tub" in the movie Mother Goose Rock 'n' Rhyme. ZZ Top made further appearances, including the "Gumby with a Pokey" episode of Two and a Half Men in 2010 and the "Hank Gets Dusted" episode of King of the Hill in 2007. The band also guest hosted an episode of WWE Raw. Billy Gibbons had a recurring role as the father of Angela Montenegro in the television show Bones; though the character is never named, it is strongly implied that Gibbons is playing himself. Their song "Sharp Dressed Man" was one of the theme songs used for the television show Duck Dynasty, and on the series finale of the show they appeared with Si Robertson as a vocalist to perform the song on stage during Robertson's retirement party. Black Dahlia Films, led by Jamie Burton Chamberlin, of Seattle and Los Angeles, has contributed documentaries and back line screen work (the footage on back screens during live shows) and has become an integral part of the band's film-making.
In November 2020, it was announced that the 2019 Netflix documentary That Little Ol' Band from Texas was nominated for the Grammy Award for Best Music Film with the award ceremony scheduled for March 2021.
ZZ Top's music videos won multiple VMA awards during the 1980s, topping the categories of Best Group Video, Best Direction, and Best Art Direction for "Legs", "Sharp Dressed Man" and "Rough Boy", respectively. Among high honors for ZZ Top have been induction into Hollywood's RockWalk in 1994, the Texas House of Representatives naming them "Official Heroes for the State of Texas", a declaration of "ZZ Top Day" in Texas by then-governor Ann Richards on May 4, 1991, and induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2004. They were also given commemorative rings by actor Billy Bob Thornton from the VH1 Rock Honors in 2007.
ZZ Top has also achieved several chart and album sales feats, including six number-one singles on the Mainstream Rock chart. From the RIAA, ZZ Top has earned four gold, three platinum and two multiple-platinum album certifications, and one diamond album.
[Billy Gibbons:] We steal our [dance] moves heavily off Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark.
Early Wednesday morning my world and yours would lose a great musician and I would lose my greatest love. He woke me up and we talked and as he was sweetly chatting with me he suddenly stopped and he was gone in an instant.
It was the band's second album, "Tres Hombres", that established their boogie-rock credentials by peaking at No. 8 in 1974.