Voiced palatal approximant
IPA Number153
Audio sample
Entity (decimal)j
Unicode (hex)U+006A
Braille⠚ (braille pattern dots-245)
Voiced alveolo-palatal approximant

The voiced palatal approximant is a type of consonant used in many spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨j⟩. The equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is j, and in the Americanist phonetic notation it is ⟨y⟩. Because the English name of the letter J, jay, starts with [dʒ] (voiced postalveolar affricate), the approximant is sometimes instead called yod (jod), as in the phonological history terms yod-dropping and yod-coalescence.

The palatal approximant can often be considered the semivocalic equivalent of the close front unrounded vowel [i]. They alternate with each other in certain languages, such as French, and in the diphthongs of some languages as ⟨j⟩ and ⟨⟩, with the non-syllabic diacritic used in different phonetic transcription systems to represent the same sound.

A voiced alveolo-palatal approximant is attested as phonemic in the Huastec language,[1][2][3][4][5][6][7] and is represented as an advanced voiced palatal approximant ⟨⟩,[8][3] or the plus sign may be placed after the letter, ⟨⟩.

Phonetic ambiguity and transcription usage

Some languages, however, have a palatal approximant that is unspecified for rounding and so cannot be considered the semivocalic equivalent of either [i] or its rounded counterpart, [y], which would normally correspond to [ɥ]. An example is Spanish, which distinguishes two palatal approximants: an approximant semivowel [j], which is always unrounded (and is a phonological vowel - an allophone of /i/), and an approximant consonant unspecified for rounding, [ʝ̞] (which is a phonological consonant). Eugenio Martínez Celdrán describes the difference between them as follows (with audio examples added):[9]

[j] is shorter and is usually a merely transitory sound. It can only exist together with a full vowel and does not appear in syllable onset. [On the other hand,] [ʝ̞] has a lower amplitude, mainly in F2. It can only appear in syllable onset. It is not noisy either articulatorily or perceptually. [ʝ̞] can vary towards [ʝ] in emphatic pronunciations, having noise (turbulent airstream). (...) There is a further argument through which we can establish a clear difference between [j] and [ʝ̞]: the first sound cannot be rounded, not even through co-articulation, whereas the second one is rounded before back vowels or the back semi-vowel. Thus, in words like viuda [ˈbjuða] 'widow', Dios [ˈdjos] 'God', vio [ˈbjo] 's/he saw', etc., the semi-vowel [j] is unrounded; if it were rounded, a sound that does not exist in Spanish, [ɥ], would appear. On the other hand, [ʝ̞] is unspecified as far as rounding is concerned and it is assimilated to the labial vowel context: rounded with rounded vowels, e.g. ayuda [aˈʝ̞ʷuð̞a] 'help', coyote [koˈʝ̞ʷote] 'coyote', hoyuelo [oˈʝ̞ʷwelo] 'dimple', etc., and unrounded with unrounded vowels: payaso [paˈʝ̞aso] 'clown', ayer [aˈʝ̞eɾ] 'yesterday'.

He also considers that "the IPA shows a lack of precision in the treatment it gives to approximants, if we take into account our understanding of the phonetics of Spanish. [ʝ̞] and [j] are two different segments, but they have to be labelled as voiced palatal approximant consonants. I think that the former is a real consonant, whereas the latter is a semi-consonant, as it has traditionally been called in Spanish, or a semi-vowel, if preferred. The IPA, though, classifies it as a consonant."[10]

There is a parallel problem with transcribing the voiced velar approximant.

The symbol ⟨ʝ̞⟩ may not display properly in all browsers. In that case, ⟨ʝ˕⟩ should be substituted.

In the writing systems used for most languages in Central, Northern, and Eastern Europe, the letter j denotes the palatal approximant, as in German Jahr 'year', which is followed by IPA. Although it may be seen as counterintuitive for English-speakers, there are a few words with that orthographical spelling in certain loanwords in English like Hebrew "hallelujah" and German "Jägermeister".

In grammars of Ancient Greek, the palatal approximant, which was lost early in the history of Greek, is sometimes written as ⟨ι̯⟩, an iota with the inverted breve below, which is the nonsyllabic diacritic or marker of a semivowel.[11]

There is also the post-palatal approximant[12] in some languages, which is articulated slightly more back than the place of articulation of the prototypical palatal approximant but less far back than the prototypical velar approximant. It can be considered the semivocalic equivalent of the close central unrounded vowel [ɨ]The International Phonetic Alphabet does not have a separate symbol for that sound, but it can be transcribed as ⟨⟩, ⟨⟩ (both symbols denote a retractedj⟩), ⟨ɰ̟⟩ or ⟨ɰ˖⟩ (both symbols denote an advancedɰ⟩). The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are j_- and M\_+, respectively. Other possible transcriptions include a centralized ⟨j⟩ (⟨⟩ in the IPA, j_" in X-SAMPA), a centralized ⟨ɰ⟩ (⟨ɰ̈⟩ in the IPA, M\_" in X-SAMPA) and a non-syllabic ⟨ɨ⟩ (⟨ɨ̯⟩ in the IPA, 1_^ in X-SAMPA).

For the reasons mentioned above and in the article velar approximant, none of those symbols are appropriate for languages such as Spanish, whose post-palatal approximant consonant (not a semivowel) appears as an allophone of /ɡ/ before front vowels and is best transcribed ⟨ʝ̞˗⟩, ⟨ʝ˕˗⟩ (both symbols denote a lowered and retracted ⟨ʝ⟩), ⟨ɣ̞˖⟩ or ⟨ɣ˕˖⟩ (both symbols denote a lowered and advanced ⟨ɣ⟩). The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are j\_o_- and G_o_+.

Especially in broad transcription, the post-palatal approximant may be transcribed as a palatalized velar approximant (⟨ɰʲ⟩, ⟨ɣ̞ʲ⟩ or ⟨ɣ˕ʲ⟩ in the IPA, M\', M\_j, G'_o or G_o_j in X-SAMPA).

A voiced alveolar-palatal approximant is attested as phonemic in the Huastec language.


Features of the voiced palatal approximant:



Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Adyghe ятӀэ/yat’a [jatʼa] 'dirt'
Afrikaans ja [jɑː] 'yes' See Afrikaans phonology
Arabic Standard يوم/yawm [jawm] 'day' See Arabic phonology
Aragonese[13] caye [ˈkaʝ̞e̞] 'falls' Unspecified for rounding approximant consonant; the language also features an unrounded palatal approximant semivowel (which may replace /ʝ̞/ before /e/).[13]
Armenian Eastern[14] յուղ/yuq [juʁ] 'fat'
Assamese মানৱীয়তা/manowiyota [manɔwijɔta] 'humanity'
Assyrian ܝܡܐ yama [jaːma] 'sea'
Azerbaijani yuxu [juχu] 'dream'
Basque bai [baj] 'yes'
Bengali য়/noyon [nɔjon] 'eye' See Bengali phonology
Bulgarian майка / majka [ˈmajkɐ] 'mother' See Bulgarian phonology
Catalan[15] All dialects feia [ˈfejɐ] 'I did' See Catalan phonology
Some dialects jo [ˈjɔ] 'I'
Chechen ялх / yalx [jalx] 'six'
Chinese Cantonese / jat9 [jɐt˨ʔ] 'day' See Cantonese phonology
Mandarin () / yā [ja˥] 'duck' See Mandarin phonology
Chuvash йывăç/yıvëş [jɯʋəɕ̬] 'tree'
Czech je [jɛ] 'is' See Czech phonology
Danish jeg [jɑ] 'I' See Danish phonology
Dutch Standard[16] ja [jaː] 'yes' Frequently realized as a fricative [ʝ], especially in emphatic speech.[16] See Dutch phonology
English you [juː] 'you' See English phonology
Esperanto jaro [jaro] 'year' See Esperanto phonology
Estonian jalg [ˈjɑlɡ] 'leg' See Estonian phonology
Finnish jalka [ˈjɑlkɑ] 'leg' See Finnish phonology
French yeux [jø] 'eyes' See French phonology
German Standard[17][18] Jacke [ˈjäkə] 'jacket' Also described as a fricative [ʝ][19][20] and a sound variable between a fricative and an approximant.[21] See Standard German phonology
Greek Ancient Greek εη/éyē [ějːɛː] 's/he shall come' See Ancient Greek phonology
Hebrew ילד/yeled [ˈjeled] 'kid' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindustani या / یان/yán [jäːn] 'vehicle' See Hindustani phonology
Hungarian játék [jaːteːk] 'game' See Hungarian phonology
Irish[22] ghearrfadh [ˈjɑːɾˠhəx] 'would cut' See Irish phonology
Italian[23] ione [ˈjoːne] 'ion' See Italian phonology
Jalapa Mazatec[24] [example needed] Contrasts voiceless //, plain voiced /j/ and glottalized voiced /ȷ̃/ approximants.[24]
Japanese 焼く / yaku [jaku͍] 'to bake' See Japanese phonology
Kabardian йи/yi [ji] 'game'
Kazakh Яғни/yağni [jaʁni] 'so'
Khmer យំ / yom [jom] 'to cry' See Khmer phonology
Korean 여섯 / yósót [jʌsʌt̚] 'six' See Korean phonology
Latin iacere [ˈjakɛrɛ] 'to throw' See Latin spelling and pronunciation
Lithuanian[25] ji [jɪ] 'she' Also described as a fricative [ʝ].[26][27] See Lithuanian phonology
Macedonian крај/kraj [kraj] 'end' See Macedonian phonology
Malay sayang [sajaŋ] 'love'
Maltese jiekol [jɪɛkol] 'he eats'
Mapudungun[28] kayu [kɜˈjʊ] 'six' May be a fricative [ʝ] instead.[28]
Marathi /yaš [jəʃ] 'success'
Nepali या/yam [jäm] 'season' See Nepali phonology
Norwegian Urban East[29][30] gi [jiː] 'to give' May be a fricative [ʝ] instead.[30][31] See Norwegian phonology
Odia ସମ/samaya [sɔmɔjɔ] 'time'
Persian یزد/Yäzd [jæzd] 'Yazd' See Persian phonology
Polish[32] jutro [ˈjut̪rɔ] 'tomorrow' See Polish phonology
Portuguese[33] boia [ˈbɔjɐ] 'buoy', 'float' Allophone of both /i/ and /ʎ/,[34] as well as a very common epenthetic sound before coda sibilants in some dialects. See Portuguese phonology
Punjabi ਯਾਰ/yár [jäːɾ] 'friend'
Romanian iar [jar] 'again' See Romanian phonology
Russian[35] яма/jama [ˈjämə] 'pit' See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian[36] југ / jug [jûɡ] 'South' See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak[37] jesť [jɛ̝sc] 'to eat' See Slovak phonology
Slovene jaz [ˈjʌ̂s̪] 'I'
Spanish[38] ayer [aˈʝ̞e̞ɾ] 'yesterday' Unspecified for rounding approximant consonant; the language also features an unrounded palatal approximant semivowel.[38] See Spanish phonology
Swedish jag [ˈjɑːɡ] 'I' May be realized as a palatal fricative [ʝ] instead. See Swedish phonology
Tagalog maya [ˈmajɐ] 'sparrow'
Tamil யானை/yanai [ˈjaːnaɪ] 'elephant'
Telugu యాతన/yatana [jaːtana] 'agony'
Turkish[39] yol [jo̞ɫ̪] 'way' See Turkish phonology
Turkmen ýüpek [jypek] 'silk'
Ubykh ајәушқӏa/ajëwšq'a [ajəwʃqʼa] 'you did it' See Ubykh phonology
Ukrainian їжак / ïžak [jiˈʒɑk] 'hedgehog' See Ukrainian phonology
Vietnamese Southern dialects de [jɛ] 'cinnamon' Corresponds to northern /z/. See Vietnamese phonology
Washo dayáʔ [daˈjaʔ] 'leaf' Contrasts voiceless // and voiced /j/ approximants.
Welsh iaith [jai̯θ] 'language' See Welsh phonology
West Frisian jas [jɔs] 'coat' See West Frisian phonology
Zapotec Tilquiapan[40] yan [jaŋ] 'neck'


Voiced post-palatal approximant
Audio sample
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Spanish[41] seguir [se̞ˈɣ̞˖iɾ] 'to follow' Lenited allophone of /ɡ/ before front vowels;[41] typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɣ⟩. See Spanish phonology
Turkish Standard prescriptive[42] ğün [ˈd̪y̠ȷ̈y̠n̪] 'wedding' Either post-palatal or palatal; phonetic realization of /ɣ/ (also transcribed as /ɰ/) before front vowels.[42] See Turkish phonology

See also


  1. ^ Larsen, R.S.; Pike, E.V. (1949). "Huasteco Intonations and Phonemes". Language. 25: 268–27. doi:10.2307/410088. JSTOR 410088.
  2. ^ Ochoa Peralta, María Angela (1984). El idioma huasteco de Xiloxuchil, Veracruz. México: Instituto Nacional de Antropolog'ia e Historia. pp. 33–34. SEMIVOCAL ALVEOPALATAL SONORA Tiene dos alófonos: [y] semivocal alveopalatal sonora, y [Y] semivocal alveopalatal sorda.
  3. ^ a b "UPSID HUASTECO". web.phonetik.uni-frankfurt.de. Retrieved 2023-12-30. voiced palato-alveolar approximant
  4. ^ "Simple UPSID interface". web.phonetik.uni-frankfurt.de. Retrieved 2023-12-30.
  5. ^ Maddieson, Ian. Pattern of Sounds. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  6. ^ Maddieson, Ian; Precoda, Kristin (1990). Updating UPSID. Vol. 74. Department of Linguistics, UCLA. pp. 104–111.
  7. ^ Moran, Steven; McCloy, Daniel, eds. (2019). "Huastec sound inventory (UPSID)". UCLA Phonological Segment Inventory Database. Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  8. ^ "PHOIBLE 2.0 - Consonant j̟". phoible.org. Retrieved 2023-12-30.
  9. ^ Martínez Celdrán (2004), p. 208.
  10. ^ Martínez Celdrán (2004), p. 206.
  11. ^ Smyth (1920), p. 11.
  12. ^ Instead of "post-palatal", it can be called "retracted palatal", "backed palatal", "palato-velar", "pre-velar", "advanced velar", "fronted velar" or "front-velar". For simplicity, this article uses only the term "post-palatal".
  13. ^ a b Mott (2007), pp. 105–106.
  14. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009), p. 13.
  15. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992), p. 53.
  16. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003), p. 198.
  17. ^ Kohler (1999), p. 86.
  18. ^ Moosmüller, Schmid & Brandstätter (2015), p. 340.
  19. ^ Mangold (2005), p. 51.
  20. ^ Krech et al. (2009), p. 83.
  21. ^ Hall (2003), p. 48.
  22. ^ Ó Sé (2000), p. 17.
  23. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004), p. 117.
  24. ^ a b Silverman et al. (1995), p. 83.
  25. ^ Mathiassen (1996), pp. 22–23.
  26. ^ Augustaitis (1964), p. 23.
  27. ^ Ambrazas et al. (1997), pp. 46–47.
  28. ^ a b Sadowsky et al. (2013), p. 91.
  29. ^ Kristoffersen (2000), pp. 22 and 25.
  30. ^ a b Vanvik (1979), p. 41.
  31. ^ Kristoffersen (2000), p. 74.
  32. ^ Jassem (2003), p. 103.
  33. ^ (in Portuguese) Delta: Documentation of studies on theoric and applied Linguistics – Problems in the tense variant of carioca speech.
  34. ^ (in Portuguese) The acoustic-articulatory path of the lateral palatal consonant's allophony. Pages 223 and 228.
  35. ^ Yanushevskaya & Bunčić (2015), p. 223.
  36. ^ Landau et al. (1999), p. 67.
  37. ^ Pavlík (2004), p. 106.
  38. ^ a b Martínez Celdrán (2004), p. 205.
  39. ^ Zimmer & Orgun (1999), p. 154.
  40. ^ Merrill (2008), p. 108.
  41. ^ a b Canellada & Madsen (1987), p. 21.
  42. ^ a b Zimmer & Orgun (1999), p. 155.