Voiced alveolo-palatal affricate
IPA Number216
Audio sample
Entity (decimal)ʥ
Unicode (hex)U+02A5

The voiced alveolo-palatal sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represent this sound are d͡ʑ, d͜ʑ, ɟ͡ʑ and ɟ͜ʑ, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are d_z\ and J\_z\, though transcribing the stop component with ɟ (J\ in X-SAMPA) is rare. The tie bar may be omitted, yielding or ɟʑ in the IPA and dz\ or J\z\ in X-SAMPA.

Neither [d] nor [ɟ] are a completely narrow transcription of the stop component, which can be narrowly transcribed as [d̠ʲ] (retracted and palatalized [d]), [ɟ̟] or [ɟ˖] (both symbols denote an advanced [ɟ]). The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are d_-' or d_-_j and J\_+, respectively. There is also a dedicated symbol ȡ, which is not a part of the IPA. Therefore, narrow transcriptions of the voiced alveolo-palatal sibilant affricate include [d̠ʲʑ], [ɟ̟ʑ], [ɟ˖ʑ] and [ȡʑ].

This affricate used to have a dedicated symbol U+02A5 ʥ ; ʥ was one of the six dedicated symbols for affricates in the International Phonetic Alphabet. It is the sibilant equivalent of voiced palatal affricate.


Features of the voiced alveolo-palatal affricate:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Bengali খন [d͡ʑɔkʰon] 'when' See Bengali phonology
Catalan[1] All dialects mitjà [mɪ(d)ˈd͡ʑa] 'medium' See Catalan phonology
Valencian joc [ˈd͡ʑɔk] 'game'
Chinese Southern Min / ji̍t [d͡ʑit̚˧ʔ] 'sun'
Wu [d͡ʑy] 'he/she/it'
Irish Some dialects[2][3][4] dearg [d͡ʑaɾˠəɡ] 'red' Realization of the palatalized alveolar stop /dʲ/ in dialects such as Erris, Teelin and Tourmakeady.[2][3][4] See Irish phonology
Japanese 知人 / chijin [t͡ɕid͡ʑĩɴ] 'acquaintance' See Japanese phonology
Korean 편지 / pyeonji [pʰjɘːnd͡ʑi] 'letter' See Korean phonology
Malay Jambi توجوه / tujuh [tud͡ʑʊh] 'seven' See Jambi Malay
Polish[5] więk [d͡ʑvʲɛŋk]  'sound' See Polish phonology
Romanian Banat dialect[6] des [d͡ʑes] 'frequent' Allophone of /d/ before front vowels. Corresponds to [d] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Russian дочь бы [ˈd̪o̞d͡ʑ bɨ] 'daughter would' Allophone of /t͡ɕ/ before voiced consonants. See Russian phonology
Sema[7] aji [à̠d͡ʑì] 'blood' Possible allophone of /ʒ/ before /i, e/; can be realized as [ʑ ~ ʒ ~ d͡ʒ] instead.[7]
Serbo-Croatian[8][9] ђаво / đavo [d͡ʑâ̠ʋo̞ː] 'devil' Merges with /d͡ʒ/ in Kajkavian and Chakavian dialects. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Uzbek[10] [example needed]
Xumi Lower[11] [d͡ʑɐʔ˦] 'water'
Upper[12] [d͡ʑɐ̝˦]
Yi / jji [d͡ʑi˧] 'bee'

See also



  • Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya (2013), "Xumi, Part 1: Lower Xumi, the Variety of the Lower and Middle Reaches of the Shuiluo River", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (3): 363–379, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000157
  • Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya; Kocjančič Antolík, Tanja (2013), "Xumi, Part 2: Upper Xumi, the Variety of the Upper Reaches of the Shuiluo River", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (3): 381–396, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000169
  • de Búrca, Seán (1958), The Irish of Tourmakeady, Co. Mayo, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, ISBN 0-901282-49-9
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191
  • Mhac an Fhailigh, Éamonn (1968), The Irish of Erris, Co. Mayo, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, ISBN 0-901282-02-2
  • Pavlík, Radoslav (2004), "Slovenské hlásky a medzinárodná fonetická abeceda" (PDF), Jazykovedný časopis, 55: 87–109
  • Pop, Sever (1938), Micul Atlas Linguistic Român, Muzeul Limbii Române Cluj
  • Sjoberg, Andrée F. (1963), Uzbek Structural Grammar, Uralic and Altaic Series, vol. 18, Bloomington: Indiana University
  • Teo, Amos B. (2014), A phonological and phonetic description of Sumi, a Tibeto-Burman language of Nagaland (PDF), Canberra: Asia-Pacific Linguistics, ISBN 978-1-922185-10-5
  • Wagner, Heinrich (1959), Gaeilge Theilinn (in Ga), Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, ISBN 1-85500-055-5
  • Wheeler, Max W (2005), The Phonology Of Catalan, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-925814-7
  • Kordić, Snježana (2006), Serbo-Croatian, Languages of the World/Materials; 148, Munich & Newcastle: Lincom Europa, ISBN 978-3-89586-161-1
  • Landau, Ernestina; Lončarić, Mijo; Horga, Damir; Škarić, Ivo (1999), "Croatian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 66–69, ISBN 978-0-521-65236-0