This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Voiceless retroflex plosive" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (January 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Voiceless retroflex plosive
ʈ
IPA Number105
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ʈ
Unicode (hex)U+0288
X-SAMPAt`
Braille
Audio sample

The voiceless retroflex plosive or stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. This consonant is found as a phoneme mostly (though not exclusively) in two areas: South Asia and Australia.

Transcription

The symbol that represents this sound in the International Phonetic Alphabet is ⟨ʈ⟩. Like all the retroflex consonants, the IPA symbol is formed by adding a rightward-pointing hook extending from the bottom of "t" (the letter used for the equivalent alveolar consonant). In many fonts lowercase "t" already has a rightward-pointing hook, but ⟨ʈ⟩ is distinguished from ⟨t⟩ by extending the hook below the baseline.

Features

Features of the voiceless retroflex stop:

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Translation Notes
Bengali[1] টাকা [ʈaka] 'taka' Apical postalveolar;[1] contrasts unaspirated and aspirated forms. See Bengali phonology
Brahui سىٹ [asiʈ] 'one'
English Indian dialects time [ʈaɪm] 'time' Corresponds to alveolar /t/ in other dialects. See English phonology
Gujarati[2] [ʈə] (name of a letter) Subapical;[2] contrasts unaspirated and aspirated forms. See Gujarati phonology
Hindustani[3][4] Hindi टोपी [ʈoːpiː] 'hat' Apical postalveolar Contrasts with aspirated form <ठ>.[4] See Hindustani phonology
Urdu ٹوپی Contrasts with aspirated form <ٹھ>.[4]
Hmong raus [ʈàu] 'immerse in liquid' Contrasts with aspirated form (written ⟨rh⟩).
Iwaidja yirrwartbart [jiɺwɑʈbɑʈ] 'taipan'
Javanese bathang [baʈaŋ] 'cadaver'
Kannada ತಟ್ಟು [t̪ʌʈːu] 'to tap' Contrasts unaspirated and aspirated forms
Lo-Toga Lo dialect[5] dege [ʈəɣə] 'we (incl.)' Laminal retroflex.
Marathi[2] बटाटा [bəʈaːʈaː] 'potato' Subapical;[2] contrasts unaspirated and aspirated forms. See Marathi phonology
Mutsun TiTkuSte [ʈiʈkuʃtɛ] 'torn'
Nepali टोली [ʈoli] 'team' Apical postalveolar; contrasts unaspirated and aspirated forms. See Nepali phonology
Norwegian kort [kɔʈː] 'card' See Norwegian phonology
Nunggubuyu[6] rdagowa [ʈakowa] 'prawn'
Odia ଗର/ṭagara [ʈɔgɔrɔ] 'crepe jasmine' Apical postalveolar; contrasts unaspirated and aspirated forms.
Pashto ټول [ʈol] 'all'
Punjabi Gurmukhi ਟੋਪੀ [ʈoːpi] 'hat'
Shahmukhi ٹوپی
Sicilian latru [ˈlaʈɽu] 'thief'
Scottish Gaelic Some Hebridean dialects[7] árd [aːʈ] 'high' Corresponds to the sequence /rˠt/ in other dialects. See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Swedish[8] karta [ˈkʰɑːʈa] 'map' See Swedish phonology
Tamil[2][9] எட்டு [eʈːɯ] 'eight' Subapical.[2] See Tamil phonology
Telugu కొట్టు [koʈːu] 'beat' Contrasts unaspirated and aspirated forms
Torwali[10] ٹىىےل [ʈijɛl̥] 'words' Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms.
Vietnamese Southern dialects[11] bạn tr [ɓa˧˨ʔɳˀ ʈa˧˩˧] 'you pay' May be somewhat affricated. See Vietnamese phonology
Welayta [ʈaza] 'dew'

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Mazumdar (2000:57)
  2. ^ a b c d e f Khatiwada (2009:374)
  3. ^ Ladefoged (2005:141)
  4. ^ a b c Tiwari (2004:?)
  5. ^ François (2016:) 35, 41); entry dege in François’ Lo-Toga online dictionary.
  6. ^ Ladefoged (2005:158)
  7. ^ Bauer, Michael. Blas na Gàidhlig: The Practical Guide to Gaelic Pronunciation. Glasgow: Akerbeltz, 2011.
  8. ^ Eliasson (1986:278–279)
  9. ^ Keane (2004:111)
  10. ^ Lunsford (2001:11–16)
  11. ^ Thompson (1959:458–461)

References

  • Eliasson, Stig (1986), "Sandhi in Peninsular Scandinavian", in Anderson, Henning (ed.), Sandhi Phenomena in the Languages of Europe, Berlin: de Gruyter, pp. 271–300
  • Keane, Elinor (2004), "Tamil", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (1): 111–116, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001549
  • François, Alexandre (2016), "The historical morphology of personal pronouns in northern Vanuatu" (PDF), in Pozdniakov, Konstantin (ed.), Comparatisme et reconstruction : tendances actuelles, Faits de Langues, 47, Bern: Peter Lang, pp. 25–60.
  • Khatiwada, Rajesh (2009), "Nepali", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 39 (3): 337–380, doi:10.1017/s0025100309990181
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (2nd ed.), Blackwell
  • Lunsford, Wayne A. (2001), "An overview of linguistic structures in Torwali, a language of Northern Pakistan" (PDF), M.A. Thesis, University of Texas at Arlington
  • Mazumdar, Bijaychandra (2000) [First published 1920], The history of the Bengali language, New Delhi: Asian Educational Services, ISBN 8120614526
  • Thompson, Laurence (1959), "Saigon phonemics", Language, 35 (3): 454–476, doi:10.2307/411232, JSTOR 411232
  • Tiwari, Bholanath (2004) [First published 1966], Hindī Bhāshā, Kitāb Mahal: Kitāb Mahal, ISBN 81-225-0017-X