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Voiceless retroflex plosive
ʈ
IPA Number105
Audio sample
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ʈ
Unicode (hex)U+0288
X-SAMPAt`
Braille⠲ (braille pattern dots-256)⠞ (braille pattern dots-2345)

The voiceless retroflex plosive or stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. This consonant is found as a phoneme mostly (though not exclusively) in two areas: South Asia and Australia.

Transcription

The symbol that represents this sound in the International Phonetic Alphabet is ʈ . Like all the retroflex consonants, the IPA symbol is formed by adding a rightward-pointing hook extending from the bottom of "t" (the letter used for the equivalent alveolar consonant). In many fonts lowercase "t" already has a rightward-pointing hook, but ʈ is distinguished from t by extending the hook below the baseline.

Features

Features of the voiceless retroflex stop:

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Translation Notes
Bengali[1] টাকা [ʈaka] 'taka' Apical postalveolar;[1] contrasts unaspirated and aspirated forms. See Bengali phonology
Brahui سىٹ [asiʈ] 'one'
English time [ʈaɪm] 'time' Corresponds to alveolar /t/ in other dialects. See English phonology
Gujarati[2] ટાકા [bəʈaːka] 'potato' Subapical;[2] contrasts unaspirated and aspirated forms. See Gujarati phonology
Hindustani[3][4] टोपी [ʈoːpiː] 'hat' Apical postalveolar
ٹوپی
Hmong raus [ʈàu] 'immerse in liquid' Contrasts with aspirated form (written ⟨rh⟩).
Iwaidja yirrwartbart [jiɺwɑʈbɑʈ] 'taipan'
Javanese bathang [baʈaŋ] 'cadaver'
Kannada ತಟ್ಟು [t̪ʌʈːu] 'to tap' Contrasts unaspirated and aspirated forms
Lo-Toga[5] dege [ʈəɣə] 'we (incl.)' Laminal retroflex.
Malayalam കാട്ട് [kaːʈːɨ̆] 'wild' Contrasts /t̪ t ʈ d̪ ɖ/.
Marathi[2] बटाटा [bəʈaːʈaː] 'potato' Subapical;[2] contrasts unaspirated and aspirated forms. See Marathi phonology
Mutsun TiTkuSte [ʈiʈkuʃtɛ] 'torn'
Nepali टोली [ʈoli] 'team' Apical postalveolar; contrasts unaspirated and aspirated forms. See Nepali phonology
Norwegian kort [kɔʈː] 'card' See Norwegian phonology
Nunggubuyu[6] rdagowa [ʈakowa] 'prawn'
Odia ଗର/ṭagara [ʈɔgɔrɔ] 'crepe jasmine' Apical postalveolar; contrasts unaspirated and aspirated forms.
Pashto ټـول [ʈol] 'all'
Punjabi ਟੋਪੀ [ʈoːpi] 'hat'
ٹـوپی
Sicilian latru [ˈlaʈɽu] 'thief'
Scottish Gaelic árd [aːʈ] 'high' Corresponds to the sequence /rˠt/ in other dialects. See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Swedish[7] karta [ˈkʰɑːʈa] 'map' See Swedish phonology
Sylheti ꠐꠥꠟ꠆ꠟꠤ [ʈulli] 'skull' contains tonal pronunciation.[8] See Sylheti phonology
Tamil[2][9] எட்டு [eʈːɯ] 'eight' Subapical.[2] See Tamil phonology
Telugu కొట్టు [koʈːu] 'to hit or beat' Contrasts unaspirated and aspirated forms
Torwali[10][11] ٹـىىےل [ʈiɡel] 'words' Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms.
Vietnamese bạn tr [ɓa˧˨ʔɳˀ ʈa˧˩˧] 'you pay' May be somewhat affricated. See Vietnamese phonology
Welayta [ʈaza] 'dew'

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Mazumdar (2000:57)
  2. ^ a b c d e f Khatiwada (2009:374)
  3. ^ Ladefoged (2005:141)
  4. ^ Tiwari (2004:?)
  5. ^ François (2009:189); François (2016:35).
  6. ^ Ladefoged (2005:158)
  7. ^ Eliasson (1986:278–279)
  8. ^ Wright, Tony (2002). "Doing language awareness". Language in Language Teacher Education. Language Learning & Language Teaching. Vol. 4. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. pp. 113–130. doi:10.1075/lllt.4.09wri. ISBN 978-90-272-1697-7. Retrieved 2023-07-11.
  9. ^ Keane (2004:111)
  10. ^ Lunsford (2001:11–16)
  11. ^ "ٹیگیل". Online Torwali Dictionary. Center for Language Engineering. Archived from the original on 2024-03-28.

References