Voiced retroflex implosive
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ᶑ
Unicode (hex)U+1D91

The voiced retroflex implosive is a type of consonantal sound. It is not known to be phonemically distinct from alveolar /ɗ/ in any language. Sindhi has an implosive that varies between dental and retroflex articulation, while Oromo, Saraiki and Ngad'a have /ᶑ/ but not /ɗ/.[1]

The symbol for this, (a D with a tail for retroflex and a hook-top for implosive), is not "explicitly" approved by the IPA, but is mentioned in the IPA Handbook.[2]

Features

Features of the voiced retroflex implosive:

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Marwari [example needed]
Ngadha modhe [ˈmoᶑe] 'good'
Oromo dhuma [ᶑʊmɐ] 'end'
Saraiki ݙاک [ᶑak] 'mail' Either apical or subapical, place of articulation is more forward than
for the retroflex stops, does not contrast with a dental implosive[3]

See also

References

  1. ^ In Mangbai /ɗ/ may also be retroflex, but it appears to be a preglottalized [ʔ͡ɖ] rather than an implosive (Anonby 2008).
  2. ^ Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, 1999, p. 166, 179.
  3. ^ Shackle, Christopher (1976). The Siraiki language of central Pakistan : a reference grammar. London: School of Oriental and African Studies. pp. 22–23.