Voiced retroflex implosive
Audio sample
Entity (decimal)ᶑ
Unicode (hex)U+1D91

The voiced retroflex implosive is a type of consonantal sound. Wadiyara Koli phonemically distinguishes it from the alveolar /ɗ/. Sindhi has an implosive that varies between dental and retroflex articulation, while Oromo, Saraiki and Ngad'a have /ᶑ / but not /ɗ/.[1]

The 'implicit' symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet is ᶑ  (a D with a tail for retroflex and a hook-top for implosive).[2][3]


Features of the voiced retroflex implosive:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Marwari[citation needed] कॾहिं [kaᶑahin]
Ngadha modhe [ˈmoᶑe] 'good'
Oromo dhuma [ᶑʊmɐ] 'end'
Saraiki ݙاک [ᶑak] 'mail' Either apical or subapical, place of articulation is more forward than
for the retroflex stops, does not contrast with a dental implosive[4]
Wadiyara Koli [example needed] Contrasts /ɓ ɗ ᶑ ʄ ɠ/.

See also


  1. ^ In Mangbai /ɗ/ may also be retroflex, but it appears to be a preglottalized [ʔ͡ɖ] rather than an implosive (Anonby 2008).
  2. ^ Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, 1999, p. 166, 179.
  3. ^ Kirk Miller & Michael Ashby, L2/20-252R Unicode request for IPA modifier-letters (a), pulmonic
  4. ^ Shackle, Christopher (1976). The Siraiki language of central Pakistan : a reference grammar. London: School of Oriental and African Studies. pp. 22–23.