Voiceless dental non-sibilant affricate
Audio sample

The voiceless dental non-sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represent this sound are t͡θ, t͜θ, t̪͡θ, and t̟͡θ.


Features of the voiceless dental non-sibilant affricate:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Burmese[1] သုံး / thon: [t̪͡θóʊ̯̃] 'three' Common realization of /θ/.[1]
Chinese Yinan Mandarin[2] [t̪͡θɑ̃˥] 'grip' Corresponds to /t͡s/ in other varieties.
Chipewyan[3] ddhéth [t̪͡θɛ́θ] 'hide' Contrasts unaspirated, aspirated and ejective affricates.[3]
English Dublin[4] think [t̪͡θɪŋk] 'think' Corresponds to [θ] in other dialects; may be [] instead.[4]
Maori[5] Possible realization of /θ/.[5] See New Zealand English phonology
New York[6] Corresponds to [θ] in other dialects, may be a stop [] or a fricative [θ] instead.[6]
Received Pronunciation tenth [tɛnt̪θ] 'tenth' The [n] may become dentalised [n̪].
Slave Slave proper eníddhę [ɛ̀nít̪͡θɛ̃̀] 'we want' Corresponds to /p/ or /kʷ/ in other varieties of Slave.

See also


  1. ^ a b Watkins (2001), p. 292.
  2. ^ Shao Yanmei (2010), p. 9.
  3. ^ a b Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), p. 91.
  4. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003), p. 302.
  5. ^ a b Warren & Bauer (2004), p. 618.
  6. ^ a b Labov (1966), pp. 36–37.


  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003) [First published 1981], The Phonetics of English and Dutch (5th ed.), Leiden: Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004103406
  • Labov, William (1966), The Social Stratification of English in New York City (PDF) (2nd ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-08-24, retrieved 2014-06-27
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4.
  • Warren, Paul; Bauer, Laurie (2004), "Maori English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive (eds.), A handbook of varieties of English, vol. 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 614–624, ISBN 3-11-017532-0
  • Watkins, Justin W. (2001), "Illustrations of the IPA: Burmese" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 31 (2): 291–295, doi:10.1017/S0025100301002122
  • Shao Yanmei; Liu Changfeng; Shao Mingwu (2010). 沂南方言志. 齐鲁书社. ISBN 978-7-5333-2223-6.