Voiceless retroflex fricative
ʂ
IPA Number136
Audio sample
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ʂ
Unicode (hex)U+0282
X-SAMPAs`
Braille⠲ (braille pattern dots-256)⠎ (braille pattern dots-234)

The voiceless retroflex sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ʂ which is a Latin letter s combined with a retroflex hook. Like all the retroflex consonants, the IPA letter is formed by adding a rightward-pointing hook to the bottom of ⟨s⟩ (the letter used for the corresponding alveolar consonant). A distinction can be made between laminal, apical, and sub-apical articulations. Only one language, Toda, appears to have more than one voiceless retroflex sibilant, and it distinguishes subapical palatal from apical postalveolar retroflex sibilants; that is, both the tongue articulation and the place of contact on the roof of the mouth are different.

Some scholars also posit the voiceless retroflex approximant distinct from the fricative. The approximant may be represented in the IPA as ɻ̊.

Features

Schematic mid-sagittal section

Features of the voiceless retroflex fricative:

Occurrence

In the following transcriptions, diacritics may be used to distinguish between apical [ʂ̺] and laminal [ʂ̻].

The commonality of [ʂ] cross-linguistically is 6% in a phonological analysis of 2155 languages.[1]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Abkhaz амш/amš [amʂ] 'day' See Abkhaz phonology
Adyghe пшъашъэ/pşáşa [pʂ̻aːʂ̻a] 'girl' Laminal.
Chinese Mandarin /shí [ʂ̺ɻ̩˧˥] 'stone' Apical. See Mandarin phonology
Emilian-Romagnol Romagnol sé [ˈʂĕ] 'yes' Apical; may be [s̺ʲ] or [ʃ] instead.
Faroese rs [fʊʂ] 'eighty'
bert [pɛɻ̊ʈ] 'only' Devoiced approximant allophone of /r/.[2] See Faroese phonology
Hindustani Hindi कष्ट/këšṭ [ˈkəʂʈ] 'trouble' See Hindi phonology
Kannada ಕಷ್ಟ/kašṭa [kɐʂʈɐ] 'difficult' Only in loanwords. See Kannada phonology.
Kazakh шағын, şağın [ʂɑɣɯn] 'small, compact' See Kazakh phonology
Khanty Most northern dialects шаш/šaš [ʂɑʂ] 'knee' Corresponds to a voiceless retroflex affricate /ʈ͡ʂ/ in the southern and eastern dialects.
Lower Sorbian[3][4] glažk [ˈɡläʂk] 'glass'
Malayalam കഷ്ടം/kaštam [kɐʂʈɐm] 'difficult' Only occurs in loanwords.

See Malayalam phonology

Mapudungun[5] trukur [ʈ͡ʂʊ̝ˈkʊʂ] 'fog' Possible allophone of /ʐ/ in post-nuclear position.[5]
Marathi षी/rši [r̩ʂiː] 'sage' See Marathi phonology
Nepali षष्ठी/šóšṭhī [sʌʂʈʰi] 'Shashthi (day)' Allophone of /s/ in neighbourhood of retroflex consonants.

See Nepali phonology

Norwegian norsk [nɔʂk] 'Norwegian' Allophone of the sequence /ɾs/ in many dialects, including Urban East Norwegian. See Norwegian phonology
Oʼodham Cuk-on [tʃʊk ʂɔn] Tucson
Pashto Southern dialect ښودل/šodël [ʂodəl] 'to show'
Polish Standard[6] szum [ʂ̻um] 'rustle' After voiceless consonants it is also represented by ⟨rz⟩. When written so, it can be instead pronounced as the voiceless raised alveolar non-sonorant trill by few speakers.[7] It is transcribed /ʃ/ by most Polish scholars. See Polish phonology
Southeastern Cuyavian dialects[8] schowali [ʂxɔˈväli] 'they hid' Some speakers. It's a result of hypercorrecting the more popular merger of /ʂ/ and /s/ into [s] (see szadzenie).
Suwałki dialect[9]
Romanian Moldavian dialects[10] șură ['ʂurə] 'barn' Apical.[10] See Romanian phonology
Transylvanian dialects[10]
Russian[6] шут/šut [ʂut̪] 'jester' See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian[11][12] шал / šal [ʂȃ̠l] 'scarf' Typically transcribed as /ʃ/. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak[13] šatka [ˈʂätkä] 'kerchief'
Swedish fors [fɔʂ] 'rapids' Allophone of the sequence /rs/ in many dialects, including Central Standard Swedish. See Swedish phonology
Tamil கஷ்டம்/kaštam [kɐʂʈɐm] 'difficult' Only occurs in loanwords, often replaced with /s/. See Tamil phonology
Telugu కష్టం/kaštam Only occurs in loanwords. See Telugu phonology
Toda[14] [pɔʂ] '(clan name)' Subapical, contrasts /θ s̪ s̠ ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ/.[15]
Torwali[16] šeš/ݜیݜ [ʂeʂ] 'thin rope'
Ubykh [ʂ̺a] 'head' See Ubykh phonology
Ukrainian шахи/šaxy [ˈʂɑxɪ] 'chess' See Ukrainian phonology
Upper Sorbian Some dialects[17][18] [example needed] Used in dialects spoken in villages north of Hoyerswerda; corresponds to [ʃ] in standard language.[3]
Vietnamese Southern dialects[19] sữa [ʂɨə˧ˀ˥] 'milk' See Vietnamese phonology
Yi /shy [ʂ̺ɹ̩˧] 'gold'
Yurok[20] segep [ʂɛɣep] 'coyote'
Zapotec Tilquiapan[21] [example needed] Allophone of /ʃ/ before [a] and [u].

Voiceless retroflex non-sibilant fricative

Voiceless retroflex non-sibilant fricative
ɻ̝̊
ɻ̊˔
ʈ˕
IPA Number152 402B 429
Encoding
X-SAMPAr\`_0_r
Voiceless retroflex approximant
ɻ̊
IPA Number152 402A
Encoding
X-SAMPAr\`_0

Features

Features of the voiceless retroflex non-sibilant fricative:

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Angami[22] ɻ̥ə³ [ɻ̥ə˨] 'to plan' Contrasts with /ɻ/
Chokri[23] [təɻ̥ɨ˥˧] 'sew' In free variation with /χ/; contrasts with /ɻ/
Ormuri[24][25] Kaniguram dialect suř [suɻ̝̊] 'red' Usually corresponds to /ʃ/ in the Logar dialect

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Phoible.org. (2018). PHOIBLE Online - Segments. [online] Available at: http://phoible.org/parameters.
  2. ^ Árnason (2011), p. 115.
  3. ^ a b Šewc-Schuster (1984), pp. 40–41
  4. ^ Zygis (2003), pp. 180–181, 190–191.
  5. ^ a b Sadowsky et al. (2013), p. 90.
  6. ^ a b Hamann (2004), p. 65
  7. ^ Karaś, Halina. "Gwary polskie - Frykatywne rż (ř)". Archived from the original on 2013-11-13. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
  8. ^ Taras, Barbara. "Gwary polskie - Gwara regionu". Archived from the original on 2013-11-13.
  9. ^ Karaś, Halina. "Gwary polskie - Szadzenie". Archived from the original on 2013-11-13.
  10. ^ a b c Pop (1938), p. 31.
  11. ^ Kordić (2006), p. 5.
  12. ^ Landau et al. (1999), p. 67.
  13. ^ Hanulíková & Hamann (2010), p. 374.
  14. ^ Ladefoged (2005), p. 168.
  15. ^ Krishnamurti (2003), p. 66.
  16. ^ Lunsford (2001), pp. 16–20.
  17. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), p. 41.
  18. ^ Zygis (2003), p. 180.
  19. ^ Thompson (1959), pp. 458–461.
  20. ^ "Yurok consonants". Yurok Language Project. UC Berkeley. Retrieved 7 January 2017.
  21. ^ Merrill (2008), p. 109.
  22. ^ Blankenship, Barbara; Ladefoged, Peter; Bhaskararao, Peri; Chase, Nichumeno (Fall 1993). "Phonetic structures of Khonoma Angami" (PDF). Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area. 16 (2): 87.
  23. ^ Bielenberg, Brian; Zhalie, Nienu (Fall 2001). "Chokri (Phek Dialect): Phonetics and Phonology" (PDF). Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area. 24 (2): 85–122. Retrieved 28 December 2016.
  24. ^ Novák, Ľubomír (2013). "Other Eastern Iranian Languages". Problem of Archaism and Innovation in the Eastern Iranian Languages (PhD dissertation). Prague: Charles University. p. 59. This sound can be transcribed also ṣ̌ʳ, the sound should be similar to Czech voiceless ř (Burki 2001), phonetically [ɻ̝̊]: voiceless retroflex non-sibilant fricative. Similar sound but voiced occurs also in the Nūristānī languages
  25. ^ Efimov, V. A. (2011). Baart, Joan L. G. (ed.). The Ormuri Language in Past and Present. Translated by Baart, Joan L. G. Islamabad: Forum for Language Initiatives. ISBN 978-969-9437-02-1. ...and ř for the peculiar voiceless fricativized trill that occurs in the Kaniguram dialect.... In the original work, Efimov followed Morgenstierne in using ṣ̌ʳ to represent this sound, which has been replaced here with the typographically simpler ṛ̌.

References