Voiceless retroflex affricate
ʈʂ
IPA Number105 (136)
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ʈ​͡​ʂ
Unicode (hex)U+0288 U+0361 U+0282
X-SAMPAts`
Audio sample

The voiceless retroflex sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʈ͡ʂ⟩, sometimes simplified to ⟨⟩ or ⟨⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is ⟨ts`⟩.

The affricate occurs in a number of languages:

Features

Features of the voiceless retroflex affricate:

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Adyghe чъыгы [t͡ʂəɣə]  'tree'
Asturian Some dialects[1][2] ḷḷobu [ʈ͡ʂoβu] 'wolf' Corresponds to standard /ʎ/.
Belarusian пачатак [paʈ͡ʂatak] 'the beginning' Laminal. See Belarusian phonology
Chinese Mandarin[3] 中文 / Zhōngwén [ʈ̺͡ʂ̺ʊŋ˥ u̯ən˧˥]  'Chinese language' Apical.[4] Contrasts with aspirated form. See Mandarin phonology
Khanty Eastern dialects ҷӓңҷ [ʈ͡ʂaɳʈ͡ʂ] 'knee' Corresponds to a voiceless retroflex fricative /ʂ/ in the northern dialects.
Southern dialects
Mapudungun trafoy [ʈ͡ʂa.ˈfoj] 'it got broken' Contrasts with a voiceless postalveolar affricate: chafoy [t͡ʃa.ˈfoj] 'he/she coughed'
Northern Qiang zhes [ʈ͡ʂəs] 'day before yesterday' Contrasts with aspirated and voiced forms.
Polish Standard[5][6] czas [ˈʈ͡ʂäs̪]  'time' Laminal. Transcribed /t͡ʃ/ by most Polish scholars. See Polish phonology
Southeastern Cuyavian dialects[7] cena [ˈʈ͡ʂɛn̪ä] 'price' Some speakers. It is a result of hypercorrecting the more popular merger of /ʈ͡ʂ/ and /t͡s/ into [t͡s].
Suwałki dialect[8]
Quechua Cajamarca–Cañaris chupa [ʈ͡ʂupə] 'tail'
Russian лу́чше / luchshe [ˈɫut͡ʂʂə]  'better'
Serbo-Croatian[9] чеп / čep [ʈ͡ʂe̞p] 'cork' Apical. It may be palato-alveolar instead, depending on the dialect. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak[10] čakať [ˈʈ͡ʂäkäc] 'to wait' Laminal.
Torwali[11] ڇووو [ʈ͡ʂuwu] 'to sew' Contrasts with aspirated form.
Vietnamese trà [ʈ͡ʂaː˨˩] 'tea' Some speakers.
Yi / zha [ʈ͡ʂa˧] 'a bit' Contrasts with aspirated form.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ (in Asturian) Normes ortográfiques, Academia de la Llingua Asturiana Archived 2013-03-23 at the Wayback Machine Page 14
  2. ^ García Arias (2003:34)
  3. ^ Ladefoged & Wu (1984:?)
  4. ^ Lee, Wai-Sum (1999). An articulatory and acoustical analysis of the syllable-initial sibilants and approximant in Beijing Mandarin (PDF). Proceedings of the 14th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences. pp. 413–416. S2CID 51828449.
  5. ^ Jassem (2003:103)
  6. ^ Hamann (2004:65)
  7. ^ "Gwary polskie - Gwara regionu". Gwarypolskie.uw.edu.pl. Archived from the original on 2013-11-13. Retrieved 2013-11-13.
  8. ^ "Gwary polskie - Szadzenie". Gwarypolskie.uw.edu.pl. Archived from the original on 2013-11-13. Retrieved 2013-11-13.
  9. ^ Landau et al. (1999), p. 67.
  10. ^ Hanulíková & Hamann (2010), p. 374.
  11. ^ Lunsford (2001), pp. 16–20.

References