Voiceless retroflex affricate
IPA Number105 (136)
Audio sample
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ʈ​͡​ʂ
Unicode (hex)U+0288 U+0361 U+0282
X-SAMPAts`

The voiceless retroflex sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is t̠͡ʂ, sometimes simplified to or , and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is ts`. Its apical variant is ʈ̺͡ʂ̺ and laminal variant ʈ̻͡ʂ̻.

The affricate occurs in a number of languages:

Features

Features of the voiceless retroflex affricate:

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Adyghe чъыгы [t͡ʂəɣə] 'tree'
Asturian Some dialects[1][2] ḷḷobu [t̠͡ʂoβu] 'wolf' Corresponds to standard /ʎ/.
Belarusian пачатак [pat̠͡ʂatak] 'the beginning' Laminal. See Belarusian phonology
Chinese Mandarin[3] 中文 / Zhōngwén [ʈ̺͡ʂ̺ʊŋ˥ u̯ən˧˥] 'Chinese language' Apical.[4] Contrasts with aspirated form. See Mandarin phonology
Khanty Eastern dialects ҷӓңҷ [t̠͡ʂaɳt̠͡ʂ] 'knee' Corresponds to a voiceless retroflex fricative /ʂ/ in the northern dialects.
Southern dialects
Mapudungun trafoy [t̠͡ʂa.ˈfoj] 'it got broken' Contrasts with a voiceless postalveolar affricate: chafoy [t͡ʃa.ˈfoj] 'he/she coughed'
Northern Qiang zhes [t̠͡ʂəs] 'day before yesterday' Contrasts with aspirated and voiced forms.
Polish Standard[5][6] czas [ˈt̠͡ʂäs̪] 'time' Laminal. Transcribed /t͡ʃ/ by most Polish scholars. See Polish phonology
Southeastern Cuyavian dialects[7] cena [ˈt̠͡ʂɛn̪ä] 'price' Some speakers. It is a result of hypercorrecting the more popular merger of /t̠͡ʂ/ and /t͡s/ into [t͡s].
Suwałki dialect[8]
Quechua Cajamarca–Cañaris chupa [t̠͡ʂupə] 'tail'
Russian лу́чше / luchshe [ˈɫut͡ʂʂə] 'better'
Serbo-Croatian[9] чеп / čep [t̠͡ʂe̞p] 'cork' Apical. It may be palato-alveolar instead, depending on the dialect. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Silesian szczopek [ʂt̠͡ʂopɛk] 'pike'
Slovak[10] čakať [ˈt̠͡ʂäkäc] 'to wait' Laminal.
Torwali[11] ڇووو [t̠͡ʂuwu] 'to sew' Contrasts with aspirated form.
Vietnamese trà [t̠͡ʂaː˨˩] 'tea' Some speakers.
Yi / zha [t̠͡ʂa˧] 'a bit' Contrasts with aspirated form.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ (in Asturian) Normes ortográfiques, Academia de la Llingua Asturiana Archived 2013-03-23 at the Wayback Machine Page 14
  2. ^ García Arias (2003:34)
  3. ^ Ladefoged & Wu (1984:?)
  4. ^ Lee, Wai-Sum (1999). An articulatory and acoustical analysis of the syllable-initial sibilants and approximant in Beijing Mandarin (PDF). Proceedings of the 14th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences. pp. 413–416. S2CID 51828449.
  5. ^ Jassem (2003:103)
  6. ^ Hamann (2004:65)
  7. ^ "Gwary polskie - Gwara regionu". Gwarypolskie.uw.edu.pl. Archived from the original on 2013-11-13. Retrieved 2013-11-13.
  8. ^ "Gwary polskie - Szadzenie". Gwarypolskie.uw.edu.pl. Archived from the original on 2013-11-13. Retrieved 2013-11-13.
  9. ^ Landau et al. (1999), p. 67.
  10. ^ Hanulíková & Hamann (2010), p. 374.
  11. ^ Lunsford (2001), pp. 16–20.

References