Voiceless glottal affricate
IPA Number113 146
Audio sample
Entity (decimal)ʔ​h
Unicode (hex)U+0294 U+0068

The voiceless glottal affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represent this sound are ⟨ʔ͡h⟩ and ⟨ʔ͜h⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is ?_h. The tie bar may be omitted, yielding ⟨ʔh⟩ in the IPA and ?h in X-SAMPA.


Features of the voiceless glottal affricate:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Chinese Yuxi dialect[1][2] [ʔ͡ho˥˧] 'can, may' Corresponds to /kʰ/ in Standard Chinese.[2][3]
English Received Pronunciation[4] hat [ʔ͡haʔt] 'hat' Possible allophone of /h/, especially in stressed syllables.[4] See English phonology
Tinputz [example needed] Allophone of /ʔ/[5]
Tzeltal [example needed] Allophone of /ʔ/[6]


  1. ^ Yang (1969), pp. 393–394.
  2. ^ a b Colarusso (2012), p. 2.
  3. ^ Yang (1969), p. 394.
  4. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003), p. 148.
  5. ^ Hostetler, Roman and Hostetler, Carolyn. 1975. A Tentative Description of Tinputz Phonology. In Loving, Richard (ed.), Workers in Papua New Guinea Languages: Phonologies of Five Austronesian Languages. Summer Institute of Linguistics.
  6. ^ Kaufman, Terrence. 1971. Tzeltal Phonology and Morphology. Berkeley / Los Angeles: University of California Press.


  • Colarusso, John (2012), The Typology of the Gutturals (PDF)
  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003) [First published 1981], The Phonetics of English and Dutch (5th ed.), Leiden: Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004103406
  • Yang, Shifeng (1969), A Report of Investigating Dialects in Yunnan Province [雲南方言調查報告]