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Voiced bilabial trill
ʙ
IPA Number121
Audio sample
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ʙ
Unicode (hex)U+0299
X-SAMPAB\
Braille
⠔ (braille pattern dots-35)
⠃ (braille pattern dots-12)

The voiced bilabial trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the sound is ⟨ʙ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is B\.

Features

Features of the voiced bilabial trill:

Varieties

IPA Description
ʙ Voiced bilabial trill
ᵐʙ Prenasalized voiced bilabial trill

Occurrences

Occurrences of [ʙ] in various languages
Affiliation Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Bantoid Medumba mʙʉ [mʙʉ́][citation needed] 'dog'
Ngwe Lebang dialect [àʙɨ́ ́] 'ash'
Mura Pirahã kaoáíbogi [kàò̯áí̯ʙòˈɡì] 'evil spirit' Allophone of /b/ before /o/
Uralic Komi-Permyak[1] Бунгаг [ʙuŋɡaɡ] 'dung beetle' Generally paralinguistic. This is the only true word it is found in.
Senu River Kwomtari[2]
Skou Sko[2]
Border Kilmeri language[2]

The Knorkator song "[Buchstabe]" (the actual title is a glyph) on the 1999 album Hasenchartbreaker uses a similar sound (though linguolabial instead of bilabial) to replace "br" in a number of German words (e.g. [ˈʙaːtkaɐ̯tɔfəln] for Bratkartoffeln).

Prenasalized

Occurrences of [ᵐʙ] in various languages
Affiliation Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Oceanic Kele[3][4] [ᵐʙulim] 'face' And other languages of the Admiralty Islands
Titan[3][4] [ᵐʙutukei] 'wooden plate'
Unua[5] [ᵐʙue] 'pig'
Ahamb[6] [nãᵐʙwas] 'pig' Phonemic; contrasts between /ᵐʙ/ and /ʙ̥/.

Prestopped trills and stops with trill release

Occurrences of bilabial trills with a stop in various languages
Affiliation Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Naga Sangtam [t͡ʙàŋ][7] 'needle' Phonemic as /t͡ʙ/, contrasts with /t͡ʙ̥ʰ/.[7]
Qiangic Lizu[8][9] TU, [tʙ̩˥˩] 'bean' Syllabic; allophone of /u/ after initial /pʰ, p, b, tʰ, t, d/.[8]
Namuyi[10] tbĭh [t͡ʙ̩˨][10] 'to slaughter' Phonemic according to Pavlík (2017) occurring before /u/ or as a syllabic consonant.
[ʙ] is classified as an allophone of /u/ following a /p/, /b/, /t/ or /d/ in the phonemic analysis of Huáng (1992:673–674), and Yǐn (2016).[11]
No bilabial trills are present in the phonemic analysis of Nishida (2013).
dbù [d͡ʙu˥˨][10] 'wild'
pbĭh [p͡ʙ̩][10] 'to deliver'.
[b͡ʙuda][10] surname
Pumi[9] biiv [pʙ̩˥] 'to dig' Syllabic; allophone of /ə/ after /pʰ, p, b, tʰ, t, d/.

Phonology

In many of the languages in which the bilabial trill occurs, it occurs only as part of a prenasalized bilabial stop with trilled release, [mbʙ]. That developed historically from a prenasalized stop before a relatively high back vowel like [mbu]. In such instances, the sounds are usually still limited to the environment of a following [u]. However, the trills in Mangbetu may precede any vowel and are sometimes preceded by only a nasal.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Wichmann, Yrjö; Uotila, T. E. (1942). Syrjänischer Wortschatz nebst Hauptzügen der Formenlehre. Helsinki: Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura.
  2. ^ a b c Foley, William A. (2018). "The Languages of the Sepik-Ramu Basin and Environs". In Palmer, Bill (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide. The World of Linguistics. Vol. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 197–432. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.
  3. ^ a b Ladefoged (2005:165)
  4. ^ a b Bowern, Claire (2012). Sivisa Titan. University of Hawai'i Press.
  5. ^ Dimock (2005:19)
  6. ^ Rangelov, Tihomir (2019), The bilabial trills of Ahamb (Vanuatu): acoustic and articulatory properties, University of Waikato
  7. ^ a b Coupe, Alexander (2016), "Prestopped bilabial trills in Sangtam", Proceedings of the 18th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Glasgow, 10-14 August 2015.
  8. ^ a b Chirkova & Chen (2013:78)
  9. ^ a b Chirkova, Katia (2012). "The Qiangic Subgroup from an Areal Perspective: A Case Study of Languages of Muli" (Archive). In Languages and Linguistics 13(1):133-170. Taipei: Academia Sinica.
  10. ^ a b c d e Pavlík (2017)
  11. ^ Pavlík (2017:32)

References