|Voiced uvular fricative|
|Voiced uvular approximant|
The voiced uvular fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʁ⟩, an inverted small uppercase letter ⟨ʀ⟩, or in broad transcription ⟨r⟩ if rhotic. This consonant is one of the several collectively called guttural R when found in European languages.
The voiced uvular approximant is also found interchangeably with the fricative, and may also be transcribed as ⟨ʁ⟩. Because the IPA symbol stands for the uvular fricative, the approximant may be specified by adding the downtack: ⟨ʁ̞⟩, though some writings use a superscript ⟨ʶ⟩, which is not an official IPA practice.
For a voiced pre-uvular fricative (also called post-velar), see voiced velar fricative.
Features of the voiced uvular fricative:
In Western Europe, a uvular trill pronunciation of rhotic consonants spread from northern French to several dialects and registers of Basque, Catalan, Danish, Dutch, German, Judaeo-Spanish, Norwegian, Occitan, Portuguese, Swedish, some variants of Low Saxon, and Yiddish. However, not all of them remain a uvular trill today. In Brazilian Portuguese, it is usually a velar fricative ([x], [ɣ]), voiceless uvular fricative [χ], or glottal transition ([h], [ɦ]), except in southern Brazil, where alveolar, velar and uvular trills as well as the voiced uvular fricative predominate. Because such uvular rhotics often do not contrast with alveolar ones, IPA transcriptions may often use ⟨r⟩ to represent them for ease of typesetting. For more information, see guttural R.
Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996) note, "There is... a complication in the case of uvular fricatives in that the shape of the vocal tract may be such that the uvula vibrates."
It is also present in most Turkic languages, except for Turkish and Turkmen, and in Caucasian languages. It could also come in ɣ.
|Abkhaz||цыҕ cëğ||[tsəʁ]||'marten'||See Abkhaz phonology|
|Adyghe||тыгъэ tëğa||[təʁa] (help·info)||'sun'|
|Afrikaans||Parts of the former Cape Province||rooi||[ʁoːi̯]||'red'||May be a trill [ʀ] instead. See Afrikaans phonology|
Some Moresian accents
|vëlla||[vʁa]||'brother'||May be pronounced as a normal double l. Sometimes, the guttural r is present in words starting with g in some dialects.|
|Aleut||Atkan dialect||chamĝul||[tʃɑmʁul]||'to wash'|
|Arabic||Modern Standard||غرفة ġurfa||[ˈʁʊrfɐ]||'room'||Mostly transcribed as /ɣ/, may be velar, post-velar or uvular, depending on dialect. See Arabic phonology|
|Armenian||ղեկ łek||[ʁɛk] (help·info)||'rudder'|
|Bashkir||туғыҙ tuğïð||[tuˈʁɤð] (help·info)||'nine'|
|Danish||Standard||rød||[ʁ̞œ̠ð̠]||'red'||Most often an approximant when initial. In other positions, it can be either a fricative (also described as voiceless [χ]) or an approximant. Also described as pharyngeal [ʕ̞]. It can be a fricative trill in word-initial positions when emphasizing a word. See Danish phonology|
|Dutch||Belgian Limburg||rad||[ʁɑt]||'wheel'||Either a fricative or an approximant. Realization of /r/ varies considerably among dialects. See Dutch phonology|
|English||Dyfed||red||[ʁɛd]||'red'||Not all speakers. Alveolar in other Welsh accents.|
|North-east Leinster||Corresponds to [ɹ ~ ɾ ~ ɻ] in other dialects of English in Ireland.|
|Northumbrian||Described both as a fricative and an approximant. More rarely it is a trill [ʀ]. Mostly found in rural areas of Northumberland and northern County Durham, declining. See English phonology and Northumbrian Burr.|
|Sierra Leonean||More rarely a trill [ʀ].|
|French||rester||[ʁɛste]||'to stay'||See French phonology|
|German||Standard||Rost||[ʁɔst]||'rust'||Either a fricative or, more often, an approximant. In free variation with a uvular trill. See Standard German phonology|
|Swabian||[ʁ̞oʃt]||An approximant. It is the realization of /ʁ/ in onsets, otherwise it is an epiglottal approximant.|
|Hebrew||Biblical||עוֹרֵב||[ʁoˈreβ]||'raven'||See Biblical Hebrew phonology.|
|Modern||עוֹרֵב||[oˈʁ̞ev]||See Modern Hebrew phonology.|
|Inuktitut||East Inuktitut dialect||marruuk||[mɑʁːuːk]||'two'|
|Italian||Some speakers||raro||[ˈʁäːʁo]||'rare'||Rendition alternative to the standard Italian alveolar trill [r], due to individual orthoepic defects and/or regional variations that make the alternative sound more prevalent, notably in Alto Adige (bordering with German-speaking Austria), Val d'Aosta (bordering with France) and in parts of the Parma province, more markedly around Fidenza. Other alternative sounds may be a uvular trill [ʀ] or a labiodental approximant [ʋ]. See Italian phonology.|
|Kabardian||бгъэ bğa||[bʁa] (help·info)||'eagle'|
|Kazakh||саған, sağan||[sɑˈʁɑn]||'you' (dat. sing.)|
|Limburgish||Maastrichtian||drei||[dʀ̝ɛi̯]||'three'||Fricative trill; the fricative component varies between uvular and post-velar. See Maastrichtian dialect phonology and Weert dialect phonology|
|Luxembourgish||Parmesan||[ˈpʰɑʁməzaːn]||'parmesan'||Appears as an allophone of /ʀ/ between a vowel and a voiced consonant and as an allophone of /ʁ/ between a back vowel and another vowel (back or otherwise). A minority of speakers use it as the only consonantal variety of /ʀ/ (in a complementary distribution with [χ]), also where it is trilled in the standard language. See Luxembourgish phonology|
|Malay||Perak dialect||Perak||[peʁɑk̚]||'Perak'||See Malay phonology|
|Norwegian||Southern dialects||rar||[ʁ̞ɑːʁ̞]||'strange'||Either an approximant or a fricative. See Norwegian phonology|
|Toba qom||Takshek dialect||Awo
|Tundra Nenets||Some speakers||вара||[waʁa]||'goose'|
|Portuguese||European||carro||[ˈkaʁu]||'car'||Word-initial /ʁ/ is commonly realized as a fricative trill in Lisbon. See Portuguese phonology|
|Setubalense||ruralizar||[ʁuɾɐɫiˈzaɾ]||'to ruralize'||Often trilled. Due to a merger, corresponds to both /ɾ/ and /ʁ/ in other dialects.|
|Fluminense||ardência||[ɐʁˈdẽsjə]||'burning feeling'||Due to 19th century Portuguese influence, Rio de Janeiro's dialect merged coda /ɾ/ into /ʁ/. Often trilled. In free variation with [ɣ], [ʕ] and [ɦ] before voiced sounds, [x], [χ], [ħ] and [h] before voiceless consonants|
|Spanish||Puerto Rican||carro||[ˈkaʁo]||'car'||Word-initial, and inter-vocallic double r ('rr') /r/ are commonly realized as a fricative trill in rural sectors and generally (but not exclusively) lower socioeconomic strata among Puerto Ricans. [ʁ].|
|Swedish||Southern dialects||rör||[ʁɶʁ]||'pipe(s)'||See Swedish phonology|
|Ubykh||[ʁa]||'his'||Ubykh has ten different uvular fricatives. See Ubykh phonology|
|West Flemish||Bruges dialect||onder||[ˈuŋəʀ̝]||'under'||A fricative trill with little friction. An alveolar [r] is used in the neighbouring rural area.|