қазақша or қазақ тілі
قازاقشا or قازاق تيلي
qazaqşa or qazaq tılı
Kazakh in Cyrillic, Latin, and Arabic scripts.
[qɑˈzɑq tɪˈlɪ]
Native toKazakhstan, China, Mongolia, Russia, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan
RegionCentral Asia
Native speakers
17.8 million (2009)[1]
Kazakh alphabets (Cyrillic script, Latin script, Arabic script, Kazakh Braille)
Official status
Official language in


Regulated byMinistry of Culture and Sports
Language codes
ISO 639-1kk
ISO 639-2kaz
ISO 639-3kaz
Idioma kazajo.png
The Kazakh-speaking world:
  regions where Kazakh is the language of the majority
  regions where Kazakh is the language of a significant minority
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.
A Kazakh speaker, recorded overseas
A Kazakh speaker, recorded in Kazakhstan

Kazakh or Qazaq (Latin: qazaqşa or qazaq tılı, Cyrillic: қазақша or қазақ тілі, Arabic Script: قازاقشا or قازاق تيلي, pronounced [qɑzɑqˈɕɑ], [qɑˈzɑq tɪˈlɪ]) is a Turkic language of the Kipchak branch spoken in Central Asia. It is closely related to Nogai, Kyrgyz and Karakalpak. Kazakh is the official language of Kazakhstan and a significant minority language in the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture in Xinjiang, north-western China and in the Bayan-Ölgii Province of western Mongolia. Kazakh is also spoken by many ethnic Kazakhs throughout the former Soviet Union (some 472,000 in Russia according to the 2010 Russian Census), Germany, and Turkey.

Like other Turkic languages, Kazakh is an agglutinative language and employs vowel harmony.

In October 2017, Kazakhstani president Nursultan Nazarbayev decreed that the writing system would change from using Cyrillic to Latin script by 2025. The proposed Latin alphabet has been revised several times and as of January 2021 is close to the inventory of the Turkish alphabet, though lacking the letters C and Ç and having four additional letters: Ä, Ñ, Q and Ū (though other letters such as Y have different values in the two languages). It is scheduled to be phased in from 2023 to 2031.

Geographic distribution

Speakers of Kazakh (mainly Kazakhs) are spread over a vast territory from the Tian Shan to the western shore of the Caspian Sea. Kazakh is the official state language of Kazakhstan, with nearly 10 million speakers (based on information from the CIA World Factbook[3] on population and proportion of Kazakh speakers).[4]

In China, nearly two million ethnic Kazakhs and Kazakh speakers reside in the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture of Xinjiang.[5]


The first people to inhabit the territory of modern Kazakhstan were the Scythians, who were of Iranian descent. The Göktürks migrated into the area in the sixth century AD and conquered much of the Scythian homeland, which led to the Turkification of the region. In the 12th century AD, the Kimeks later succeeded the Göktürks and also introduced a new Turkic tongue to the Kazakh steppe.

The Kipchak branch of Turkic languages, which Kazakh is borne out of, was mainly solidified during the reign of the Golden Horde, whose inhabitants fully spread Islam and the closest predecessor of the Kazakh language to the Kazakh steppe. The modern Kazakh language is said to have originated in approximately 1465 AD during the formation of the Sunni Muslim Kazakh Khanate. Modern Kazakh is likely a descendant of both Chagatay Turkic as spoken by the Timurids and Kipchak Turkic as spoken in the Golden Horde.

As a language associated with a predominantly Muslim culture, Kazakh uses a high volume of loanwords from Persian and Arabic due to the frequent historical interactions between Kazakhs and Iranian ethnic groups to the south. Additionally, Persian was a lingua franca in the Kazakh Khanate, which allowed Kazakhs to mix Persian words into their own spoken and written vernacular. Meanwhile, Arabic was used by Kazakhs in mosques and mausoleums, and served as a language exclusively for religious contexts.

The Kazakhs used the Arabic script to write their language until approximately 1929. In the early 1900s, Kazakh activist Ahmed Baytursinuli reformed the Kazakh-Arabic alphabet, but his work was largely overshadowed by the Soviet presence in Central Asia. At that point, the new Soviet regime forced the Kazakhs to use a Latin script, and then a Cyrillic script in the 1940s in an effort to thoroughly Russianize them. Today, Kazakhs use the Arabic, Latin, and Cyrillic scripts to write their language.

Writing system

Main article: Kazakh alphabets

Kazakh Arabic and Latin script in 1924
Kazakh Arabic and Latin script in 1924

The oldest known written records of languages closely related to Kazakh were written in the Old Turkic alphabet, though it is not believed that any of these varieties were direct predecessors of Kazakh.[6] Modern Kazakh, going back approximately one thousand years, was written in the Arabic script until 1929, when Soviet authorities introduced a Latin-based alphabet, and then a Cyrillic alphabet in 1940.[7]

Nazarbayev first brought up the topic of using the Latin alphabet instead of the Cyrillic alphabet as the official script for Kazakh in Kazakhstan in October 2006.[8][9] A Kazakh government study released in September 2007 said that a switch to a Latin script over a 10- to 12-year period was feasible, at a cost of $300 million.[10] The transition was halted temporarily on 13 December 2007, with President Nazarbayev declaring: "For 70 years the Kazakhstanis read and wrote in Cyrillic. More than 100 nationalities live in our state. Thus we need stability and peace. We should be in no hurry in the issue of alphabet transformation."[11] However, on 30 January 2015, the Minister of Culture and Sports Arystanbek Muhamediuly announced that a transition plan was underway, with specialists working on the orthography to accommodate the phonological aspects of the language.[12] In presenting this strategic plan in April 2017, Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev described the twentieth century as a period in which the "Kazakh language and culture have been devastated".[7]

Nazarbayev ordered Kazakh authorities to create a Latin Kazakh alphabet by the end of 2017, so written Kazakh could return to a Latin script starting in 2018.[13][14] As of 2018, Kazakh is written in Cyrillic in Kazakhstan and Mongolia, in Latin in Kazakhstan, while more than one million Kazakh speakers in China use an Arabic-derived alphabet similar to the one that is used to write Uyghur.[6]

On 26 October 2017, Nazarbayev issued Presidential Decree 569 for the change to a finalized Latin variant of the Kazakh alphabet and ordered that the government's transition to this alphabet be completed by 2025,[15][16] a decision taken to emphasise Kazakh culture after the era of Soviet rule[17] and to facilitate the use of digital devices.[18] However, the initial decision to use a novel orthography employing apostrophes, which make the use of many popular tools for searching and writing text difficult, generated controversy.[19]

Therefore, on 19 February 2018, the Presidential Decree 637 was issued in which the use of apostrophes was discontinued and replaced with the use of diacritics and digraphs, making Kazakh the second Turkic language to use <ch> and <sh> after the Uzbek government adapted them in their version of the Latin alphabet..[20][21] However, many citizens state that the officially introduced alphabet needs further improvements.

In 2020, the President of Kazakhstan Kassym-Jomart Tokayev called for another revision of the Latin alphabet with a focus on preserving the original sounds and pronunciation of the Kazakh language.[22][23] This revision, presented to the public in November 2019[contradictory] by academics from the Baitursynov Institute of Linguistics and specialists belonging to the official working group on script transition, uses umlauts, breves and cedillas instead of digraphs and acute accents, and introduces spelling changes in order to reflect more accurately the phonology of Kazakh.[24] This revision is a slightly modified version of the Turkish alphabet, dropping the letters C Ç and having four additional letters that do not exist in Turkish: Ä, Q, Ñ and Ū.

In February 2021, Kazakhstan reaffirmed its plans for a gradual transition to a Latin-based Kazakh alphabet through the year 2031.[25]

The Arabic script for Kazakh remains in official use in China and other regions where Kazakh is spoken outside of Kazakhstan and Russia. Unlike the basic Arabic alphabet, which is more properly called an abjad, the adapted Kazakh Arabic script is a true alphabet, with individual characters for each sound in the language.

Comparison using article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Cyrillic Arabic 2021 Latin English translation
Барлық адамдар тумысынан азат және қадір-қасиеті мен құқықтары тең болып дүниеге келеді. برليق ادمدر توميسينن ازت جانه قدير قسيهتي من قوقيقتري تهݣ بوليپ دونيهگه كهلهدي. Barlyq adamdar tumysynan azat jäne qadır-qasietı men qūqyqtary teñ bolyp düniege keledı. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.
Адамдарға ақыл-парасат, ар-ождан берілген, ادمدرع اقيل پرست، ار ئجدن بهريلگهن ، Adamdarğa aqyl-parasat, ar-ojdan berılgen, They are endowed with reason and conscience
сондықтан олар бір-бірімен туыстық, бауырмалдық қарым-қатынас жасаулары тиіс. سونديقتن ئلر بير بيريمهن تويستيق، بويرملديق قريم قتينس جسولري تيس . sondyqtan olar bır-bırımen tuystyq, bauyrmaldyq qarym-qatynas jasaulary tiıs. and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.


Kazakh exhibits tongue-root vowel harmony, with some words of recent foreign origin (usually of Russian or Arabic origin) as exceptions. There is also a system of rounding harmony which resembles that of Kyrgyz, but which does not apply as strongly and is not reflected in the orthography. This system only applies to the open vowels /e/, /ɪ/, /ʏ/ and not /ɑ/, and happens in the next syllables.[26] Thus, (in Latin script) jūldyz ‘star’, bügın ‘today’, and ülken ‘big’ are actually pronounced as jūldūz, bügün, ülkön.


The following chart depicts the consonant inventory of standard Kazakh;[27] many of the sounds, however, are allophones of other sounds or appear only in recent loan-words. The 18 consonant phonemes listed by Vajda are without parentheses—since these are phonemes, their listed place and manner of articulation are very general, and will vary from what is shown. The phonemes /f, v, x, t͡ɕ, t͡s/ only occur in recent borrowings, mostly from Russian (/t͡s/ rarely appears in normal speech). Kazakh has 17 native consonant phonemes; these are the stops /p, b, t, d, k, g, d͡ʑ/, fricatives /s, z, ɕ, ʑ/, nasals /m, n, ŋ/, liquids /r, l/, and two glides /w, j/.[28]

Kazakh consonant phonemes[29]
Labials Alveolar (Alveolo-)
Velar Uvular
Nasal m ⟨м/m⟩ n ⟨н/n⟩ ŋ ⟨ң/ñ⟩
voiceless p ⟨п/p⟩ t ⟨т/t⟩ t͡ɕ ⟨ч/ç⟩ k ⟨к/k⟩ q ⟨қ/q⟩
voiced b ⟨б/b⟩ d ⟨д/d⟩ d͡ʑ ⟨ж/j⟩ ɡ ⟨г/g⟩
Fricative voiceless f ⟨ф/f⟩ s ⟨с/s⟩ ɕ ⟨ш/ş⟩ χ ⟨х/h⟩
voiced v ⟨в/v⟩ z ⟨з/z⟩ ʑ ⟨ж/zh⟩ ʁ ⟨ғ/ğ⟩
Approximant l ⟨л/l⟩ j ⟨й/i⟩ w ⟨у/u⟩
Tap ɾ ⟨р/r⟩

In addition, /q/, /ɡ/, and /b/ are lenited intervocalically (between vowels) to [χ], [ɣ], and [β].[citation needed] In loanwords, voiced stops syllable-finally become devoiced.[26]


Kazakh has a system of 12 phonemic vowels, 3 of which are diphthongs. The rounding contrast and /æ/ generally only occur as phonemes in the first syllable of a word, but do occur later allophonically; see the section on harmony below for more information. Moreover, the /æ/ sound has been included artificially due to the influence of Arabic, Persian and, later, Tatar languages during the Islamic period.[30] The mid vowels "e, ө, о" are diphthongised with onsets [j͡ɪ, w͡ʉ, w͡ʊ].[29]

According to Vajda, the front/back quality of vowels is actually one of neutral versus retracted tongue root.[29]

Phonetic values are paired with the corresponding character in Kazakh's Cyrillic and current Latin alphabets.

Kazakh vowel phonemes
(Advanced tongue root)
(Relaxed tongue root)
(Retracted tongue root)
Close ɪ̞ ⟨і/ı⟩ ʉ ⟨ү/ü⟩ ⟨ұ/ū⟩
Diphthong je̘ ⟨е/ie⟩ əj ⟨и/i⟩ ʊw ⟨у/u⟩
Mid e ⟨э/e⟩ ə ⟨ы/y⟩ ⟨о/o⟩
Open æ̝ ⟨ә/ä⟩ ɵ ⟨ө/ö⟩ ɑ̝ ⟨а/a⟩
Kazakh vowels by their pronunciation
Front and central Back
unrounded rounded unrounded rounded
Close ɪ̞ ⟨і/ı⟩ ʏ̞ ⟨ү/ü⟩ ə ⟨ы/y⟩ ʊ̞ ⟨ұ/ū⟩
Open e ⟨э/e⟩ / æ ⟨ә/ä⟩ ɵ ⟨ө/ö⟩ ɑ̝ ⟨а/a⟩ ⟨о/o⟩

Vowel harmony

Like almost all Turkic languages, Kazakh has vowel harmony (sometimes called "hard and soft vowels"). That is, syllables containing back vowels can only be followed by ones containing back vowels, and vice versa. Phonologically, i, u, and yu may depend on preceding or succeeding vowels, if the vowels are back, these are pronounced [əj, ʊw, jʊw], and if the vowels are front, these are pronounced [ɪj, ʉw, jʉw]. When not preceded or succeeded by other vowels, the three letters are usually pronounced [ɪj, ʊw, jʊw] (except in the case of mi/ми "brain" where they are pronounced as [-əj-]).[31]

Back vowels Front vowels
u [ʊw]
i [əj]
iu [jʊw]
Rows in purple represents vowels that exist in suffixes.

Back vowels caused preceding -k-/-к- and -g-/-г- to be pronounced as -q-/-қ- and -ğ-/-ғ- in suffixes, respectively (-ğa/-ға vs. -ge/-ге "dative case suffix").


Most words in Kazakh are stressed in the last syllable, except:[32]

bir, e, üş, tört, bes, alty, jetı, ...
one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, ...
to everyone, to no one

Morphology and syntax

Kazakh is generally verb-final, though various permutations on SOV (subject–object–verb) word order can be used, for example, due to topicalization.[33] Inflectional and derivational morphology, both verbal and nominal, in Kazakh, exists almost exclusively in the form of agglutinative suffixes. Kazakh is a nominative-accusative, head-final, left-branching, dependent-marking language.[6]

Declension of nouns[6]
Case Morpheme Possible forms keme "ship" aua "air" şelek "bucket" säbız "carrot" bas "head" tūz "salt" qan "blood" kün "day"
Nom keme aua şelek säbız bas tūz qan kün
Acc -ny -nı, -ny, -dı, -dy, -tı, -ty keme auany şelek säbız basty tūzdy qandy kün
Gen -nyñ -nıñ, -nyñ, -dıñ, -dyñ, -tıñ, -tyñ kemenıñ auanyñ şelektıñ säbızdıñ bastyñ tūzdyñ qannyñ künnıñ
Dat -ga -ge, -ğa, -ke, -qa kemege auağa şelekke säbızge basqa tūzğa qanğa künge
Loc -da -de, -da, -te, -ta kemede auada şelekte säbızde basta tūzda qanda künde
Abl -dan -den, -dan, -ten, -tan, -nen, -nan kemeden auadan şelekten säbızden bastan tūzdan qannan künnen
Inst -men -men(en), -ben(en), -pen(en) kememen auamen şelekpen säbızben baspen tūzben qanmen künmen


There are eight personal pronouns in Kazakh:

Personal pronouns[6]
Singular Plural
1st person Men Bız
2nd person informal sen sender
formal sız sızder
3rd person ol olar

The declension of the pronouns is outlined in the following chart. Singular pronouns exhibit irregularities, while plural pronouns don't. Irregular forms are highlighted in bold.[6]

Number Singular Plural
Person 1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
Familiar Polite Familiar Polite
Nominative men sen sız ol bız sender sızder olar
Genitive menıñ senıñ sızdıñ onyñ bızdıñ senderdıñ sızderdıñ olardyñ
Dative mağan sağan sızge oğan bızge senderge sızderge olarğa
Accusative menı senı sızdı ony bızdı senderdı sızderdı olardy
Locative mende sende sızde onda bızde senderde sızderde olarda
Ablative menen senen sızden odan bızden senderden sızderden olardan
Instrumental menımen senımen sızben onymen bızben sendermen sızdermen olarmen

In addition to the pronouns, there are several more sets of morphemes dealing with person.[6]

Morphemes indicating person[6]
Pronouns Copulas Possessive endings Past/Conditional
1st sg men -mın -(ı)m -(ı)m
2nd sg sen -sı -(ı)ñ -(ı)ñ
3rd sg ol -/-dır -
1st pl bız -bız -(ı)mız -(ı)k/-(y)q
2nd sng formal & pl sız -sız -(ı)ıñız -(ı)ñız/-(y)ñyz
3rd pl olar -/-dır

Tense, aspect and mood

Kazakh may express different combinations of tense, aspect and mood through the use of various verbal morphology or through a system of auxiliary verbs, many of which might better be considered light verbs. The present tense is a prime example of this; progressive tense in Kazakh is formed with one of four possible auxiliaries. These auxiliaries "otyr" (sit), "tūr" (stand), "jür" (go) and "jat" (lie), encode various shades of meaning of how the action is carried out and also interact with the lexical semantics of the root verb: telic and non-telic actions, semelfactives, durative and non-durative, punctual, etc. There are selectional restrictions on auxiliaries: motion verbs, such as бару (go) and келу (come) may not combine with "otyr". Any verb, however, can combine with "jat" (lie) to get a progressive tense meaning.[6]

Progressive aspect in the present tense[6]
Kazakh Aspect English translation
Men jeimın non-progressive "I (will) eat [every day]."
Men jeudemın progressive "I am eating [right now]."
Men jep otyrmyn progressive/durative "I am [sitting and] eating." / "I have been eating."
Men jep tūrmyn progressive/punctual "I am [in the middle of] eating [this very minute]."
Men jep jürmın habitual "I eat [lunch, everyday]"

While it is possible to think that different categories of aspect govern the choice of auxiliary, it is not so straightforward in Kazakh. Auxiliaries are internally sensitive to the lexical semantics of predicates, for example, verbs describing motion:[6]

Selectional restrictions on Kazakh auxiliaries[6]
Sentence Auxiliary Used







Suda balyq jüzedı

water-LOC fish swim-PRES-3

"Fish swim in water" (general statement)

∅ (present/future tense used)









Suda balyq jüzıp jatyr

water-LOC fish swim-CVB AUX.3

"The/A fish is swimming in the water"

jat- to lie, general marker for progressive aspect.









Suda balyq jüzıp jür

water-LOC fish swim-CVB AUX.3

"The fish is swimming [as it always does] in the water"

jür – "go", dynamic/habitual/iterative









Suda balyq jüzıp tūr

water-LOC fish swim-CVB AUX.3

"The fish is swimming in the water"

tūr – "stand", progressive marker to show the swimming is punctual











* Suda balyq jüzıp otyr

{} water-LOC fish swim-CVB AUX.3

*The fish has been swimming

Not a possible sentence of Kazakh

otyr – "sit", ungrammatical in this sentence, otyr can only be used for verbs that are stative in nature

In addition to the complexities of the progressive tense, there are many auxiliary-converb pairs that encode a range of aspectual, modal, volitional, evidential and action- modificational meanings. For example, the pattern -yp köru, with the auxiliary verb köru (see), indicates that the subject of the verb attempted or tried to do something (compare the Japanese てみる temiru construction).[6]

Annotated text with gloss

From the first stanza of "Menıñ Qazaqstanym" ("My Kazakhstan"), the national anthem of Kazakhstan:

Менің Қазақстаным Men-ıŋ Qazaqstan-ym
Алтын күн аспаны







Altyn kün aspan-y

gold sun sky-3.POSS

Golden sun of the sky

[ɑ̝ɫ̪ˈt̪ə̃ŋ‿kʰʏ̞̃n̪ ɑ̝s̪pɑ̝̃ˈn̪ə]
Алтын дән даласы







Altyn dän dala-sy

gold grain steppe-3.POSS

Golden grain of the steppe

[ɑ̝ɫ̪ˈt̪ə̃n̪ d̪æ̝̃n̪ d̪ɑ̝ɫ̪ɑ̝ˈs̪ə]
Ерліктің дастаны


courage legend-GEN



Erlık-tıñ dastan-y

{courage legend-GEN} epic-3.POSS-NOM

The legend of courage

[je̘r̪l̪ɪ̞k̚ˈt̪ɪ̞̃ŋ̟ d̪ɑ̝s̪t̪ɑ̝̃ˈn̪ə]
Еліме қарашы!





El-ım-e qara-şy

country-1SG.ACC look-IMP

Look at my country!

[je̘l̪ɪ̞̃ˈmʲe̘ qʰɑ̝r̪ɑ̝ˈʃə]
Ежелден ер деген







Ejel-den er de-gen

antiquity-ABL hero say-PTCP.PST

Called heroes since ancient times

[je̘ʒʲe̘l̪ʲˈd̪ʲẽ̘n̪ je̘r̪ d̪ʲe̘ˈɡʲẽ̘n̪]
Даңқымыз шықты ғой







Daŋq-ymyz şyq-ty ğoi

glory-1PL.POSS.NOM emerge-PST.3 EMPH

Our glory emerged!

[d̪ɑ̝̃ɴqə̃ˈməz̪ ʃəqˈt̪ə ʁo̞j]
Намысын бермеген





Namys-yn ber-me-gen

honor-3.POSS-ACC give-NEG-PTCP.PST

They did not give up their honor

[n̪ɑ̝̃məˈsə̃m bʲe̘r̪mʲe̘ˈɡʲẽ̘n̪]
Қазағым мықты ғой







Qazağ-ym myqty ğoi

Kazakh-1SG.POSS strong EMPH

My Kazakhs are mighty!

[qʰɑ̝z̪ɑ̝ˈʁə̃m məqˈtə ʁo̞j]
Менің елім, менің елім









Men-ıñ el-ım, menıŋ el-ım

1SG.GEN country-1SG.NOM 1SG.GEN country-1SG.NOM

My country, my country

[mʲẽ̘ˈn̪ɪ̞̃ŋ̟ je̘ˈl̪ɪ̞̃m ǀ mʲẽ̘ˈn̪ɪ̞̃ŋ̟ je̘ˈl̪ɪ̞̃m]
Гүлің болып, егілемін







Gül-üñ bol-up, eg-ıl-e-mın

flower-2SG.NOM be-CVB, root-PASS-PRES-1SG

As your flower, I am rooted in you

[ɡʏ̞ˈl̪ʏ̞̃m bo̞ˈɫ̪ʊp ǀ je̘ɣɪ̞l̪ʲẽ̘ˈmɪ̞̃n̪]
Жырың болып төгілемін, елім









Jyr-yñ bol-up, tög-ül-e-mın, el-ım

song-2SG.NOM be-CVB, sing-PASS-PRES-1SG, country-1SG.POSS.NOM

As your song, I shall be sung abound

[ʒəˈr̪ə̃m bo̞ˈɫ̪ʊp̚ t̪ʰɵɣʏ̞ˈl̪ʲẽ̘ˈmɪ̞̃n̪ ǀ je̘ˈl̪ɪ̞̃m]
Туған жерім менің – Қазақстаным









Tu-ğan jer-ım menıŋ – Qazaqstan-ym

birth-PTCP-PST place-1SG.POSS.NOM 1SG.GEN – Kazakhstan-1SG.POSS.NOM

My native land – My Kazakhstan

[t̪ʰuˈʁɑ̝̃n̪ d͡ʑʲe̘ˈr̪ɪ̞̃m mʲẽ̘ˈn̪ɪ̞̃ŋ̟ ǀ qʰɑ̝z̪ɑ̝qs̪t̪ɑ̝̃ˈn̪ə̃m]

See also


  1. ^ "Kazakh language resources | Joshua Project".
  2. ^ "Статья 4. Правовое положение языков | ГАРАНТ".
  3. ^ "Central Asia: Kazakhstan". The 2017 World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 26 October 2017. Retrieved 31 October 2017.
  4. ^ Map showing the geographical diffusion of the Kazakh and other Turkish languages
  5. ^ Simons, Gary F.; Fennig, Charles D., eds. (2017). "Kazakh". Ethnologue: Languages of the World (20th ed.). Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Retrieved 28 October 2017.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Mukhamedova, Raikhangul (2015). Kazakh: A Comprehensive Grammar. Routledge. ISBN 9781317573081.
  7. ^ a b Назарбаев, Нұрсұлтан (26 April 2017). Болашаққа бағдар: рухани жаңғыру [Orientation for the future: spiritual revival]. Egemen Qazaqstan (in Kazakh). Archived from the original on 28 June 2017. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  8. ^ "Kazakhstan switching to Latin alphabet". Interfax. 30 October 2006. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007.
  9. ^ "Kazakh President Revives Idea of Switching to Latin Script". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 24 October 2006. Archived from the original on 7 March 2017. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  10. ^ Bartlett, Paul (3 September 2007). "Kazakhstan: Moving Forward With Plan to Replace Cyrillic With Latin Alphabet". EurasiaNet. Archived from the original on 12 May 2008. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  11. ^ "Kazakhstan should be in no hurry in Kazakh alphabet transformation to Latin: Nazarbayev". Kazinform. 13 December 2007, cited in "Kazakhstan backtracks on move from Cyrillic to Roman alphabet?". Pinyin News. 14 December 2007. Archived from the original on 29 September 2014. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  12. ^ "Kazakh language to be converted to Latin alphabet – MCS RK". Kazinform. 30 January 2015. Archived from the original on 19 February 2017. Retrieved 17 September 2015.
  13. ^ "Kazakh President Orders Shift Away From Cyrillic Alphabet". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 12 April 2017. Archived from the original on 6 July 2017. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  14. ^ "From Я to R: How To Change A Country's Alphabet – And How Not To". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 16 May 2017. Archived from the original on 23 May 2017. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  15. ^ О переводе алфавита казахского языка с кириллицы на латинскую графику [On the change of the alphabet of the Kazakh language from the Cyrillic to the Latin script] (in Russian). President of the Republic of Kazakhstan. 26 October 2017. Archived from the original on 27 October 2017. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  16. ^ Illmer, Andreas; Daniyarov, Elbek; Rakhimov, Azim (31 October 2017). "Kazakhstan to Qazaqstan: Why would a country switch its alphabet?". BBC News. Archived from the original on 31 October 2017. Retrieved 31 October 2017.
  17. ^ "Nazarbayev Signs Decree On Kazakh Language Switch To Latin-Based Alphabet". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 27 October 2017. Archived from the original on 27 October 2017. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  18. ^ "Alphabet soup as Kazakh leader orders switch from Cyrillic to Latin letters". The Guardian. 26 October 2017. Archived from the original on 28 October 2017. Retrieved 30 October 2017 – via Reuters.
  19. ^ Higgins, Andrew (2018). "Kazakhstan Cheers New Alphabet, Except for All Those Apostrophes". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
  20. ^ "Kazakhstan adopts new version of Latin-based Kazakh alphabet". The Astana Times. 26 February 2018.
  21. ^ Decree No. 637 of February 19, 2018
  22. ^ "Kazakh President Tokaev introduces reforms". Modern Diplomacy Europe. 7 January 2020.
  23. ^ "Kazakhstanis Awaiting For New Latin-Based Alphabet". Caspian News. 14 January 2020.
  24. ^ Yergaliyeva, Aidana (18 November 2019). "Fourth version of Kazakh Latin script will preserve language purity, linguists say". The Astana Times. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  25. ^ Years, Assel Satubaldina in Kazakhstan’s Independence: 30; February 2021, Nation on 1 (1 February 2021). "Kazakhstan Presents New Latin Alphabet, Plans Gradual Transition Through 2031". The Astana Times. Retrieved 10 December 2021.
  26. ^ a b Произношение букв
  27. ^ Some variations occur in the different regions where Kazakh is spoken, including outside Kazakhstan; e. g. ж / ج (where a Perso-Arabic script similar to the current Uyghur alphabet is used) is read [ʑ] in standard Kazakh, but [d͡ʑ] in some places.
  28. ^ a b Öner, Özçelik. Kazakh phonology (PDF) (Thesis). Cambridge University.
  29. ^ a b c Vajda, Edward (1994), "Kazakh phonology", in Kaplan, E.; Whisenhunt, D. (eds.), Essays presented in honor of Henry Schwarz, Washington: Western Washington, pp. 603–650
  30. ^ Wagner, John Doyle; Dotton, Zura. A Grammar of Kazakh (PDF).
  31. ^ "Мягкие и твёрдые слова". Казахский язык. Retrieved 21 December 2021.
  32. ^ "Ударение". Казахский ясык. Retrieved 24 January 2022.
  33. ^ Beltranslations.com

Further reading