U
Pouma
RegionChina
Native speakers
40,000 (2000)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3uuu
Glottologuuuu1243
ELPU

The U language or P'uman (Chinese: 濮满), is spoken by 40,000 people in the Yunnan Province of China and possibly Myanmar. It is classified as an Austroasiatic language in the Palaungic branch. In China, U speakers are classified as ethnic Bulang.

Locations

See also: Blang people § Distribution

U is spoken in Shuangjiang County of Yunnan and other nearby counties.[2]

There two main dialects of U in Shuangjiang County: one spoken in Gongnong (公弄, now part of Mengku Town, 勐库镇) and one spoken in Bangbing (邦丙) and Dawen Mangga (大文乡忙嘎); the Dawen dialect is reportedly mutually intelligible with that of Shidian County (Shuangjiang County Ethnic Gazetteer 1995:160).

Avala (autonym: a21 va21 la21) is spoken in Bangliu (邦六),[7] Manghuai Township (芒怀乡), Yun County (云县), Yunnan, China.[8][9]

Phonology

U has four tones, high, low, rising, falling, which developed from vowel length and the nature of final consonants.

References

  1. ^ U at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  2. ^ Svantesson (1988)
  3. ^ "Shuāngjiāng Lāhùzú Wǎzú Bùlǎngzú Dǎizú Zìzhìxiàn Dàwén Xiāng Dàliángzi Cūnwěihuì Pàngpǐn Zìráncūn" 双江拉祜族佤族布朗族傣族自治县大文乡大梁子村委会胖品自然村 [Pangpin Natural Village; Daliangzi Village Committee; Dawen Township; Shuangjiang Lahu, Va, Blang and Dai Autonomous County]. ynszxc.gov.cn (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2014-04-07. Retrieved 2014-03-14.
  4. ^ "Yǒngdé Xiàn Měngbǎn Xiāng Hùyā Cūnwěihuì Gāntáng Zìráncūn" 永德县勐板乡户丫村委会甘塘自然村 [Gantang Natural Village, Huya Village Committee, Mengban Township, Yongde County]. ynszxc.gov.cn (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2016-03-05. Retrieved 2015-01-31.
  5. ^ "Yǒngdé Xiàn Měngbǎn Xiāng Líshù Cūnwěihuì Gāntáng Zìráncūn" 永德县勐板乡梨树村委会甘塘自然村 [Gantang Natural Village, Lishu Village Committee, Mengban Township, Yongde County]. ynszxc.gov.cn (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2016-03-05. Retrieved 2015-01-30.
  6. ^ "Shuāngjiāng Lāhùzú Wǎzú Bùlǎngzú Dǎizú Zìzhìxiàn Shāhé Xiāng Bāngxié Cūnmín Wěiyuánhuì Bāngxié Zìráncūn" 双江拉祜族佤族布朗族傣族自治县沙河乡邦协村民委员会邦协自然村 [Bangxie Natural Village; Bangxie Village Committee; Shahe Township; Shuangjiang Lahu, Va, Blang and Dai Autonomous County] (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2014-02-22. Retrieved 2014-04-04.
  7. ^ "Yúnxiàn Mánghuái Yízú Bùlǎngzú Xiāng Bāngliù Cūnwěihuì" 云县忙怀彝族布朗族乡邦六村委会 [Bangliu Village Committee, Manghuai Yi and Bulang Ethnic Township, Yunxian] (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2018-08-17. Retrieved 2021-02-22.
  8. ^ Hsiu, Andrew (2017), "The Angkuic Languages: A Preliminary Survey", Presented at the 6th International Conference on Austroasiatic Linguistics (ICAAL 6), Siem Reap, Cambodia (Handout), Zenodo, doi:10.5281/zenodo.1127808, archived from the original on 2020-05-16
  9. ^ Hsiu, Andrew (2017), "Avala Audio Word List", Zenodo, doi:10.5281/zenodo.1123297, archived from the original on 2020-10-09

Further reading

  • Simao Xingshu Minzu Shiwu Weiyuanhui Bian 思茂行署民族事务委员会编 (1991). Bùlǎngzú yánjiū 布朗族研究 [A Study of the Bulang People] (in Chinese). Kunming: Yunnan renmin chubanshe. ISBN 7-222-00803-9.
  • Svantesson, Jan-Olof (1988). "U" (PDF). Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area. 11 (1): 64–133. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2014-02-23. Retrieved 2012-06-02.
  • Tao, Chengmei 陶成美 (2016). "Bùlǎngyǔ Lāwǎhuà de zhǐchēng dàicí i55" 布朗语拉瓦话的指称代词i55. Minzu Fanyi 民族翻译. doi:10.13742/j.cnki.cn11-5684/h.2016.01.010.
  • Tao, Chengmei 陶成美 (2016). Bùlǎngyǔ duōxiàng dìngyǔ jí qí yǔxù yánjiū 布朗语多项定语及其语序研究 (M.A. thesis) (in Chinese). Zhongyang Minzu Daxue.
  • Tao, Yuming 陶玉明 (2012). Zhōngguó Bùlǎngzú 中国布朗族 [The Bulang People of China] (in Chinese). Yinchuan: Ningxia renmin chubanshe.
  • Wang, Xingzhong 王兴中; Zhao, Weihua 赵卫华 (2013). Líncāng dìlǐ yǔ shuāngyǔ shǐyòng 临沧地理与双语使用 [Geography and Multilingualism in Lincang] (in Chinese). Kunming: Yunnan renmin chubanshe. ISBN 978-7-222-08581-7.
  • Yan, Qixiang 颜其香; Zhou, Zhizhi 周植志 (2012). Zhōngguó Mèng-Gāomián yǔzú yǔyán yǔ Nányǎ yǔxì 中国孟高棉语族语言与南亚语系 [Mon-Khmer Languages of China and the Austroasiatic Family] (in Chinese). Beijing: Shehui kexue wenxian chubanshe.

Gazetteers and other Chinese government sources with lexical data

  • Nanjian County Gazetteer Commission [南涧县志编纂委员会编] (ed). 1993. Nanjian County Gazetteer [南涧彝族自治县志]. Chengdu: Sichuan Reference Press [四川辞书出版社].
  • Na Ruzhen [納汝珍], et al. (eds). 1994. Zhenkang County Ethnic Gazetteer [镇康县民族志]. Kunming: Yunnan People's Press [云南民族出版社].
  • Simao Prefecture Ethnic Minority Affairs Bureau [思茅行暑民族事务委员会] (ed). 1990. A study of the Bulang people [布朗族研究]. m.s.
  • Xiao Dehua [萧德虎], et al. (eds). 1992. Zhenkang County Gazetteer [镇康县志]. 1992. Chengdu: Sichuan People's Press [四川民族出版社].
  • Yunnan Gazetteer Commission [云南省地方志编纂委员会] (ed). 1998. Yunnan Provincial Gazetteer, Vol. 59: Minority Languages Orthographies Gazetteer [云南省志. 卷五十九, 少数民族语言文字志]. Kunming: Yunnan People's Press [云南人民出版社].