Palaung
De'ang, Ta'ang
ပလောင်ဘာသာ, တအောင်းဘာသာ
Native toBurma, China, Thailand
EthnicityPalaung
Native speakers
(ca. 560,000 cited 1982–??)[1]
Burmese, Tai Le
Language codes
ISO 639-3Variously:
pll – Shwe
pce – Ruching
rbb – Rumai
Glottologpala1336
De'ang manuscript
De'ang manuscript

Palaung (Burmese: ပလောင်ဘာသာ), also known as De'ang (Chinese: 德昂語; Burmese: တအောင်းဘာသာ), is a Austroasiatic dialect cluster spoken by over half a million people in Burma (Shan State) and neighboring countries. The Palaung people are divided into Palé, Rumai, and Shwe, and each of whom have their own language.[2][3] The Riang languages are reported to be unintelligible or only understood with great difficulty by native speakers of the other Palaung languages.

A total number of speakers is uncertain; there were 150,000 Shwe speakers in 1982, 272,000 Ruching (Palé) speakers in 2000, and 139,000 Rumai speakers at an unrecorded date.[1] Palaung was classified as a "severely endangered" language in UNESCO's Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger.[4][5]

Dialects

Yan and Zhou (2012)

Chinese linguists classify "De'ang 德昂" varieties (spoken mostly in Santaishan Ethnic De'ang Township 三台山德昂族乡, Mangshi and Junnong Township 军弄乡, Zhenkang County) as follows (De'angyu Jianzhi). Names in IPA are from Yan & Zhou (2012:154–155)[6]

The De'ang 德昂 variously refer themselves as naʔaŋ, daʔaŋ, toʔaŋ, and laʔaŋ, depending on the dialect (Yan & Zhou 2012:154–155). Another De'ang autonym is ho (rau) khaoʔ, where rau means 'village'. The local Dai people refer to the De'ang as po˧loŋ˧.

Liu (2006)[8] documents three Palaungic lects, namely:

Ostapirat (2009)

Weera Ostapirat (2009:74) classifies the Palaung languages as follows.[12] Defining sound changes are given in parentheses.

Palaung

Shintani (2008)

Shintani (2008) recognizes two dialects of Palaung, namely Southern Palaung and Northern Palaung. Southern Palaung unvoiced stops correspond to Northern Palaung voiced stops, the latter which Shintani (2008) believes to be retentions from Proto-Palaungic. Southern Palaung dialects studied by Shintani (2008) are those of:

Deepadung et al. (2015)

Deepadung et al. (2015)[13] classify the Palaung dialects as follows.

Palaung

Phonology

Chen, et al. (1986) lists the following consonants for Palaung:

Labial Dental/
Alveolar
Palatal Velar Glottal
Stop voiceless p t k ʔ
aspirated tɕʰ
voiced b d ɡ
Nasal voiced m n ɲ̟ ŋ ˀn
voiceless ɲ̟̊ ŋ̊
Fricative voiceless f s ɕ h
voiced v
Rhotic voiced r
voiceless
Approximant voiced l j
voiceless

A final /r/ can be heard as a voiceless sound [ɹ̥], and following a /u/ it is heard as [ɫ̥].

Front Back
Close i ɯ u
Near-close ɪ ʊ
Mid e ɤ o
Open-mid ɛ ɔ
Open ɑ

/ɤ/ can be heard in rapid speech as a central vowel [ə], and is heard as [ɤ] elsewhere. /a/ can be heard as fronted [æ] before /k, ŋ/, and [ɛ] before /n, t/.

According to Shorto (1960), /ɤ/ does not occur alone in primary stressed syllable, but only in an unstressed syllable or as the second member of a diphthong. There are also a large number of diphthongs, including /eo/, /eɤ/, /aɤ/, /ɔɤ/, /oɤ/, /uɤ/, and /iɤ/.

Although Milne (1921) includes the vowels /ü, ö, ɪ/ in her transcriptions, Shorto (1960) did not find these as vowel phonemes in his work.

(Note that the words cited below in the Syntax section come from Milne (1921), so their phonetic representations may need revision.)

Syntax

The examples below are form Milne (1921).

Nouns and noun phrases

The order of elements in the noun phrase is N – (possessor) – (demonstrative).

Consider the following examples:

kwɔɔn ai öö
child we two this
this child of ours

Prepositions and prepositional phrases

Shwe Palaung has prepositions, as in the following example.

ta khuun hɔɔkhəm
to great king
to the great king

Sentences

Shwe Palaung clauses generally have subject–verb–object (SVO) word order.

əən dii d͡ʒüür gaaŋ
he future buy house
He will buy a house.

Text sample

The following part of a story in Shwe Palaung is from Milne (1921:146–147).

Naaŋ̩ rashööh, naaŋ grai ta khuun hɔɔkhəm naaŋ daah,
lady awake lady narrative:past said to great king lady say
The queen awoke and said to the king
öö ka tööm rɪɪnpoo hlai uu lööh khənjaa öö ai lɔh shoktee haa öö
oh neg ever dream even one time ruler oh we two come fast place this
'Oh, I never dreamed (like this) before, oh Ruler, (since) we two came to this place to fast
Phadiiu la puur shəŋii, ɔɔ rɪɪnpoo khuun phii leeh
today full good seven day I dream great spirit come down
seven days ago, I dreamed that the great spirit came down
dɛh ɔɔ hɔɔm makmon kəəm ŋaam hnjo hnjo
give me eat long mango gold sweet very
and gave me long mangoes of gold to eat. They were very sweet.'

References

  1. ^ a b Shwe at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
    Ruching at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
    Rumai at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  2. ^ Waddington, Ray (2003). "The Palaung". The Peoples of the World Foundation. Retrieved 3 May 2012.
  3. ^ Klose, Albrecht (2001). Sprachen der Welt Ein weltweiter Index der Sprachfamilien, Einzelsprachen und Dialekte, mit Angabe der Synonyma und fremdsprachigen Äquivalente / Languages of the World: A Multi-lingual Concordance of Languages, Dialects, and Language-families (2nd rev. and enl. ed.). München: K.G. Saur. p. 403. ISBN 3-598-11404-4.
  4. ^ "UNESCO Interactive Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger". United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Retrieved 2020-06-03.
  5. ^ Moseley, Christopher (2010). Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. ISBN 978-92-3-104096-2.
  6. ^ Yan & Zhou (2012), pp. 154–155
  7. ^ "Lùxī Shì Sāntáishān Dé'ángzú Xiāng Yǔnqiàn Cūnwěihuì" 潞西市三台山德昂族乡允欠村委会 [Yunqian Village Committee, Santaishan Deang Ethnic Township, Luxi City]. ynszxc.gov.cn (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2018-07-23. Retrieved 2016-09-29.
  8. ^ Liu (2006)
  9. ^ "Ruìlì Shì Měngxiù Xiāng Měngxiù Cūnwěihuì Guǎngkǎ Zìráncūn" 瑞丽市勐秀乡勐秀村委会广卡自然村 [Guangka Natural Village, Mengxiu Village Committee, Mengxiu Township, Ruili City]. ynszxc.gov.cn (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2017-02-02. Retrieved 2016-10-09.
  10. ^ "Lùxī Shì Sāntáishān Dé'ángzú Xiāng Měngdān Cūnwěihuì" 潞西市三台山德昂族乡勐丹村委会 [Mengdan Village Committee, Santaishan Deang Ethnic Township, Luxi City]. ynszxc.gov.cn (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2017-02-02. Retrieved 2016-10-09.
  11. ^ "Měnghǎi Xiàn Měngmǎn Zhèn Guānshuāng Cūnwěihuì" 勐海县勐满镇关双村委会 [Guanshuang Village Committee, Mengman Town, Menghai County]. ynszxc.gov.cn (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2017-02-02. Retrieved 2016-10-09.
  12. ^ Ostapirat, Weera (2009). "Some Phonological Criteria for Palaung Subgrouping". Journal of Language and Culture. 28 (1): 63.
  13. ^ Deepadung, Sujaritlak; Buakaw, Supakit; Rattanapitak, Ampika (2015). "A Lexical Comparison of the Palaung Dialects Spoken in China, Myanmar, and Thailand" (PDF). Mon-Khmer Studies. 44: 19–38. doi:10.15144/MKSJ-44.19. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-08-27.

Sources

Further reading

  • Mak, Pandora (2012). Golden Palaung: A Grammatical Description. Canberra: Asia-Pacific Linguistics. hdl:1885/9558. ISBN 978-1-922185-02-0.
  • Yan, Qixiang 颜其香; Zhou, Zhizhi 周植志 (2012). Zhōngguó Mèng-Gāomián yǔzú yǔyán yǔ nán yǎ yǔxì 中国孟高棉语族语言与南亚语系 [The Mon–Khmer Languages in China and Austro-Asiatic Languages] (in Chinese). Beijing: Shehui kexue wenxian chubanshe.
  • Harper, Jerod (2009). Phonological Descriptions of Plang Spoken in Man Noi, La Gang, and Bang Deng Villages (in China) (PDF) (M.A. thesis). Payap University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-08-09.
  • Lewis, Emily (2008). Grammatical Studies of Man Noi Plang (PDF) (M.A. thesis). Payap University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-08-09.
  • Liu, Yan 刘岩 (2006). Mèng-Gāomiányǔ shēngdiào yánjiū 孟高棉语声调研究 [Tone in Mon-Khmer Languages] (in Chinese). Beijing: Zhongyang minzu daxue chubanshe.
  • Chen, Xiangmu 陈相木; Wang, Jingliu 王敬骝; Lai, Yongliang 赖永良 (1986). Dé'ángyǔ jiǎnzhì 德昂语简志 [Sketch Grammar of De'ang] (in Chinese). Beijing: Minzu chubanshe.
  • Shorto, H. L. (1960). "Word and Syllable Patterns in Palaung". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. 23 (3): 544–557. doi:10.1017/S0041977X00150608. JSTOR 610037. S2CID 162222040.
  • Milne, Mrs. Leslie (1931). A Dictionary of English–Palaung and Palaung–English. Rangoon: Supdt., Govt. Print. and Stationery.
  • Milne, Mrs. Leslie (1921). An Elementary Palaung Grammar. Oxford: The Clarendon Press. (cp. [1])