Native toMyanmar, Bangladesh
RegionNorthwestern Rakhine State
Native speakers
4,000 (2007)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3ckh

Sak (also known as Cak, Chak, or Tsak) is a Sino-Tibetan language of the Sal branch spoken in Bangladesh and Myanmar by the Chak people.

Geographical distribution

Cak is spoken in Bangladesh by about 3,000 people and in Rakhine State, Burma by about 1,000 people according to Ethnologue. In Bangladesh, Cak is spoken in Baishari, Naikhyongchari, andDochari (Huziwara 2018). In Rakhine State, Burma, Sak is spoken in Maungdaw, Buthidaung, Rathedaung, and Mrauk U townships (Huziwara 2018). The Baishari dialect is the most conservative one (Huziwara 2018).[2]

According to Ethnologue, in Bangladesh, Chak is spoken in 14 villages in:



Labial Dental/
Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive voiceless p t k ʔ
aspirated (kʰ)
voiced b d ɡ
implosive ɓ ɗ
Affricate voiceless ts
aspirated (tsʰ)
voiced dz
Fricative voiceless f s ʃ h
voiced v
Tap ɾ
Nasal m n (ɲ) ŋ
Approximant (w) l j


Front Central Back
Close i ɨ ɯ u
Mid e (ə) o
Open a


Sak uses a decimal-based numeral system.[5] Sak uses two sets of numerals: an indigenous system, and another system borrowed from Arakanese, often used for numbers beyond ten.[5]

Further reading


  1. ^ Sak at Ethnologue (25th ed., 2022) Closed access icon
  2. ^ Huziwara, Keisuke (2018). Varieties of Cak dialects. Paper presented at the 28th Annual Meeting of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society, held May 17-19, 2018 in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
  3. ^ Huziwara, Keisuke (2019). A sketch of Cak grammar. Kyoto: The Hakubi Project of Kyoto University.
  4. ^ Huziwara, Keisuke (2002). チャック語の音声に関する考察 [A phonetic analysis of Cak]. 京都大学言語学研究 [Kyoto University Linguistic Research] 21: Kyoto University. pp. 217–273.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location (link)
  5. ^ a b "Chak". Retrieved 2024-01-07.